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Bioactive Ingredients in Foods: A Challenging Journey to Bioefficacy

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2022) | Viewed by 28871

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Biotechnology, Microbiology and Human Nutrition, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Skromna 8, 20-704 Lublin, Poland
Interests: lactic acid bacteria; probiotic; prebiotic; synbiotic; functional food; food fermentation; bioactive compounds; antioxidant; cold plasma; spoilage bacteria
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Guest Editor
Department of Biotechnology, Microbiology and Human Nutrition, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Skromna 8, 20-704 Lublin, Poland
Interests: fermented foods; bioactive compounds; food microbiome polysaccharides; soil microbiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bioactive compounds are extranutritional constituents that typically occur in small quantities in foods. They have been gaining interest and are being intensively studied to evaluate their effects on human health.

Key issues regarding this topic relate to understanding how these bioactive molecules are affected by food processing and storage, released from the food matrix after ingestion and then absorbed into the body, how their metabolism occurs, and how these compounds are distributed to reach tissues and further affect cellular processes. These properties are major determinants of the bioeffectiveness of a food ingredient and are necessary to consider a compound as bioactive in the context of functional foods related to health benefits.

The results of many epidemiologic studies have shown protective effects of plant-based diets on cardiovascular disease and cancer. Bioactive compounds vary widely in chemical structure and function. Phenolic compounds are present in all plants and have been studied extensively. Various phytoestrogens are present in soy, but also in flaxseed oil, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. They have antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties, and some studies have demonstrated favorable effects on other diseases risk factors, and in animal and cell culture models of cancer. However, properties that can be measured in a food may not translate to in vivo health effects. Bioactive compounds may increase gut microbial diversity, improve endothelial function, improve cognitive function, reduce bone loss, and so forth. A new type of bioactive component is emerging from epigenetic modifications by our diet, including microRNA transfer from our diet, which can regulate the expression of human genes. Even though much scientific research needs to be conducted before we can begin to make science-based dietary recommendations, there is sufficient evidence to recommend consuming food sources rich in bioactive compounds contained in a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, oils, and nuts.

The body of scientific data that allows the evaluation of bioactive dietary components based on experimental evidence still lags behind the vision to exploit their potential to improve health. Over the past decades, the search for ingredients with health benefits has expanded to include a wide range of bioactive compounds present in foods and their potential to improve health. In recent years, increasing emphasis has been placed on the bioeffectiveness of these compounds in foods, a key factor in their health-promoting effects.

The aim of this Special Issue is to identify the key bioactive compounds in food products and to understand how these molecules promote health in humans. Contributions to this Special Issue may cover all research aspects related to bioactive ingredients in foods, including: properties, functions, technology, engineering and applications of food bioactive ingredients and their relevant products, as well as health-related aspects of these bioactive components, demonstrating their critical role in preventing or delaying different diseases and heaving many health-improving properties; study on beneficial biological properties of bioactive compounds such as antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and anticoagulant properties, among others; in vitro and in vivo model systems; and clinical investigations. Original research papers and review articles on these different areas are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Magdalena Polak-Berecka
Dr. Kamila Rachwał
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • phytochemicals
  • biological properties
  • structure–bioactivity relations
  • bioavailability
  • health-promotion and disease prevention
  • functional foods and nutraceuticals
  • bioaccessibility
  • food bioactive constituents

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 3169 KiB  
Article
Biosorption Characteristic and Cytoprotective Effect of Pb2+, Cu2+ and Cd2+ by a Novel Polysaccharide from Zingiber strioatum
by Wei Jiang, Ying Hu and Zhenyuan Zhu
Molecules 2022, 27(22), 8036; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27228036 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
The pollution of heavy metal ions can cause damage to the human body through food, so developing a new biocompatible material that can remove the damage of heavy metal ions has a good application prospect. In this study, we obtained a new homogeneous [...] Read more.
The pollution of heavy metal ions can cause damage to the human body through food, so developing a new biocompatible material that can remove the damage of heavy metal ions has a good application prospect. In this study, we obtained a new homogeneous polysaccharide composed of seven monosaccharides from Zingiber strioatum by using the method of separation and purification of polysaccharide. The results of adsorption behavior showed that the concentration, temperature and pH value could affect the adsorption effect of Zingiber strioatum polysaccharide (ZSP). Through model fitting of the data of adsorption time and metal concentration, the pseudo second-order kinetic model can well describe the kinetics of the adsorption process, and the adsorption isotherm data fit well with the Langmuir model. In the preliminary research results of adsorption mechanism, SEM showed the appearance of ZSP as flake and porous surface; EDX analysis confirmed the metal adsorption capacity of ZSP. Meanwhile, XPS and FT-IR further clarified the adsorption based on functional groups composed of C and O. The cells preprotected by ZSP can resist heavy metal ions. The above results show that ZSP can be used as a new macromolecule to bind heavy metal ions, which can broaden the research scope of polysaccharides in contaminated food systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Ingredients in Foods: A Challenging Journey to Bioefficacy)
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19 pages, 1600 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Effect of Cold Plasma with Conventional Preservation Methods on Red Wine Quality Using Chemometrics Analysis
by Iwona Niedźwiedź, Vasil Simeonov, Adam Waśko and Magdalena Polak-Berecka
Molecules 2022, 27(20), 7048; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27207048 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1226
Abstract
In this study, the effect of cold plasma (CP) on the physicochemical and biological properties of red wine was investigated in comparison with the effects of the conventional preservation method and the combined method. In addition, the effect of storage time after the [...] Read more.
In this study, the effect of cold plasma (CP) on the physicochemical and biological properties of red wine was investigated in comparison with the effects of the conventional preservation method and the combined method. In addition, the effect of storage time after the application of each of the analyzed methods was evaluated. The study examined the effects of the different preservation methods on the pH, color, phenolic content, antioxidant activity and microbiological purity of the red wine. Chemometric analysis was used to discover the relationship between the preservation method used and wine quality. In the wine samples tested, a reduction in phenolic compounds and a decrease in antioxidant activity were noted after storage. This effect was mildest for preservation methods with the addition of potassium metabisulphite and those in which a mixture of helium and nitrogen was used as the working gas. On a positive note, the CP treatment did not affect the color of the wine in a way perceptible to the consumer: ∆E*—1.12 (He/N2; 5 min). In addition, the lowest growth of microorganisms was detected in the CP-treated samples. This indicates the potential of cold plasma as an alternative method to the use of potassium metabisulfite in wine production, which may contribute to its wider use in the alcohol industry in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Ingredients in Foods: A Challenging Journey to Bioefficacy)
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9 pages, 1085 KiB  
Article
Phytate Dephosphorylation Products Also Act as Potent Inhibitors of Calcium Oxalate Crystallization
by Felix Grases, Antonia Costa-Bauzá, Paula Calvó, Francesca Julià, Jaume Dietrich, Rosa Maria Gomila, Gabriel Martorell and Pilar Sanchis
Molecules 2022, 27(17), 5463; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27175463 - 25 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1402
Abstract
Phytate has been classified as an anti-nutrient, but there are no adverse effects from the consumption of a balanced diet with 1 to 2 g of daily phytate (inositol-hexaphosphate, InsP6) as a calcium magnesium salt, the form naturally present in grains. Furthermore, recent [...] Read more.
Phytate has been classified as an anti-nutrient, but there are no adverse effects from the consumption of a balanced diet with 1 to 2 g of daily phytate (inositol-hexaphosphate, InsP6) as a calcium magnesium salt, the form naturally present in grains. Furthermore, recent research has shown that phytate consumption may prevent pathological calcifications, such as kidney stones and cardiovascular calcifications. However, many endogenous and exogenous enzymes can hydrolyze phytate to lower inositol phosphates (InsPs) that also have biological activity. We performed a controlled hydrolysis of phytate and identified the products (InsPs) using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The total level of all InsPs was measured using a non-specific methodology. In addition, we evaluated the effects of the InsP6 hydrolysates on calcium oxalate crystallization using scanning electron microscopy and measuring the time needed for the induction of crystallization. Our results indicate that InsP6 and its hydrolysis products functioned as effective inhibitors of calcium oxalate crystallization. Thus, even though InsP6 is hydrolyzed after consumption, the enzymatic products also have the potential to reduce pathological calcifications. Finally, although it is useful to measure the overall level of InsPs in biological fluids, such as urine, there is a need to develop simple analytical methods to quantify the level of individual InsPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Ingredients in Foods: A Challenging Journey to Bioefficacy)
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12 pages, 2298 KiB  
Article
Composition, Color Stability and Antioxidant Properties of Betalain-Based Extracts from Bracts of Bougainvillea
by Qiang Wu, Xueying Fu, Zhuo Chen, Huafeng Wang, Jian Wang, Zhixin Zhu and Guopeng Zhu
Molecules 2022, 27(16), 5120; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27165120 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2697
Abstract
Betalains in bracts of Bougainvillea are of great application potential as natural food colorants and antioxidants. This study explored the color, spectra, composition, storage stability, and antioxidant properties of betalain-based Bougainvillea bracts extracts (BBEs) to verify their application value. The results showed that [...] Read more.
Betalains in bracts of Bougainvillea are of great application potential as natural food colorants and antioxidants. This study explored the color, spectra, composition, storage stability, and antioxidant properties of betalain-based Bougainvillea bracts extracts (BBEs) to verify their application value. The results showed that Bougainvillea bract color variance is due to varied contents and proportions of betacyanins (Bc) and betaxanthins (Bx). Bc or Bx alone determined hues of purple or yellow, respectively; the co-existence of Bc and Bx would produce varied hues of red. BBEs showed bright color and good antioxidant properties under a wide pH range. The pH range of 5–6 was optimal for the highest color stability, and pHs 3–8 were optimal for stronger antioxidants. Bc mainly underwent color fading during storage, while Bx easily produced dark precipitates or melanism under strong acidic (pH < 4) or alkaline conditions (pH > 8). However, Bougainvillea Bx showed 3–4 times higher antioxidant ability than Bc. Different considerations for Bc and Bx are needed for varied application purposes. The purple bracts containing only Bc would be more suitable as colorant sources, while additional Bx can bring enhancement of antioxidant ability and richness of Bougainvillea extract color. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Ingredients in Foods: A Challenging Journey to Bioefficacy)
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18 pages, 1794 KiB  
Article
Geographic Variability of Berry Phytochemicals with Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties
by Cecilia Georgescu, Adina Frum, Lidia-Ioana Virchea, Anastasiia Sumacheva, Mark Shamtsyan, Felicia-Gabriela Gligor, Neli Kinga Olah, Endre Mathe and Monica Mironescu
Molecules 2022, 27(15), 4986; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27154986 - 5 Aug 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2124
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the variability of several chemical compounds and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of eight types of berries harvested from two different geographical regions in the same year. The analyses were performed on bilberry, black currant, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the variability of several chemical compounds and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of eight types of berries harvested from two different geographical regions in the same year. The analyses were performed on bilberry, black currant, gooseberry, red currant, raspberry, sea buckthorn, strawberry and sour cherry, which were handpicked during the summer of 2019, in the same periods when they are typically harvested for consumer purposes. Total anthocyanins content (TAC), total flavonoids content (TFC), total polyphenolic compounds (TPC), determination of the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), determination of the DPPH free radical scavenging assay (RSA), determination of nine phenolic compounds by HPLC-UV assay and antimicrobial activity were determined for undiluted hydroalcoholic extracts of all the studied berries. The results showed that the berries from Romania were richer in antioxidant compounds than the berries from Russia. The TPC content varied between 4.13–22.2 mg GAE/g d.w., TFC between 3.33–8.87 mg QE/g d.w. and TAC between 0.13–3.94 mg/g d.w. The highest variability was determined for TPC. Regarding the antioxidant activity assessed by FRAP assay, values were between 6.02–57.23 µmols TE/g d.w. and values for the RSA method between 18.44–83.81%. From the eight types of berries analyzed, bilberries and raspberries had the highest antioxidant activity considering both regions and both determination methods. Not only the type, but also the environmental and cultivation conditions in which the berries grow, can lead to variations in their chemical composition. The extracted polyphenolic compounds from the studied berries showed antibacterial properties on pathogens, such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphyloccocus aureus. The inhibitory action on Salmonella typhi and fungi Candida albicans and Aspegillus niger was absent to very low. The antimicrobial activity of the hydroalcoholic extracts was dependent on the provenance of the berries, too. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Ingredients in Foods: A Challenging Journey to Bioefficacy)
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15 pages, 24732 KiB  
Article
Biological Activity of an Epilobium angustifolium L. (Fireweed) Infusion after In Vitro Digestion
by Klaudia Kowalik, Magdalena Polak-Berecka, Monika Prendecka-Wróbel, Dominika Pigoń-Zając, Iwona Niedźwiedź, Dominik Szwajgier, Ewa Baranowska-Wójcik and Adam Waśko
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27031006 - 2 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2257
Abstract
The biological activity of an in vitro digested infusion of Epilobium angustifolium (fireweed) was examined in a model system of intestinal epithelial and colon cancer tissues. The content of selected phenolic compounds in the digested aqueous extract of fireweed was determined using HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS. [...] Read more.
The biological activity of an in vitro digested infusion of Epilobium angustifolium (fireweed) was examined in a model system of intestinal epithelial and colon cancer tissues. The content of selected phenolic compounds in the digested aqueous extract of fireweed was determined using HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS. Biological activity was examined using the human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines HT-29 and CaCo-2 and the human colon epithelial cell line CCD 841 CoTr. Cytotoxicity was assessed by an MTT assay, a Neutral Red uptake assay, May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining, and a label-free Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing cytotoxicity assay. The effect of the infusion on the growth of selected intestinal bacteria was also examined. The extract inhibited the growth of intestinal cancer cells HT-29. This effect can be attributed to the activity of quercetin and kaempferol, which were the most abundant phenolic compounds found in the extract after in vitro digestion. The cytotoxicity of the fireweed infusion was dose-dependent. The highest decrease in proliferation (by almost 80%) compared to the control was observed in HT-29 line treated with the extract at a concentration of 250 μg/mL. The fireweed infusion did not affect the growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria, but it did significantly inhibit E. coli. The cytotoxic effect of the fireweed extract indicates that it does not lose its biological activity after in vitro digestion. It can be concluded that the fireweed infusion has the potential to be used as a supporting agent in colon cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Ingredients in Foods: A Challenging Journey to Bioefficacy)
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Review

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12 pages, 1042 KiB  
Review
Steviol Glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana: An Updated Overview of Their Sweetening Activity, Pharmacological Properties, and Safety Aspects
by Adriana Monserrath Orellana-Paucar
Molecules 2023, 28(3), 1258; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28031258 - 27 Jan 2023
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 8669
Abstract
This literature-based review synthesizes the available scientific information about steviol glycosides as natural sweeteners and molecules with therapeutic potential. In addition, it discusses the safety concerns regarding human consumption. Steviol glycosides exhibit a superior sweetener proficiency to that of sucrose and are noncaloric, [...] Read more.
This literature-based review synthesizes the available scientific information about steviol glycosides as natural sweeteners and molecules with therapeutic potential. In addition, it discusses the safety concerns regarding human consumption. Steviol glycosides exhibit a superior sweetener proficiency to that of sucrose and are noncaloric, noncariogenic, and nonfermentative. Scientific evidence encourages stevioside and rebaudioside A as sweetener alternatives to sucrose and supports their use based on their absences of harmful effects on human health. Moreover, these active compounds isolated from Stevia rebaudiana possess interesting medicinal activities, including antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, and antidiarrheal activity. The described bioactivities of steviol glycosides deserve special attention based on their dose dependence and specific pathological situations. Further clinical research is needed to understand underlying mechanisms of action, therapeutic indexes, and pharmacological applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Ingredients in Foods: A Challenging Journey to Bioefficacy)
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21 pages, 2273 KiB  
Review
Rhus coriaria L. (Sumac), a Versatile and Resourceful Food Spice with Cornucopia of Polyphenols
by Gaber El-Saber Batiha, Oludare M. Ogunyemi, Hazem M. Shaheen, Funso R. Kutu, Charles O. Olaiya, Jean-Marc Sabatier and Michel De Waard
Molecules 2022, 27(16), 5179; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27165179 - 14 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4541
Abstract
In recent years, utilization of Rhus coriaria L. (sumac) is upgrading not only in their culinary use and human nutrition, but also in the pharmaceutical industry, food industry and veterinary practices. This is driven by accumulating evidence that support the ethnobotanical use of [...] Read more.
In recent years, utilization of Rhus coriaria L. (sumac) is upgrading not only in their culinary use and human nutrition, but also in the pharmaceutical industry, food industry and veterinary practices. This is driven by accumulating evidence that support the ethnobotanical use of this plant; in particular, advanced knowledge of the content of nutritional, medicinal and techno-functional bioactive ingredients. Herein, we discuss polyphenolic compounds as the main bioactive ingredients in Rhus coriaria L., which contribute mainly to the significance and utility of this spice. Most of the antioxidant potential and therapeutic roles of sumac are increasingly attributed to its constituent tannins, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Hydroxyphenyl pyranoanthocyanins and other anthocynins are responsible for the highly desired red pigments accounting for the strong pigmentation capacity and colorant ability of sumac. Certain polyphenols and the essential oil components are responsible for the peculiar flavor and antimicrobial activity of sumac. Tannin-rich sumac extracts and isolates are known to enhance the food quality and the oxidative stability of animal products such as meat and milk. In conclusion, polyphenol-rich sumac extracts and its bioactive ingredients could be exploited towards developing novel food products which do not only address the current consumers’ interests regarding organoleptic and nutritional value of food, but also meet the growing need for ‘clean label’ as well as value addition with respect to antioxidant capacity, disease prevention, and health promotion in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Ingredients in Foods: A Challenging Journey to Bioefficacy)
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20 pages, 1415 KiB  
Review
Phyto-Enrichment of Yogurt to Control Hypercholesterolemia: A Functional Approach
by Harsh Kumar, Kanchan Bhardwaj, Natália Cruz-Martins, Ruchi Sharma, Shahida Anusha Siddiqui, Daljeet Singh Dhanjal, Reena Singh, Chirag Chopra, Adriana Dantas, Rachna Verma, Noura S. Dosoky and Dinesh Kumar
Molecules 2022, 27(11), 3479; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27113479 - 28 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3635
Abstract
Cholesterol is essential for normal human health, but elevations in its serum levels have led to the development of various complications, including hypercholesterolemia (HC). Cholesterol accumulation in blood circulation formsplaques on artery walls and worsens the individuals’ health. To overcome this complication, different [...] Read more.
Cholesterol is essential for normal human health, but elevations in its serum levels have led to the development of various complications, including hypercholesterolemia (HC). Cholesterol accumulation in blood circulation formsplaques on artery walls and worsens the individuals’ health. To overcome this complication, different pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches are employed to reduce elevated blood cholesterol levels. Atorvastatin and rosuvastatin are the most commonly used drugs, but their prolonged use leads to several acute side effects. In recent decades, the potential benefit of ingesting yogurt on lipid profile has attracted the interest of researchers and medical professionals worldwide. This review aims to give an overview of the current knowledge about HC and the different therapeutic approaches. It also discusses the health benefits of yogurt consumption and highlights the overlooked phyto-enrichment option to enhance the yogurt’s quality. Finally, clinical studies using different phyto-enriched yogurts for HC management are also reviewed. Yogurt has a rich nutritional value, but its processing degrades the content of minerals, vitamins, and other vital constituents with beneficial health effects. The option of enriching yogurt with phytoconstituents has drawn a lot of attention. Different pre-clinical and clinical studies have provided new insights on their benefits on gut microbiota and human health. Thus, the yogurtphyto-enrichment with stanol and β-glucan have opened new paths in functional food industries and found healthy andeffective alternatives for HC all along with conventional treatment approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Ingredients in Foods: A Challenging Journey to Bioefficacy)
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