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Molecules 2019, 24(5), 982; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24050982

Determination of Antioxidant Capacity, Phenolics and Volatile Maillard Reaction Products in Rye-Buckwheat Biscuits Supplemented with 3β-d-Rutinoside

1
Department of Chemistry and Biodynamics of Food, Division of Food Science, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, P.O. Box 55, 10-748 Olsztyn 5, Poland
2
Department of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages)
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Abstract

The Maillard reaction (MR) is responsible for the development of color, taste and aroma in bakery products though the formation of numerous aroma compounds such as pyrazines, pyrroles and aldehydes, nonvolatile taste active compounds and melanoidins. In this article, we investigate the effect of quercetin 3β-D-rutinoside (rutin) supplementation, at the level of 5–50 mg per 100 g, of rye-buckwheat biscuits on the formation of phenolics and volatile Maillard reaction products (MRPs) such as pyrazines, furfuryl alcohol and furfural, determined by headspace solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC–MS), in addition to the effect on the antioxidant capacity. The study confirmed that rutin was stable under baking conditions as showed by its content in rye-buckwheat biscuits. Supplementation of biscuits with increasing amounts of rutin resulted in the progressive increase of total phenolics and antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH and OxHLIA assays, but it had no effect on their sensory quality. From the eighteen compounds identified by HS-SPME/GC–MS in the volatile fraction of biscuits were quantitated as a compounds-of-interest: methylpyrazine, ethylpyrazine, 2,3-; 2,5- and 2,6-dimethylpyrazines, as well as furfural, furfuryl alcohol and hexanal. The rutin supplementation of biscuits might be one of the factors to influence the formation of both desirable volatile compounds and undesirable toxic compounds. In conclusion, this study indicates for the significant role of polyphenols on the formation of volatile compounds in biscuits with possible future application in the development of healthy bakery products with high antioxidant capacity. View Full-Text
Keywords: volatiles; rutin; antioxidant capacity; pyrazines; furans; sensory evaluation; HS-SPME/GC–MS volatiles; rutin; antioxidant capacity; pyrazines; furans; sensory evaluation; HS-SPME/GC–MS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Starowicz, M.; Koutsidis, G.; Zieliński, H. Determination of Antioxidant Capacity, Phenolics and Volatile Maillard Reaction Products in Rye-Buckwheat Biscuits Supplemented with 3β-d-Rutinoside. Molecules 2019, 24, 982.

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