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Self-Healing Materials

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2019) | Viewed by 39410

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
Interests: biomaterials; tissue engineering; nanobiomaterials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry (IOMC), Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Humboldstr. 10, 07743 Jena, Germany
Interests: self-healing polymers; reversible polymer networks; polymers for energy applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,     

Smart materials have become an attractive topic in molecular science and engineering. These materials are able to respond to their environmental conditions or external stimuli.

Self-healing materials are one type of smart material, and have the ability to partially restore their properties/functionality after repeated damage.

Due to this outstanding ability, these materials are interesting candidates for many different application areas. For instance, in biomedicine they can be employed to release biological molecules in order to promote wound healing or to serve as drug/cell therapeutic vehicles. Moreover, self-healing materials are interesting construction materials, and may find application in asphalt and concrete. In addition, self-healing polymers can be utilized as coatings.      

This Special Issue of Molecules will cover recent progress in the development of self-healing materials over different material classes. All researchers active in the area are encouraged to contribute articles on the design and fabrication of novel self-healing materials as well as their applications in, for example, sensing, coatings, construction, and drug release.  

Prof. Shan-hui Hsu
Dr. Martin D. Hager
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • self-healing materials
    • self-healing asphalt
    • self-healing ceramics
    • self-healing concrete
    • self-healing metals
    • self-healing polymers and composites
  • smart materials
  • self-repair/healable materials
  • reversible crosslinks
  • application areas: biomedicine, construction materials, coatings, composites

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 2575 KiB  
Article
A Self-Healing Polymer with Fast Elastic Recovery upon Stretching
by Pei-Chen Zhao, Wen Li, Wei Huang and Cheng-Hui Li
Molecules 2020, 25(3), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25030597 - 30 Jan 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5547
Abstract
The design of polymers that exhibit both good elasticity and self-healing properties is a highly challenging task. In spite of this, the literature reports highly stretchable self-healing polymers, but most of them exhibit slow elastic recovery behavior, i.e., they can only recover to [...] Read more.
The design of polymers that exhibit both good elasticity and self-healing properties is a highly challenging task. In spite of this, the literature reports highly stretchable self-healing polymers, but most of them exhibit slow elastic recovery behavior, i.e., they can only recover to their original length upon relaxation for a long time after stretching. Herein, a self-healing polymer with a fast elastic recovery property is demonstrated. We used 4-[tris(4-formylphenyl)methyl]benzaldehyde (TFPM) as a tetratopic linker to crosslink a poly(dimethylsiloxane) backbone, and obtained a self-healing polymer with high stretchability and fast elastic recovery upon stretching. The strain at break of the as-prepared polymer is observed at about 1400%. The polymer can immediately recover to its original length after being stretched. The damaged sample can be healed at room temperature with a healing efficiency up to 93% within 1 h. Such a polymer can be used for various applications, such as functioning as substrates or matrixes in soft actuators, electronic skins, biochips, and biosensors with prolonged lifetimes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Self-Healing Materials)
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13 pages, 3716 KiB  
Article
Detailed Analysis of the Influencing Parameters on the Self-Healing Behavior of Dynamic Urea-Crosslinked Poly(methacrylate)s
by Marcus Abend, Stefan Zechel, Ulrich S. Schubert and Martin D. Hager
Molecules 2019, 24(19), 3597; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24193597 - 6 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2775
Abstract
For this paper, the self-healing ability of poly(methacrylate)s crosslinked via reversible urea bonds was studied in detail. In this context, the effects of healing time and temperature on the healing process were investigated. Furthermore, the impact of the size of the damage (i.e., [...] Read more.
For this paper, the self-healing ability of poly(methacrylate)s crosslinked via reversible urea bonds was studied in detail. In this context, the effects of healing time and temperature on the healing process were investigated. Furthermore, the impact of the size of the damage (i.e., area of the scratch) was monitored. Aging processes, counteracting the self-healing process, result in a decrease in the mechanical performance. This effect diminishes the healing ability. Consequently, the current study is a first approach towards a detailed analysis of self-healing polymers regarding the influencing parameters of the healing process, considering also possible aging processes for thermo-reversible polymer networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Self-Healing Materials)
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12 pages, 2977 KiB  
Article
A Self-Healing and Shape Memory Polymer that Functions at Body Temperature
by Hui-Ying Lai, Hong-Qin Wang, Jian-Cheng Lai and Cheng-Hui Li
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3224; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183224 - 4 Sep 2019
Cited by 39 | Viewed by 5417
Abstract
Dual-functional polymeric system combining shape memory with self-healing properties has attracted increasingly interests of researchers, as both of these properties are intelligent and promising characteristics. Moreover, shape memory polymer that functions at human body temperature (37 °C) are desirable because of their potential [...] Read more.
Dual-functional polymeric system combining shape memory with self-healing properties has attracted increasingly interests of researchers, as both of these properties are intelligent and promising characteristics. Moreover, shape memory polymer that functions at human body temperature (37 °C) are desirable because of their potential applications in biomedical field. Herein, we designed a polymer network with a permanent covalent crosslinking and abundant weak hydrogen bonds. The former introduces elasticity responsible and maintain the permanent shape, and the latter contributes to the temporary shape via network rearrangement. The obtained PDMS-COO-E polymer films exhibit excellent mechanical properties and the capability to efficiently self-heal for 6 h at room temperature. Furthermore, the samples turn from a viscous state into an elastic state at 37 °C. Therefore, this polymer has shape memory effects triggered by body temperature. This unique material will have a wide range of applications in many fields, containing wearable electronics, biomedical devices, and 4D printing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Self-Healing Materials)
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11 pages, 2830 KiB  
Article
Interface Characterization Between Polyethylene/ Silica in Engineered Cementitious Composites by Molecular Dynamics Simulation
by Shuai Zhou, Nam Vu-Bac, Behrouz Arash, Hehua Zhu and Xiaoying Zhuang
Molecules 2019, 24(8), 1497; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081497 - 16 Apr 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3539
Abstract
Polyethylene is widely adopted in engineered cementitious composites to control the crack width. A clearer knowledge of the PE/concrete interfacial properties is important in developing engineered cementitious composites, which can lead to a limited crack width. Tensile failure and adhesion properties of the [...] Read more.
Polyethylene is widely adopted in engineered cementitious composites to control the crack width. A clearer knowledge of the PE/concrete interfacial properties is important in developing engineered cementitious composites, which can lead to a limited crack width. Tensile failure and adhesion properties of the amorphous polyethylene/silica (PE/S) interface are investigated by molecular dynamics to interpret the PE/concrete interface. The influence of the PE chain length, the PE chain number and coupling agents applied on silica surface on the interfacial adhesion is studied. An increase of the adhesion strength of the modified silica surface by coupling agents compared with the unmodified silica is found. The failure process, density profile and potential energy evolutions of the PE/S interface are studied. The thermodynamic work of adhesion that quantifies the interfacial adhesion of the PE/S interface is evaluated. The present study helps to understand the interfacial adhesion behavior between ECC and PE, and is expected to contribute to restricting the crack width. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Self-Healing Materials)
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11 pages, 3548 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Healable Waterborne Polyurethanes with Cystamine Chain Extenders
by Dae-Il Lee, Seung-Hyun Kim and Dai-Soo Lee
Molecules 2019, 24(8), 1492; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081492 - 16 Apr 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3772
Abstract
In this study, environmentally friendly, self-healing waterborne polyurethanes (WPUs) were prepared based on the disulfide metathesis reaction in cystamine. The cystamine acted as a chain extender in the WPU film, which showed a high mechanical strength of 19.1 MPa. The possibility of self-healing [...] Read more.
In this study, environmentally friendly, self-healing waterborne polyurethanes (WPUs) were prepared based on the disulfide metathesis reaction in cystamine. The cystamine acted as a chain extender in the WPU film, which showed a high mechanical strength of 19.1 MPa. The possibility of self-healing reaction was simultaneously modeled via liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS). WPU was confirmed to self-heal a surface crack thermally after a scratch test, and the efficiency was measured by comparing the mechanical properties before and after a cut-and-healing test. In addition, the disulfide-thiol exchange reaction was confirmed to occur in WPU with cystamine as a chain extender and 2-mercaptoethanol. Hot press tests confirmed the possibility of reprocessing the WPU. The WPU incorporating disulfide groups showed great potential as a smart self-healing material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Self-Healing Materials)
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Review

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21 pages, 4201 KiB  
Review
Hydrogels Based on Schiff Base Linkages for Biomedical Applications
by Junpeng Xu, Yi Liu and Shan-hui Hsu
Molecules 2019, 24(16), 3005; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24163005 - 19 Aug 2019
Cited by 280 | Viewed by 17520
Abstract
Schiff base, an important family of reaction in click chemistry, has received significant attention in the formation of self-healing hydrogels in recent years. Schiff base reversibly reacts even in mild conditions, which allows hydrogels with self-healing ability to recover their structures and functions [...] Read more.
Schiff base, an important family of reaction in click chemistry, has received significant attention in the formation of self-healing hydrogels in recent years. Schiff base reversibly reacts even in mild conditions, which allows hydrogels with self-healing ability to recover their structures and functions after damages. Moreover, pH-sensitivity of the Schiff base offers the hydrogels response to biologically relevant stimuli. Different types of Schiff base can provide the hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties and chemical stabilities. In this review, we summarized the design and preparation of hydrogels based on various types of Schiff base linkages, as well as the biomedical applications of hydrogels in drug delivery, tissue regeneration, wound healing, tissue adhesives, bioprinting, and biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Self-Healing Materials)
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