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Photochemical Processes in Surface Waters, Atmospheric Waters and Interfaces

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Photochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2021) | Viewed by 18820

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
Interests: environmental photochemistry; interfacial oxidations; environmental monitoring; prebiotic chemistry; photocatalytic CO2 reduction; environmental chemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy
Interests: pollutants’ photo-fate; modeling of environmental photo-reactions; surface-water photochemistry; photo-fenton reaction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is our pleasure to invite you to contribute to this Special Issue of the MDPI journal Molecules on the topic of photochemical processes in surface and atmospheric waters and at interfaces. This is a unique opportunity to present original papers or literature reviews on a growing research topic that comprehends photochemical reactions in surface waters, atmospheric waters, and interfaces. Topics of main interest include photodegradation of pollutants, photoreactions affecting secondary organic aerosol, and photoinactivation of pathogens. A list of connected keywords is provided below within this environmental photochemistry context. Other related manuscripts with a connection to the general theme of the Special Issue will also be considered. If you intend to contribute with a review, it is strongly recommended for the topic to outline the development of research in the last five years (which of course does not mean that pre-2015 citations are not allowed, but that the main body of the review should possibly cover post-2015 research). We would also like to draw your attention to an issue that can be of some importance:

Molecules is an open access journal; thus, please have a look at the journal policy concerning article processing charges.

We hope that you consider this unique opportunity to contribute your work to this Special Issue, which aims to provide a collection of papers that will make up a reference for the scientists who work in the field, or who would like to start undertaking research in environmental photochemistry.


Prof. Dr. Marcelo I. Guzman
Prof. Dr. Davide Vione
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Photochemical processes in atmospheric waters
  • Photochemical processes in surface waters
  • Atmospheric photochemistry
  • Freshwater photochemistry and climate change
  • Direct photolysis
  • Indirect photochemistry
  • Atmospheric photosensitizers
  • Photogeneration of species
  • Pollutant photodegradation
  • Photoinduced metal cycling
  • Solar disinfection
  • Pathogen photoinactivation
  • Novel techniques in environmental photochemistry

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 6370 KiB  
Article
Insights into the Time Evolution of Slowly Photodegrading Contaminants
by Davide Vione
Molecules 2021, 26(17), 5223; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26175223 - 28 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1470
Abstract
Photochemical degradation plays an important role in the attenuation of many recalcitrant pollutants in surface freshwaters. Photoinduced transformation kinetics are strongly affected by environmental conditions, where sunlight irradiance plays the main role, followed by water depth and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Apart from [...] Read more.
Photochemical degradation plays an important role in the attenuation of many recalcitrant pollutants in surface freshwaters. Photoinduced transformation kinetics are strongly affected by environmental conditions, where sunlight irradiance plays the main role, followed by water depth and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Apart from poorly predictable weather-related issues, fair-weather irradiance has a seasonal trend that results in the fastest photodegradation in June and the slowest in December (at least in temperate areas of the northern hemisphere). Pollutants that have first-order photochemical lifetimes longer than a week take more than one month to achieve 95% photodegradation. Consequently, they may experience quite different irradiance conditions as their photodegradation goes on. The relevant time trend can be approximated as a series of first-order kinetic tracts, each lasting for one month. The trend considerably departs from an overall exponential decay, if degradation takes long enough to encompass seasonally varying irradiance conditions. For instance, sunlight irradiance is higher in July than in April, but increasing irradiance after April and decreasing irradiance after July ensure that pollutants emitted in either month undergo degradation with very similar time trends in the first 3–4 months after emission. If photodegradation takes longer, pollutants emitted in July experience a considerable slowdown in photoreaction kinetics as winter is approached. Therefore, if pollutants are photostable enough that their photochemical time trend evolves over different seasons, degradation acquires some peculiar features than cannot be easily predicted from a mere analysis of lifetimes in the framework of simple first-order kinetics. Such features are here highlighted with a modelling approach, taking the case of carbamazepine as the main example. This contaminant is almost totally biorecalcitrant, and it is also quite resistant to photodegradation. Full article
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20 pages, 3344 KiB  
Article
UV-C Peroxymonosulfate Activation for Wastewater Regeneration: Simultaneous Inactivation of Pathogens and Degradation of Contaminants of Emerging Concern
by Ilaria Berruti, Samira Nahim-Granados, María Jesús Abeledo-Lameiro, Isabel Oller and María Inmaculada Polo-López
Molecules 2021, 26(16), 4890; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26164890 - 12 Aug 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2625
Abstract
This study explores the capability of Sulfate Radical-based Advanced Oxidation Processes (SR-AOPs) for the simultaneous disinfection and decontamination of urban wastewater. Sulfate and hydroxyl radicals in solution were generated activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS) under UV-C irradiation at pilot plant scale. The efficiency of the [...] Read more.
This study explores the capability of Sulfate Radical-based Advanced Oxidation Processes (SR-AOPs) for the simultaneous disinfection and decontamination of urban wastewater. Sulfate and hydroxyl radicals in solution were generated activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS) under UV-C irradiation at pilot plant scale. The efficiency of the process was assessed toward the removal of three CECs (Trimethoprim (TMP), Sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and Diclofenac (DCF)) and three bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., and Pseudomonas spp.) in actual urban wastewater (UWW), obtaining the optimal value of PMS at 0.5 mmol/L. Under such experimental conditions, bacterial concentration ≤ 10 CFU/100 mL was reached after 15 min of UV-C treatment (0.03 kJ/L of accumulative UV-C radiation) for natural occurring bacteria, no bacterial regrowth was observed after 24 and 48 h, and 80% removal of total CECs was achieved after 12 min (0.03 kJ/L), with a release of sulfate ions far from the limit established in wastewater discharge. Moreover, the inactivation of Ampicillin (AMP), Ciprofloxacin (CPX), and Trimethoprim (TMP) antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and reduction of target genes (ARGs) were successfully achieved. Finally, a harmful effect toward the receiving aquatic environment was not observed according to Aliivibrio fischeri toxicity tests, while a slightly toxic effect toward plant growth (phytotoxicity tests) was detected. As a conclusion, a cost analysis demonstrated that the process could be feasible and a promising alternative to successfully address wastewater reuse challenges. Full article
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Review

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24 pages, 25368 KiB  
Review
Aqueous Photochemistry of 2-Oxocarboxylic Acids: Evidence, Mechanisms, and Atmospheric Impact
by Marcelo I. Guzman and Alexis J. Eugene
Molecules 2021, 26(17), 5278; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26175278 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 6928
Abstract
Atmospheric organic aerosols play a major role in climate, demanding a better understanding of their formation mechanisms by contributing multiphase chemical reactions with the participation of water. The sunlight driven aqueous photochemistry of small 2-oxocarboxylic acids is a potential major source of organic [...] Read more.
Atmospheric organic aerosols play a major role in climate, demanding a better understanding of their formation mechanisms by contributing multiphase chemical reactions with the participation of water. The sunlight driven aqueous photochemistry of small 2-oxocarboxylic acids is a potential major source of organic aerosol, which prompted the investigations into the mechanisms of glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid photochemistry reviewed here. While 2-oxocarboxylic acids can be contained or directly created in the particles, the majorities of these abundant and available molecules are in the gas phase and must first undergo the surface uptake process to react in, and on the surface, of aqueous particles. Thus, the work also reviews the acid-base reaction that occurs when gaseous pyruvic acid meets the interface of aqueous microdroplets, which is contrasted with the same process for acetic acid. This work classifies relevant information needed to understand the photochemistry of aqueous pyruvic acid and glyoxylic acid and motivates future studies based on reports that use novel strategies and methodologies to advance this field. Full article
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26 pages, 3508 KiB  
Review
Solar Water Disinfection to Produce Safe Drinking Water: A Review of Parameters, Enhancements, and Modelling Approaches to Make SODIS Faster and Safer
by Ángela García-Gil, Rafael A. García-Muñoz, Kevin G. McGuigan and Javier Marugán
Molecules 2021, 26(11), 3431; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26113431 - 5 Jun 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 5984
Abstract
Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is one the cheapest and most suitable treatments to produce safe drinking water at the household level in resource-poor settings. This review introduces the main parameters that influence the SODIS process and how new enhancements and modelling approaches can [...] Read more.
Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is one the cheapest and most suitable treatments to produce safe drinking water at the household level in resource-poor settings. This review introduces the main parameters that influence the SODIS process and how new enhancements and modelling approaches can overcome some of the current drawbacks that limit its widespread adoption. Increasing the container volume can decrease the recontamination risk caused by handling several 2 L bottles. Using container materials other than polyethylene terephthalate (PET) significantly increases the efficiency of inactivation of viruses and protozoa. In addition, an overestimation of the solar exposure time is usually recommended since the process success is often influenced by many factors beyond the control of the SODIS-user. The development of accurate kinetic models is crucial for ensuring the production of safe drinking water. This work attempts to review the relevant knowledge about the impact of the SODIS variables and the techniques used to develop kinetic models described in the literature. In addition to the type and concentration of pathogens in the untreated water, an ideal kinetic model should consider all critical factors affecting the efficiency of the process, such as intensity, spectral distribution of the solar radiation, container-wall transmission spectra, ageing of the SODIS reactor material, and chemical composition of the water, since the substances in the water can play a critical role as radiation attenuators and/or sensitisers triggering the inactivation process. Full article
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