Special Issue "Mineralogy of Iron Ore Sinters"

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Processing and Metallurgy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 May 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Mark I. Pownceby

CSIRO Mineral Resources, Private Bag 10, Clayton South 3169, Victoria, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Mineral phase characterisation, iron ore sintering, experimental phase equilibria, high temperature processing, heavy mineral sands
Guest Editor
Dr. Nathan A.S. Webster

CSIRO Mineral Resources, Private Bag 10, Clayton South 3169, Victoria, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: X-ray diffraction, quantitative mineral analysis, in-situ analysis, technique development, iron ore sinter phases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Iron ore sintering is an important stage in the production of steel from iron ore. Sinter can constitute more than 60% of ferrous burden in modern blast furnaces in Japan and most blast furnaces in Europe. Iron ore sintering is a high temperature process which converts iron ore fines (<6–8 mm in size, too small for direct feed into the blast furnace) into larger agglomerates containing bonding phases, unmelted nuclei and pores. The sinter must possess the chemical, physical, metallurgical and gas permeability characteristics required for efficient blast furnace operation and these are controlled in part by the sinter mineralogy. Although a mature field of research, the progressive decline in iron ore grades requires that innovative research into all aspects of the mineralogy of iron ore sinter, including its effect on the physical and mechanical properties, continues. For this Special Issue, we welcome contributions detailing fundamental physical chemical studies, experimental as well as theoretical, but also detailed characterization of the formation mechanisms of sinter mineral phases. We also solicit methodological studies employing cutting-edge analytics. The intention of this Special Issue is that it will contribute to a better understanding of how iron ore sinter mineralogy impacts sinter quality.

Dr. Mark I. Pownceby
Dr. Nathan A.S. Webster
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Sinter mineralogy
  • Crystal structures
  • Phase equilibria
  • Characterisation
  • Formation mechanisms

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Influence of MgO on Low Temperature Reduction and Mineralogical Changes of Sinter in Simulated COREX Shaft Furnace Reducing Conditions
Minerals 2019, 9(5), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9050272
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 27 April 2019 / Accepted: 29 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
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Abstract
COREX (Coal-Reduction-Extreme) smelting reduction process provides a sustainable developing way for ironmaking industry, but the sources of iron ore materials restrict its development in China. Meanwhile, the application of sinter, which is marked by low manufacture cost and overcapacity in China, to COREX [...] Read more.
COREX (Coal-Reduction-Extreme) smelting reduction process provides a sustainable developing way for ironmaking industry, but the sources of iron ore materials restrict its development in China. Meanwhile, the application of sinter, which is marked by low manufacture cost and overcapacity in China, to COREX furnace faced proportion limitation due to its worse low temperature reduction degradation performance. This work explored the influence of MgO content on the low-temperature (550 °C) reduction of sinter in reducing conditions simulating COREX shaft furnace. The mineralogical change of sinter containing different content of MgO before and after reduction was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy for revealing the action mechanism of MgO on the low-temperature-reduction of sinter. The results show that increasing MgO (1.36–3.10%) improved the low temperature reduction degradation performance of sinter, and decreased its reduction degree and reduction rate at low temperature. More MgO the sinter contained, less Fe2O3 and SFCA was observed in sinter. Meantime, less Fe2O3 was reduced and the generation of innerstress was restrained during reduction process. The improved RDI (reduction degradation index) in COREX process of sinter by increasing MgO content is a comprehensive result of lowering strength and inhibiting probable reduction of sinter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy of Iron Ore Sinters)
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Open AccessArticle
Ore Assimilation and Secondary Phases by Sintering of Rich and High-Gangue Iron Ores
Minerals 2019, 9(2), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9020128
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
During the iron ore sintering process, two types of particles are present in the sinter bed: (1) fines, which are actively taking part in melting and the formation of secondary phases, and (2) coarse ores, which are partially interacting with the surrounding melt. [...] Read more.
During the iron ore sintering process, two types of particles are present in the sinter bed: (1) fines, which are actively taking part in melting and the formation of secondary phases, and (2) coarse ores, which are partially interacting with the surrounding melt. The quality of the final sinter is particularly determined by the secondary phases and their bonding ability. Due to chemical differences between the fines and coarse particles, knowing the overall chemical composition of the sintering blend is not sufficient to estimate the final sinter microstructure. In this study, different ore types were used to prepare iron-rich, high-alumina, and high-silica blends, which were sintered in a laboratory sinter pot to investigate the behavior of fine as well as coarse particles. As a result, very different sinter matrices formed depending on the useful basicity in each sinter. The density, mineral nature, and the gangue of the ore affected coarse ore assimilation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy of Iron Ore Sinters)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Al2O3 and SiO2 on the Formation Process of Silico-Ferrite of Calcium and Aluminum (SFCA) by Solid-State Reactions
Minerals 2019, 9(2), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9020101
Received: 2 January 2019 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 10 February 2019
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Abstract
The silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) is a significant crystalline phase that bonds in high basicity sinter. Al2O3 and SiO2 play an important role in the formation of SFCA in the Fe2O3–CaO–SiO2–Al [...] Read more.
The silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) is a significant crystalline phase that bonds in high basicity sinter. Al2O3 and SiO2 play an important role in the formation of SFCA in the Fe2O3–CaO–SiO2–Al2O3 system, but the effect mechanism of Al2O3 and SiO2 on the formation of SFCA is unclear. To investigate this effect, sintering experiments were carried out with different temperatures and different times. It was found that the reaction of Al2O3 with CaFe2O4 (CF) as an initial product was easier to form during the calcium iron aluminum oxide (CFA) than that of SiO2 with CF to form SFC. This was due to the former directly forming to CFA while the latter initially formed Ca2SiO4 (C2S) and Ca2.5Fe15.5O25, and then SFC. It was also observed that when Al2O3 and SiO2 existed simultaneously, the Al2O3 initially reacted with CF to form CFA at 1100 °C, while the SiO2 participated in the formation of SFCA at 1150 °C without the formation of SFC. Moreover, it was understood that these were different effects in that the Al2O3 promoted the transformation from the orthorhombic crystal system to the triclinic crystal system, while the SiO2 dissolved into CFA to form the SFCA phase when Al2O3 existed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy of Iron Ore Sinters)
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