Special Issue "Optofluidic Devices and Applications"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "A:Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Francisco Yubero
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC – Univ. Sevilla), Sevilla, Spain
Interests: electron transport at surfaces; electron spectroscopy; thin film scintillators; porous thin films; birefringent thin films; optofluidics; nanophotonics; dielectric mirrors and microcavities; optical sensors
Prof. Fernando Lahoz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departamento de Física, Universidad de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
Interests: optical sensors; optofluidics; microresonators; biosensing; fluorescence; rare-earth ions; glasses; semiconducting polymers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Optofluidic devices are of high scientific and industrial interest in chemistry, biology, material science, pharmacy, and medicine. In recent years, they have experienced strong development because of impressive achievements in the synergistic combination of photonics and micro/nanofluidics. Sensing and/or lasing platforms showing unprecedented sensitivities in extremely small analyte volumes, and allowing real time analysis within a lab-on-a-chip approach, have been developed. They are based on the interaction of fluids with evanescent waves induced at the surface of metallic or photonic structures, on the implementation of microcavities to induce optical resonances in the fluid medium or on other interactions of the microfluidic systems with light. In this context, a large variety of optofluidic devices has emerged, covering topics such as cell manipulation, microfabrication, water purification, energy production, catalytic reactions, microparticle sorting, micro-imaging, or bio-sensing. Moreover, the integration of these optofluidic devices in larger electro-optic platforms represents a highly valuable improvement towards advanced applications, such as those based on surface plasmon resonances that are already on the market.

In this Special Issue, we invite the scientific community working in this rapidly evolving field to publish recent research and/or review papers on these optofluidic devices and their applications.

Prof. Francisco Yubero
Prof. Fernando Lahoz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Microfluidics
  • Nanofluidics
  • Optofluidic optical fibers
  • Lab-on-a-chip
  • Optical bio-sensing
  • Optical manipulation
  • Surface plasmon resonance
  • Evanescent wave physics

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Dye-Doped ZnO Microcapsules for High Throughput and Sensitive Optofluidic Micro-Thermometry
Micromachines 2020, 11(1), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11010100 - 17 Jan 2020
Abstract
The main objective of this work is to show the proof of concept of a new optofluidic method for high throughput fluorescence-based thermometry, which enables the measure of temperature inside optofluidic microsystems at the millisecond (ms) time scale (high throughput). We used droplet [...] Read more.
The main objective of this work is to show the proof of concept of a new optofluidic method for high throughput fluorescence-based thermometry, which enables the measure of temperature inside optofluidic microsystems at the millisecond (ms) time scale (high throughput). We used droplet microfluidics to produce highly monodisperse microspheres from dispersed zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals and doped them with rhodamine B (RhB) or/and rhodamine 6G (Rh6G). The fluorescence intensities of these two dyes are known to depend linearly on temperature but in two opposite manner. Their mixture enables for the construction of reference probe whose fluorescence does not depend practically on temperature. The use of zinc oxide microparticles as temperature probes in microfluidic channels has two main advantages: (i) avoid the diffusion and the adsorption of the dyes inside the walls of the microfluidic channels and (ii) enhance dissipation of the heat generated by the focused incident laser beam thanks to the high thermal conductivity of this material. Our results show that the fluorescence intensity of RhB decreases linearly with increasing temperature at a rate of about −2.2%/°C, in a very good agreement with the literature. In contrast, we observed for the first time a nonlinear change of the fluorescence intensity of Rh6G in ZnO microparticles with a minimum intensity at a temperature equal to 40 °C. This behaviour is reproducible and was observed only with ZnO microparticles doped with Rh6G. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optofluidic Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and a Photo-Stability Study of Organic Dyes for Electro-Fluidic Display
Micromachines 2020, 11(1), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11010081 - 11 Jan 2020
Abstract
Electro-fluidic display (EFD) is one of the most promising reflective displays because of its full color and video speed. Colored EFD oil, which normally consists of soluble organic dyes and non-polar solvent, plays a critical role in color, electro-optical behavior, and the reliability [...] Read more.
Electro-fluidic display (EFD) is one of the most promising reflective displays because of its full color and video speed. Colored EFD oil, which normally consists of soluble organic dyes and non-polar solvent, plays a critical role in color, electro-optical behavior, and the reliability of the EFD devices. In this paper, we report our research on two kinds of electro-fluidic dyes based on anthraquinone and azo pyrazolone, including their synthesis, structure characterization, and application properties. Changes of absorbance curves, color coordinates of oils, and photoelectric responses of devices were studied in detail under accelerated irradiation to investigate the photo-stability and reliability properties of synthesized oil materials and devices. Photoelectric responses and photo stability of dyes are highly varied depending on their structures. We found that 1,4-dlialkylamino anthraqinone and mono azo pyrazolone dyes are much more stable than 1,8-dlialkylamino anthraqinone and corresponding bisazo pyrazolone dyes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optofluidic Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Aperture Ratio Improvement by Optimizing the Voltage Slope and Reverse Pulse in the Driving Waveform for Electrowetting Displays
Micromachines 2019, 10(12), 862; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10120862 - 07 Dec 2019
Abstract
Electrowetting display (EWD) performance is severely affected by ink distribution and charge trapping in pixel cells. Therefore, a multi structural driving waveform is proposed for improving the aperture ratio of EWDs. In this paper, the hysteresis characteristic (capacitance–voltage, C-V) curve of the EWD [...] Read more.
Electrowetting display (EWD) performance is severely affected by ink distribution and charge trapping in pixel cells. Therefore, a multi structural driving waveform is proposed for improving the aperture ratio of EWDs. In this paper, the hysteresis characteristic (capacitance–voltage, C-V) curve of the EWD pixel is tested and analyzed for obtaining the driving voltage value at the inflection point of the driving waveform. In the composition of driving waveform, a voltage slope is designed for preventing ink dispersion and a reverse pulse is designed for releasing the trapped charge which is caused by hysteresis characteristic. Finally, the frequency and the duty cycle of the driving waveform are optimized for the max aperture ratio by a series of testing. The experimental results show that the proposed driving waveform can improve the ink dispersion behavior, and the aperture ratio of the EWD is about 8% higher than the conventional driving waveform. At the same time, the response speed of the driving waveform can satisfy the dynamic display in EWDs, which provides a new idea for the design of the EWD driving scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optofluidic Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Different Regimes of Opto-fluidics for Biological Manipulation
Micromachines 2019, 10(12), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10120802 - 21 Nov 2019
Abstract
Metallic structures can be used for the localized heating of fluid and the controlled generation of microfluidic currents. Carefully designed currents can move and trap small particles and cells. Here we demonstrate a new bi-metallic substrate that allows much more powerful micro-scale manipulation. [...] Read more.
Metallic structures can be used for the localized heating of fluid and the controlled generation of microfluidic currents. Carefully designed currents can move and trap small particles and cells. Here we demonstrate a new bi-metallic substrate that allows much more powerful micro-scale manipulation. We show that there are multiple regimes of opto-fluidic manipulation that can be controlled by an external laser power. While the lowest power does not affect even small objects, medium power can be used for efficiently capturing and trapping particles and cells. Finally, the high-power regime can be used for 3D levitation that, for the first time, has been demonstrated in this paper. Additionally, we demonstrate opto-fluidic manipulation for an extraordinarily dynamic range of masses extending eight orders of magnitude: from 80 fg nano-wires to 5.4 µg live worms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optofluidic Devices and Applications)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
A Review on Optoelectrokinetics-Based Manipulation and Fabrication of Micro/Nanomaterials
Micromachines 2020, 11(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11010078 - 10 Jan 2020
Abstract
Optoelectrokinetics (OEK), a fusion of optics, electrokinetics, and microfluidics, has been demonstrated to offer a series of extraordinary advantages in the manipulation and fabrication of micro/nanomaterials, such as requiring no mask, programmability, flexibility, and rapidness. In this paper, we summarize a variety of [...] Read more.
Optoelectrokinetics (OEK), a fusion of optics, electrokinetics, and microfluidics, has been demonstrated to offer a series of extraordinary advantages in the manipulation and fabrication of micro/nanomaterials, such as requiring no mask, programmability, flexibility, and rapidness. In this paper, we summarize a variety of differently structured OEK chips, followed by a discussion on how they are fabricated and the ways in which they work. We also review how three differently sized polystyrene beads can be separated simultaneously, how a variety of nanoparticles can be assembled, and how micro/nanomaterials can be fabricated into functional devices. Another focus of our paper is on mask-free fabrication and assembly of hydrogel-based micro/nanostructures and its possible applications in biological fields. We provide a summary of the current challenges facing the OEK technique and its future prospects at the end of this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optofluidic Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessReview
Autonomous and In Situ Ocean Environmental Monitoring on Optofluidic Platform
Micromachines 2020, 11(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11010069 - 08 Jan 2020
Abstract
Determining the distributions and variations of chemical elements in oceans has significant meanings for understanding the biogeochemical cycles, evaluating seawater pollution, and forecasting the occurrence of marine disasters. The primary chemical parameters of ocean monitoring include nutrients, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and heavy [...] Read more.
Determining the distributions and variations of chemical elements in oceans has significant meanings for understanding the biogeochemical cycles, evaluating seawater pollution, and forecasting the occurrence of marine disasters. The primary chemical parameters of ocean monitoring include nutrients, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and heavy metals. At present, ocean monitoring mainly relies on laboratory analysis, which is hindered in applications due to its large size, high power consumption, and low representative and time-sensitive detection results. By integrating photonics and microfluidics into one chip, optofluidics brings new opportunities to develop portable microsystems for ocean monitoring. Optofluidic platforms have advantages in respect of size, cost, timeliness, and parallel processing of samples compared with traditional instruments. This review describes the applications of optofluidic platforms on autonomous and in situ ocean environmental monitoring, with an emphasis on their principles, sensing properties, advantages, and disadvantages. Predictably, autonomous and in situ systems based on optofluidic platforms will have important applications in ocean environmental monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optofluidic Devices and Applications)
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