Special Issue "Color Centers in Diamond: Fabrication, Devices and Applications"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "D:Materials and Processing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Elke Neu

Faculty for Natural Sciences and Technology, Physics Department, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +49-(0)681-302-2739
Interests: color centers in diamond; single photon sources; scanning probe imaging with color centers in diamond; diamond nanofabrication
Guest Editor
Dr. Abdallah Slablab

Faculty for Natural Sciences and Technology, Physics Department, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: non-linear optics; microscopy; plasmonics; nanotechnology
Guest Editor
Dr. Mariusz Radtke

Faculty for Natural Sciences and Technology, Physics Department, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: material characterization; nanomaterials; synthesis; organic synthesis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In 1997, the first observation of optically-detected electron spin resonance of a single nitrogen vacancy center in diamond started a completely new application field. Since then, point defects in diamond have become leading contenders for room temperature single photon sources, nanoscale sensors and solid-state quantum bits.  In this Special Issue, we would like to highlight recent developments in this strongly interdisciplinary field. We invite contributions on the material science aspects like creating color centers, modifying diamond surfaces or the synthesis of diamond materials (nanodiamonds, single-crystal). We address the technology to fabricate nano- and microscale devices like photonic and mechanical structures functionalized with color centers. We highlight the physics of color centers, e.g., via spectroscopy and coherent manipulation of color centers. The Special Issue is not restricted to the nitrogen vacancy center: we also encourage submissions on alternative centers like silicon and germanium vacancy centers. Finally, we invite recent results on the application of color centers in, e.g., photonics, sensing, life sciences and quantum technologies. This Special Issue will provide a highly-visible, multi-disciplinary, freely-accessible collection of recent advances (either of theoretical or experimental nature) in the field of diamond color centers and their applications.

Dr. Elke Neu
Dr. Abdallah Slablab
Dr. Mariusz Radtke
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Diamond
  • Color centers
  • Nanofabrication
  • Quantum technologies
  • Nanoscale sensing
  • Nanophotonics
  • Diamond synthesis
  • Ion implantation
  • Spectroscopy
  • Nanodiamonds

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Erbium Luminescence Centres in Single- and Nano-Crystalline Diamond—Effects of Ion Implantation Fluence and Thermal Annealing
Micromachines 2018, 9(7), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9070316
Received: 29 April 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 20 June 2018 / Published: 22 June 2018
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Abstract
We present a fundamental study of the erbium luminescence centres in single- and nano-crystalline (NCD) diamonds. Both diamond forms were doped with Er using ion implantation with the energy of 190 keV at fluences up to 5 × 1015 ions·cm−2,
[...] Read more.
We present a fundamental study of the erbium luminescence centres in single- and nano-crystalline (NCD) diamonds. Both diamond forms were doped with Er using ion implantation with the energy of 190 keV at fluences up to 5 × 1015 ions·cm−2, followed by annealing at controllable temperature in Ar atmosphere or vacuum to enhance the near infrared photoluminescence. The Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry showed that Er concentration maximum determined for NCD films is slightly shifted to the depth with respect to the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter simulation. The number of the displaced atoms per depth slightly increased with the fluence, but in fact the maximum reached the fully disordered target even in the lowest ion fluence used. The post-implantation annealing at 800 °C in vacuum had a further beneficial effect on erbium luminescence intensity at around 1.5 μm, especially for the Er-doped NCD films, which contain a higher amount of grain boundaries than single-crystalline diamond. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Color Centers in Diamond: Fabrication, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Silicon-Vacancy Centers in Ultra-Thin Nanocrystalline Diamond Films
Micromachines 2018, 9(6), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9060281
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 2 June 2018
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Abstract
Color centers in diamond have shown excellent potential for applications in quantum information processing, photonics, and biology. Here we report the optoelectronic investigation of shallow silicon vacancy (SiV) color centers in ultra-thin (7–40 nm) nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films with variable surface chemistry. We
[...] Read more.
Color centers in diamond have shown excellent potential for applications in quantum information processing, photonics, and biology. Here we report the optoelectronic investigation of shallow silicon vacancy (SiV) color centers in ultra-thin (7–40 nm) nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films with variable surface chemistry. We show that hydrogenated ultra-thin NCD films exhibit no or lowered SiV photoluminescence (PL) and relatively high negative surface photovoltage (SPV) which is ascribed to non-radiative electron transitions from SiV to surface-related traps. Higher SiV PL and low positive SPV of oxidized ultra-thin NCD films indicate an efficient excitation—emission PL process without significant electron escape, yet with some hole trapping in diamond surface states. Decreasing SPV magnitude and increasing SiV PL intensity with thickness, in both cases, is attributed to resonant energy transfer between shallow and bulk SiV. We also demonstrate that thermal treatments (annealing in air or in hydrogen gas), commonly applied to modify the surface chemistry of nanodiamonds, are also applicable to ultra-thin NCD films in terms of tuning their SiV PL and surface chemistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Color Centers in Diamond: Fabrication, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle On the Possibility of Miniature Diamond-Based Magnetometers Using Waveguide Geometries
Micromachines 2018, 9(6), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9060276
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2133 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We propose the use of a diamond waveguide structure to enhance the sensitivity of magnetometers relying on the detection of the spin state of nitrogen-vacancy ensembles in diamond by infrared optical absorption. An optical waveguide structure allows for enhanced optical path-lengths avoiding the
[...] Read more.
We propose the use of a diamond waveguide structure to enhance the sensitivity of magnetometers relying on the detection of the spin state of nitrogen-vacancy ensembles in diamond by infrared optical absorption. An optical waveguide structure allows for enhanced optical path-lengths avoiding the use of optical cavities and complicated setups. The presented design for diamond-based magnetometers enables miniaturization while maintaining high sensitivity and forms the basis for magnetic field sensors applicable in biomedical, industrial and space-related applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Color Centers in Diamond: Fabrication, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Advanced Fabrication of Single-Crystal Diamond Membranes for Quantum Technologies
Micromachines 2018, 9(4), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9040148
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 25 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3736 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many promising applications of single crystal diamond and its color centers as sensor platform and in photonics require free-standing membranes with a thickness ranging from several micrometers to the few 100 nm range. In this work, we present an approach to conveniently fabricate
[...] Read more.
Many promising applications of single crystal diamond and its color centers as sensor platform and in photonics require free-standing membranes with a thickness ranging from several micrometers to the few 100 nm range. In this work, we present an approach to conveniently fabricate such thin membranes with up to about one millimeter in size. We use commercially available diamond plates (thickness 50 μ m) in an inductively coupled reactive ion etching process which is based on argon, oxygen and SF 6 . We thus avoid using toxic, corrosive feed gases and add an alternative to previously presented recipes involving chlorine-based etching steps. Our membranes are smooth (RMS roughness <1 nm) and show moderate thickness variation (central part: <1 μ m over ≈200 × 200 μ m 2 ). Due to an improved etch mask geometry, our membranes stay reliably attached to the diamond plate in our chlorine-based as well as SF 6 -based processes. Our results thus open the route towards higher reliability in diamond device fabrication and up-scaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Color Centers in Diamond: Fabrication, Devices and Applications)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Spin Readout Techniques of the Nitrogen-Vacancy Center in Diamond
Micromachines 2018, 9(9), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9090437
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
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Abstract
The diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center is a leading platform for quantum information science due to its optical addressability and room-temperature spin coherence. However, measurements of the NV center’s spin state typically require averaging over many cycles to overcome noise. Here, we review several
[...] Read more.
The diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center is a leading platform for quantum information science due to its optical addressability and room-temperature spin coherence. However, measurements of the NV center’s spin state typically require averaging over many cycles to overcome noise. Here, we review several approaches to improve the readout performance and highlight future avenues of research that could enable single-shot electron-spin readout at room temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Color Centers in Diamond: Fabrication, Devices and Applications)
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Open AccessReview Fluorescent Nanodiamond Applications for Cellular Process Sensing and Cell Tracking
Micromachines 2018, 9(5), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9050247
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (968 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diamond nanocrystals smaller than 100 nm (nanodiamonds) are now recognized to be highly biocompatible. They can be made fluorescent with perfect photostability by creating nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in the diamond lattice. The resulting fluorescent nanodiamonds (FND) have been used since the late
[...] Read more.
Diamond nanocrystals smaller than 100 nm (nanodiamonds) are now recognized to be highly biocompatible. They can be made fluorescent with perfect photostability by creating nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in the diamond lattice. The resulting fluorescent nanodiamonds (FND) have been used since the late 2000s as fluorescent probes for short- or long-term analysis. FND can be used both at the subcellular scale and the single cell scale. Their limited sub-diffraction size allows them to track intracellular processes with high spatio-temporal resolution and high contrast from the surrounding environment. FND can also track the fate of therapeutic compounds or whole cells in the organs of an organism. This review presents examples of FND applications (1) for intra and intercellular molecular processes sensing, also introducing the different potential biosensing applications based on the optically detectable electron spin resonance of NV centers; and (2) for tracking, firstly, FND themselves to determine their biodistribution, and secondly, using FND as cell tracking probes for diagnosis or follow-up purposes in oncology and regenerative medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Color Centers in Diamond: Fabrication, Devices and Applications)
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