Special Issue "Microscale Surface Tension and Its Applications"

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "A:Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Pierre Lambert

Université libre de Bruxelles, TIPs CP165/67, Av. F.D. Roosevelt 50, B1050 Bruxelles, Belgium
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +32-(0)2-650-42-44
Interests: Microfluidics; Microengineering; Surface Tension; Mechanical design
Guest Editor
Dr. Massimo Mastrangeli

Electronic Components, Technology and Materials (ECTM), Department of Microelectronics, Delft University of Technology, Building 36, Feldmannweg 17, 2628CT Delft, The Netherlands
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +31-(0)15-27-83835
Interests: Self-assembly; material interfaces; microsystems; nanoparticle-based devices

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Building on advances in miniaturization and soft matter, surface tension effects are a major key to the development of soft/fluidic microrobotics. Benefiting from scaling laws, surface tension and capillary effects can enable sensing, actuation, adhesion, confinement, compliance, and other structural and functional properties necessary in micro- and nanosystems.

Various applications are under development: microfluidic and lab-on-chip devices, soft gripping and manipulation of particles, colloidal and interfacial assemblies, fluidic/droplet mechatronics. The capillary action is ubiquitous in drops, bubbles and menisci, opening a broad spectrum of technological solutions and scientific investigations. Identified grand challenges to the establishment of fluidic microrobotics include mastering the dynamics of capillary effects, controlling the hysteresis arising from wetting and evaporation, improving the dispensing and handling of tiny droplets, and developing a mechatronic approach for the control and programming of surface tension effects. 

In this Special Issue of Micromachines, we invite contributions covering all aspects of microscale engineering relying on surface tension. Particularly, we welcome contributions on fundamentals or applications related to: 

  • Drop-botics: fluidic or surface tension-based micro/nanorobotics: capillary manipulation, gripping, and actuation, sensing, folding, propulsion and bio-inspired solutions;
  • Control of surface tension effects: surface tension gradients, active surfactants, thermocapillarity, electrowetting, elastocapillarity;
  • Handling of droplets, bubbles and liquid bridges: dispensing, confinement, displacement, stretching, rupture, evaporation;
  • Capillary forces: modelling, measurement, simulation;
  • Interfacial engineering: smart liquids, surface treatments;
  • Interfacial fluidic and capillary assembly of colloids and devices;
  • Biological applications of surface tension, including lab-on-chip and organ-on-chip systems.

We expect novel as well as review contributions on all aspects of surface tension-based micro/nanoengineering. In line with Micromachines' policy, we also invite research proposals that introduce ideas for new applications, devices, or technologies. 

Prof. Dr. Pierre Lambert
Dr. Massimo Mastrangeli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Surface tension
  • capillarity
  • microsystems and systems-on-chip
  • soft- and microrobotics
  • manipulation and assembly
  • interfaces
  • droplets

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Hybrid Two-Scale Fabrication of Sub-Millimetric Capillary Grippers
Micromachines 2019, 10(4), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10040224
Received: 22 February 2019 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 29 March 2019
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Abstract
Capillary gripping is a pick-and-place technique that is particularly well-suited for handling sub-millimetric components. Nevertheless, integrating a fluid supply and release mechanism becomes increasingly difficult to manufacture for these scales. In the present contribution, two hybrid manufacturing procedures are introduced in which the [...] Read more.
Capillary gripping is a pick-and-place technique that is particularly well-suited for handling sub-millimetric components. Nevertheless, integrating a fluid supply and release mechanism becomes increasingly difficult to manufacture for these scales. In the present contribution, two hybrid manufacturing procedures are introduced in which the creation of the smallest features is decoupled from the macro-scale components. In the first procedure, small scale features are printed directly (by two-photon polymerisation) on top of a 3D-printed device (through stereolithography). In the second approach, directional ultraviolet (UV)-illumination and an adapted design allowed for successful (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS) moulding of the microscopic gripper head on top of a metal substrate. Importantly, a fully functional microchannel is present in both cases through which liquid to grip the components can be supplied and retracted. This capability of removing the liquid combined with an asymmetric pillar design allows for a passive release mechanism with a placement precision on the order of 3% of the component size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microscale Surface Tension and Its Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Vibration Induced Transport of Enclosed Droplets
Micromachines 2019, 10(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10010069
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 13 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
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Abstract
The droplet response to vibrations has been well characterized on open substrates, but microfluidic applications for droplets on open systems are limited by rapid evaporation rates and prone to environmental contamination. However, the response of enclosed droplets to vibration is less understood. Here, [...] Read more.
The droplet response to vibrations has been well characterized on open substrates, but microfluidic applications for droplets on open systems are limited by rapid evaporation rates and prone to environmental contamination. However, the response of enclosed droplets to vibration is less understood. Here, we investigate the effects of a dual-plate enclosure on droplet transport for the anisotropic ratchet conveyor system. This system uses an asymmetric pattern of hydrophilic rungs to transport droplets with an applied vibration. Through this work, we discovered that the addition of a substrate on top of the droplet, held in place with a 3D printed fixture, extends the functional frequency range for droplet transport and normalizes the device performance for droplets of different volumes. Furthermore, we found that the edge movements are anti-phasic between top and bottom substrates, providing a velocity profile that is correlated to vibration frequency, unlike the resonance-dependent profiles observed on open systems. These results expand the capabilities of this system, providing avenues for new applications and innovation, but also new insights for droplet mechanics in response to applied vibration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microscale Surface Tension and Its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
One-Step Preparation of Durable Super-Hydrophobic MSR/SiO2 Coatings by Suspension Air Spraying
Micromachines 2018, 9(12), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9120677
Received: 4 November 2018 / Revised: 6 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3564 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we develop a facial one-step approach to prepare durable super-hydrophobic coatings on glass surfaces. The hydrophobic characteristics, corrosive liquid resistance, and mechanical durability of the super-hydrophobic surface are presented. The as-prepared super-hydrophobic surface exhibits a water contact angle (WCA) of [...] Read more.
In this study, we develop a facial one-step approach to prepare durable super-hydrophobic coatings on glass surfaces. The hydrophobic characteristics, corrosive liquid resistance, and mechanical durability of the super-hydrophobic surface are presented. The as-prepared super-hydrophobic surface exhibits a water contact angle (WCA) of 157.2° and contact angle hysteresis of 2.3°. Mico/nano hierarchical structures and elements of silicon and fluorine is observed on super-hydrophobic surfaces. The adhesion strength and hardness of the surface are determined to be 1st level and 4H, respectively. The coating is, thus, capable of maintaining super-hydrophobic state after sand grinding with a load of 200 g and wear distances of 700 mm. The rough surface retained after severe mechanical abrasion observed by atomic force microscope (AFM) microscopically proves the durable origin of the super-hydrophobic coating. Results demonstrate the feasibility of production of the durable super-hydrophobic coating via enhancing its adhesion strength and surface hardness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microscale Surface Tension and Its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Adaptive Micromixer Based on the Solutocapillary Marangoni Effect in a Continuous-Flow Microreactor
Micromachines 2018, 9(11), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9110600
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract
Continuous-flow microreactors are an important development in chemical engineering technology, since pharmaceutical production needs flexibility in reconfiguring the synthesis system rather than large volumes of product yield. Microreactors of this type have a special vessel, in which the convective vortices are organized to [...] Read more.
Continuous-flow microreactors are an important development in chemical engineering technology, since pharmaceutical production needs flexibility in reconfiguring the synthesis system rather than large volumes of product yield. Microreactors of this type have a special vessel, in which the convective vortices are organized to mix the reagents to increase the product output. We propose a new type of micromixer based on the intensive relaxation oscillations induced by a fundamental effect discovered recently. The mechanism of these oscillations was found to be a coupling of the solutal Marangoni effect, buoyancy and diffusion. The phenomenon can be observed in the vicinity of an air–liquid (or liquid–liquid) interface with inhomogeneous concentration of a surface-active solute. Important features of the oscillations are demonstrated experimentally and numerically. The periodicity of the oscillations is a result of the repeated regeneration of the Marangoni driving force. This feature is used in our design of a micromixer with a single air bubble inside the reaction zone. We show that the micromixer does not consume external energy and adapts to the medium state due to feedback. It switches on automatically each time when a concentration inhomogeneity in the reaction zone occurs, and stops mixing when the solution becomes sufficiently uniform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microscale Surface Tension and Its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Self-Lubricanting Slippery Surface with Wettability Gradients for Anti-Sticking of Electrosurgical Scalpel
Micromachines 2018, 9(11), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9110591
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
Soft tissue sticking on electrosurgical scalpels in minimally invasive surgery can increase the difficulty of operation and easily lead to medical malpractice. It is significant to develop new methods for anti-sticking of soft tissue on electrosurgical scalpels. Based on the characteristics of biomimetic [...] Read more.
Soft tissue sticking on electrosurgical scalpels in minimally invasive surgery can increase the difficulty of operation and easily lead to medical malpractice. It is significant to develop new methods for anti-sticking of soft tissue on electrosurgical scalpels. Based on the characteristics of biomimetic ultra-slippery surface, a self-lubricating slippery surface with wettability gradients on electrosurgical scalpel was designed and fabricated. Non-uniformly distributed cylindrical micro pillars, which constitute the wettability gradients, were prepared by an electrolytic etching process and the theoretic of the spontaneous liquid spreading process was analyzed. The silicophilic property of wettability gradients surface was modified by octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) self-assembling coat with biocompatible liquid lubricant dimethyl silicone oil. The contact angle of gradient’s surface at different temperatures was measured. The transportation behaviors of both water and dimethyl silicone oil on the wettability gradient’s surface were investigated; the results illustrate that the wettability gradient’s slippery surface can successfully self-lubricate from regions with low pillar density to regions with high pillar density, ascribed to the unbalanced Young’s force. The anti-sticking capability of the electrosurgical scalpel with self-lubricating slippery surface was tested. Both the adhesion force and adhesion mass under different cycles were calculated. The results suggest that the as-prepared slippery surface has excellent anti-sticking ability associated with better durability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microscale Surface Tension and Its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Trapping a Hot Drop on a Superhydrophobic Surface with Rapid Condensation or Microtexture Melting
Micromachines 2018, 9(11), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9110566
Received: 9 October 2018 / Revised: 24 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
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Abstract
A water drop can bounce upon impacting a superhydrophobic surface. However, on certain superhydrophobic surfaces, a water drop will stick rather than bounce if it is sufficiently hot. Here, we aim to better understand the mechanisms that can lead to this bouncing-sticking transition. [...] Read more.
A water drop can bounce upon impacting a superhydrophobic surface. However, on certain superhydrophobic surfaces, a water drop will stick rather than bounce if it is sufficiently hot. Here, we aim to better understand the mechanisms that can lead to this bouncing-sticking transition. Specifically, we model two potential mechanisms in which a superhydrophobic surface could trap a sufficiently hot drop within milliseconds: melting of microtextured wax and condensation of the vapor within the superhydrophobic texture. We then test these mechanisms through systematic drop impact experiments in which we independently vary the substrate and drop temperatures on a waxy superhydrophobic Nasturtium leaf. We find that, whenever the surface or the drop is above a microtexture-melting temperature, the drop sticks. Below this temperature, a critical temperature threshold for bouncing can be predicted and controlled by considering the relative timescales between condensation growth and drop residence time. We envision that these results can provide insight into the design of a new class of superhydrophobic surfaces to act as a rapid thermal fuse to prevent drops that exceed a critical temperature from bouncing onto a thermally sensitive target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microscale Surface Tension and Its Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Actuation of Flexible Membranes via Capillary Force: Single-Active-Surface Experiments
Micromachines 2018, 9(11), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9110545
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 25 October 2018
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Abstract
Conventional approaches to microscale actuation, such as electrostatic, have difficulty in achieving large motion at moderate voltages. Recently, actuators relying on the active control of capillary pressure have been demonstrated, with the pressure change caused by electrowetting on a pair of opposing surfaces. [...] Read more.
Conventional approaches to microscale actuation, such as electrostatic, have difficulty in achieving large motion at moderate voltages. Recently, actuators relying on the active control of capillary pressure have been demonstrated, with the pressure change caused by electrowetting on a pair of opposing surfaces. In this work, experimental results are presented from five prototype devices in which only a single active surface is used. The results demonstrate that pressure changes induced in a liquid bridge in this manner can produce large deflections (15 μm) of a flexible membrane. Voltages employed in the tests were moderate (≤25 V). The influence of several design variables, such as membrane diameter and thickness, on the membrane deflection are examined. Theoretical predictions are also presented and generally follow the experimental values. Potential sources for the discrepancies between theory and experimental results are discussed. While deflections obtained using a single active surface are not as large as those obtained with two active surfaces, single-active-surface configurations offer a simple route to achieving adequate deflections for lab-on-a-chip microsystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microscale Surface Tension and Its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Demonstration of In-Tube Liquid-Column Migration Driven by Photoisomerization
Micromachines 2018, 9(10), 533; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9100533
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
Droplet manipulation by light-induced isomerization was numerically demonstrated and investigated regarding the driving mechanism. Such a non-invasive manipulation of a droplet in a microchannel can be realized, for example, by the use of watery solution of photoresponsive surfactant that exhibits the isomerization. Due [...] Read more.
Droplet manipulation by light-induced isomerization was numerically demonstrated and investigated regarding the driving mechanism. Such a non-invasive manipulation of a droplet in a microchannel can be realized, for example, by the use of watery solution of photoresponsive surfactant that exhibits the isomerization. Due to variable fluid properties between the cis and trans isomers, one-side light irradiation on a liquid column in a tube would lead to some kind of imbalance between the two ends of the liquid column and then drive droplet migration. The present numerical simulations of air–liquid two-phase flow and its scalar transport of the isomer, considering the variable static contact angle, agreed quantitatively with the experimental results in terms of the migration speed. This fact supports the contention that the droplet migration is more likely to be driven by an imbalance in the wettability, or the contact angle. The migration speed was found to be less dependent on the liquid-column length, but proportional to the tube diameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microscale Surface Tension and Its Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Controlling Normal Stiffness in Droplet-Based Linear Bearings
Micromachines 2018, 9(10), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi9100525
Received: 25 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
While capillary forces are negligible relative to gravity at the macroscale, they provide adequate force to effectively manipulate millimeter to micro meter objects. The fluidic actuation can be accomplished using droplets that also act as bearings. While rotary droplet bearings have been previously [...] Read more.
While capillary forces are negligible relative to gravity at the macroscale, they provide adequate force to effectively manipulate millimeter to micro meter objects. The fluidic actuation can be accomplished using droplets that also act as bearings. While rotary droplet bearings have been previously demonstrated, this paper addresses the positioning accuracy of a droplet-based bearing consisting of a droplet between a moving plate and a stationary substrate with constrained wetting region under a normal load. Key wetting cases are analyzed using both closed form analytical approximations and numerical simulations. The vertical force and stiffness characteristics are analyzed in relation to the wetting boundaries of the supporting surface. Case studies of different wetting boundaries are presented and summarized. Design strategies are presented for maximizing load carrying capability and stiffness. These results show that controlled wetting and opposing droplet configurations can create much higher stiffness fluidic bearings than simple droplets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microscale Surface Tension and Its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Enabling Droplet Functionality on Anisotropic Ratchet Conveyors
Micromachines 2017, 8(12), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8120363
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 16 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (14102 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Anisotropic ratchet conveyors (ARCs) are a recently developed microfluidic platform that transports liquid droplets through a passive, microfabricated surface pattern and applied orthogonal vibrations. In this work, three new functionalities are presented for controlling droplet transport on the ARC system. These devices can [...] Read more.
Anisotropic ratchet conveyors (ARCs) are a recently developed microfluidic platform that transports liquid droplets through a passive, microfabricated surface pattern and applied orthogonal vibrations. In this work, three new functionalities are presented for controlling droplet transport on the ARC system. These devices can pause droplet transport (ARC gate), decide between two pathways of droplet transport (ARC switch), and pass droplets between transport tracks (ARC delivery junction). All devices function solely through the modification of pinning forces acting on the transported droplet and are the first reported devices that can selectively control droplet timing and directionality without active (e.g., thermal, electrical, or magnetic) surface components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microscale Surface Tension and Its Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Laser-Assisted Mist Capillary Self-Alignment
Micromachines 2017, 8(12), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi8120361
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3990 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This paper reports a method combining laser die transfer and mist capillary self-alignment. The laser die transfer technique is employed to feed selected microchips from a thermal release tape onto a receiving substrate and mist capillary self-alignment is applied to align the microchips [...] Read more.
This paper reports a method combining laser die transfer and mist capillary self-alignment. The laser die transfer technique is employed to feed selected microchips from a thermal release tape onto a receiving substrate and mist capillary self-alignment is applied to align the microchips to the predefined receptor sites on the substrate in high-accuracy. The parameters for a low-power laser die transfer process have been investigated and experimentally optimized. The acting forces during the mist-induced capillary self-alignment process have been analyzed and the critical volume enabling capillary self-alignment has been estimated theoretically and experimentally. We have demonstrated that microchips can be transferred onto receptor sites in 300–400 ms using a low-power laser (100 mW), and chips can self-align to the corresponding receptor sites in parallel with alignment accuracy of 1.4 ± 0.8 μm. The proposed technique has great potential in high-throughput and high-accuracy assembly of micro devices. This paper is extended from an early conference paper (MARSS 2017). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microscale Surface Tension and Its Applications)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Micro-Surface and -Interfacial Tensions Measured Using the Micropipette Technique: Applications in Ultrasound-Microbubbles, Oil-Recovery, Lung-Surfactants, Nanoprecipitation, and Microfluidics
Micromachines 2019, 10(2), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10020105
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 25 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
This review presents a series of measurements of the surface and interfacial tensions we have been able to make using the micropipette technique. These include: equilibrium tensions at the air-water surface and oil-water interface, as well as equilibrium and dynamic adsorption of water-soluble [...] Read more.
This review presents a series of measurements of the surface and interfacial tensions we have been able to make using the micropipette technique. These include: equilibrium tensions at the air-water surface and oil-water interface, as well as equilibrium and dynamic adsorption of water-soluble surfactants and water-insoluble and lipids. At its essence, the micropipette technique is one of capillary-action, glass-wetting, and applied pressure. A micropipette, as a parallel or tapered shaft, is mounted horizontally in a microchamber and viewed in an inverted microscope. When filled with air or oil, and inserted into an aqueous-filled chamber, the position of the surface or interface meniscus is controlled by applied micropipette pressure. The position and hence radius of curvature of the meniscus can be moved in a controlled fashion from dimensions associated with the capillary tip (~5–10 μm), to back down the micropipette that can taper out to 450 μm. All measurements are therefore actually made at the microscale. Following the Young–Laplace equation and geometry of the capillary, the surface or interfacial tension value is simply obtained from the radius of the meniscus in the tapered pipette and the applied pressure to keep it there. Motivated by Franklin’s early experiments that demonstrated molecularity and monolayer formation, we also give a brief potted-historical perspective that includes fundamental surfactancy driven by margarine, the first use of a micropipette to circuitously measure bilayer membrane tensions and free energies of formation, and its basis for revolutionising the study and applications of membrane ion-channels in Droplet Interface Bilayers. Finally, we give five examples of where our measurements have had an impact on applications in micro-surfaces and microfluidics, including gas microbubbles for ultrasound contrast; interfacial tensions for micro-oil droplets in oil recovery; surface tensions and tensions-in-the surface for natural and synthetic lung surfactants; interfacial tension in nanoprecipitation; and micro-surface tensions in microfluidics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microscale Surface Tension and Its Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Self-Cleaning: From Bio-Inspired Surface Modification to MEMS/Microfluidics System Integration
Micromachines 2019, 10(2), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi10020101
Received: 26 November 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
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Abstract
This review focuses on self-cleaning surfaces, from passive bio-inspired surface modification including superhydrophobic, superomniphobic, and superhydrophilic surfaces, to active micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and digital microfluidic systems. We describe models and designs for nature-inspired self-cleaning schemes as well as novel engineering approaches, and we [...] Read more.
This review focuses on self-cleaning surfaces, from passive bio-inspired surface modification including superhydrophobic, superomniphobic, and superhydrophilic surfaces, to active micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and digital microfluidic systems. We describe models and designs for nature-inspired self-cleaning schemes as well as novel engineering approaches, and we discuss examples of how MEMS/microfluidic systems integrate with functional surfaces to dislodge dust or undesired liquid residues. Meanwhile, we also examine “waterless” surface cleaning systems including electrodynamic screens and gecko seta-inspired tapes. The paper summarizes the state of the art in self-cleaning surfaces, introduces available cleaning mechanisms, describes established fabrication processes and provides practical application examples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microscale Surface Tension and Its Applications)
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