Advances in Metallic Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Metal Casting, Forming and Heat Treatment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 4788

Special Issue Editor


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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan 701, Taiwan
Interests: thin films; metal materials; material analysis; photovoltaic ribbon; fine metal wires; secondary ion batteries
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Heat treatment is a process in which a metal material is heated or cooled in order to change the internal or surface structures of the metal and thus obtain the properties required.

Recently, the development of process technologies and analysis methods have created possibilities for new research and practical applications. For example, the development of additive manufacturing has motivated research efforts concerning the use of heat treatment methods for as-built alloys. In addition, phase structures are analyzed using related techniques such as TEM or EPMA to understand the evolution of phase structure.

In this Special Issue, articles regarding the use of heat treatments with various metal materials are sought, especially those focused on phase structures (including surface) and mechanical properties, informing readers about the latest ongoing research and development activities, on the current state of the art, and on prior history.

The Special Issue will seek to encompass (but will not be limited to) the following topics:

  • The effects of alloy composition on workability.
  • The microstructure evolution of metal materials during heat treatment, and the relationship between the structures and final mechanical properties (static, dynamic, and cyclic behavior in relevant final applications).
  • Influences of heat treatments on the environmental sensitivity of metal materials (including corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement, etc.).
  • Surface hardening for metal materials.

Dr. Kuan-Jen Chen
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • metals
  • heat treatment
  • surface hardening
  • phase evolution
  • mechanical properties

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 7610 KiB  
Article
Mechanism of Layer Formation during Gas Nitriding of Remelted Ledeburitic Surface Layers on Unalloyed Cast Irons
by Anja Holst, Stefan Kante, Andreas Leineweber and Anja Buchwalder
Metals 2023, 13(1), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/met13010156 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1583
Abstract
Unalloyed cast iron materials exhibit low tribological and corrosive resistance. In this respect, nitriding has a wide range of applications for steels. In the case of cast iron, the advantageous properties of nitrided layers are impaired by the presence of graphite. Electron beam [...] Read more.
Unalloyed cast iron materials exhibit low tribological and corrosive resistance. In this respect, nitriding has a wide range of applications for steels. In the case of cast iron, the advantageous properties of nitrided layers are impaired by the presence of graphite. Electron beam remelting of cast iron surfaces prior to nitriding removes graphite. The homogeneous ledeburitic microstructure within the approx. 1 mm-thick remelted layer enables the formation of a dense compound layer during subsequent nitriding. The main objective of this study is to investigate the nitriding mechanism of unalloyed ledeburitic microstructures. Due to the complex relationships, investigations were carried out on both conventional ferritic and pearlitic cast irons and Fe-based model alloys containing one to four additional alloying elements, i.e., C, Si, Mn and Cu. The iron (carbo-)nitride composition (γ’, ε) of this compound layer depends on the gas nitriding conditions, the chemical composition of the substrates and the microstructural constituents. As a result, a schematic model of the nitriding mechanism is developed that includes the effects of the nitriding parameters and alloy composition on the phase composition of the nitriding layer. These findings enable targeted parameter selection and a further optimization of both the process and the properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metallic Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering)
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13 pages, 5118 KiB  
Article
Modification of the Surface of 40 Kh Steel by Electrolytic Plasma Hardening
by Zhuldyz Sagdoldina, Laila Zhurerova, Yuri Tyurin, Daryn Baizhan, Aizhan Kuykabayeba, Saule Abildinova and Rauan Kozhanova
Metals 2022, 12(12), 2071; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12122071 - 2 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1475
Abstract
The high-strength, medium-carbon alloy construction steel 40 Kh is commonly used in the manufacture of tools and machine parts. This paper experimentally investigates the effect of electrolytic plasma thermocyclic hardening on the surface hardening and microstructure modification of 40 Kh steel. The research [...] Read more.
The high-strength, medium-carbon alloy construction steel 40 Kh is commonly used in the manufacture of tools and machine parts. This paper experimentally investigates the effect of electrolytic plasma thermocyclic hardening on the surface hardening and microstructure modification of 40 Kh steel. The research was carried out using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and micro-hardness measurements. Modified samples were obtained at different electrolyte plasma thermal cycling modes. As a result of the heat treatment, hardened layer segments of different thicknesses and structural composition formed on the surface of the steel. The parameters and mechanisms of surface hardening were determined by examining the microstructural modification and phase transformation both before and after treatment. It was revealed that the main morphological structural-phase component of the initial state of 40 Kh steel was a ferrite–pearlite structure, and after electrolytic plasma thermocyclic hardening, the hardened martensite phase was formed. It was found that in order to achieve a hardening depth of 1.6 mm and an increase in hardness to 966 HV, the optimum time for electrolytic plasma treatment of 40 Kh steel was 2 s. The technology under discussion gives an insight into the surface hardening potential for improving the service life and reliability of 40 Kh steel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metallic Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering)
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16 pages, 6707 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Surface Residual Stress for Medium Carbon Steel Quenched by YAG Laser with Extended Cycloidal Motion
by Tsung-Pin Hung, Hsiu-An Tsai and Ah-Der Lin
Metals 2022, 12(11), 1903; https://doi.org/10.3390/met12111903 - 7 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1150
Abstract
This study investigated the surface residual stress for AISI 1045 steel quenched by a YAG laser. A coaxial laser spindle was installed on a CNC machine for the experiment. The laser motion was arranged to follow the path of an extended cycloid which [...] Read more.
This study investigated the surface residual stress for AISI 1045 steel quenched by a YAG laser. A coaxial laser spindle was installed on a CNC machine for the experiment. The laser motion was arranged to follow the path of an extended cycloid which widened the quenching area on the steel surface. Both the temperature distribution and the residual stresses were measured by thermocouples and a portable X-ray diffractometer, respectively. When the temperature distribution was cooled down near the value of the room temperature, the residual stresses were then measured after the laser quenching process. The diffractometer used a single exposure of X-ray with a two-dimensional detector to calculate the Debye–Scherrer ring (D-S ring) for the determination of the normal and shear stresses. Different laser powers were exploited for the measurement of residual stresses, including 500, 600, 700, and 900 watts. In addition to the experiment, an analytic model for the investigation of residual stresses was built by the finite element analysis for which MSC Marc was used. The assumption for the FEA was that the laser spot had a circular shape of uniform energy distribution and the thermal–elastic–plastic model was applied to the simulation for the laser quenching process. The analytic and experimental results for the surface residual stresses had excellent consistency with a maximum difference of 10.5% from the normal stresses. The numerical results for the residual stresses also revealed that the normal stresses were compressive for the laser-quenching treatment and the shear stress could be neglected compared to the normal stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metallic Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering)
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