Sustainable Machining of Modern Difficult-to-Cut Materials

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Metal Casting, Forming and Heat Treatment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (26 February 2021) | Viewed by 5074

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, Rzeszow University of Technology, 12 Powstancow Warszawy Str., 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
Interests: milling; turning, difficult-to-cut materials; sustainable machining; CNC programming; machining process optimization
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The effectiveness of production is an important element of a company's sustainable development, leading to the production of machine parts, taking into account economic, social, and ecological aspects. The production that takes into account all of the dimensions of sustainable development tends towards processes that minimize negative effects on the environment, saves energy and natural resources, is safe for employees and consumers, and is economically justified. The issue becomes even more complex if we take into account difficult-to-cut materials and the restrictive requirements of the recipients of manufactured products.

The modern difficult-to-cut materials are widely used in many industries because of their specific properties. On the other hand, the same properties adversely affect machinability. Physical properties like a low thermal conductivity and high work-hardening tendency, among others, can contribute to the high cutting forces and temperatures, which may lead to the intensive wear of the cutting edge. The tool wear indicator could reach a critical value after a short period of cutting time. Further machining using worn tools could lead to an exceeding of dimensional tolerance of the workpiece, worsening surface roughness and also impact on surface integrity.

The machinability depends on many elements related to the material under machining, the cutting tool, and the cutting parameters, as well as additional factors like the cooling strategies and hybrid processes.

This Special Issue provides an excellent opportunity for researchers who study the effective machining of modern difficult-to-cut materials by taking into account different cooling and lubrication methods, including high-pressure cooling (HPC), minimum quantity lubrication (MQL), and dry cutting, as well as the effect of hybrid manufacturing processes like laser-assisted machining (LAM) and ultrasonic-assisted machining and grinding. In this context, the machining of materials produced by additive manufacturing should also be considered. It is our pleasure to invite you to submit original research papers or state-of-the-art reviews that are within the scope of this Special Issue.

Nowadays, it is important that the manufacturing process should also incorporate the aspects of sustainable machining, taking into consideration questions of economy, environment, and social implications related to production. These requirements determine the modern technological approach to the process of machining.

Prof. Witold Habrat
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • sustainable machining
  • difficult-to-cut materials
  • high-pressure cooling
  • minimum quantity lubrication
  • dry cutting
  • laser-assisted machining
  • ultrasonic-assisted machining

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

23 pages, 7738 KiB  
Article
Energy, Environmental, Economic, and Technological Analysis of Al-GnP Nanofluid- and Cryogenic LN2-Assisted Sustainable Machining of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy
by Aqib Mashood Khan, Saqib Anwar, Muhammad Jamil, Mustafa M. Nasr, Munish Kumar Gupta, Mustafa Saleh, Shafiq Ahmad and Mozammel Mia
Metals 2021, 11(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11010088 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2778
Abstract
The quest for advanced cooling/lubrication approaches for energy-efficient, eco-benign, and cost-effective sustainable machining processes is garnering attention in academia and industry. Electrical and embodied energy consumption plays an important role in reducing CO2 emissions. In the present study, new empirical models are [...] Read more.
The quest for advanced cooling/lubrication approaches for energy-efficient, eco-benign, and cost-effective sustainable machining processes is garnering attention in academia and industry. Electrical and embodied energy consumption plays an important role in reducing CO2 emissions. In the present study, new empirical models are proposed to assess sustainable indicators. The embodied energy, environmental burden, and cost of coolant/lubricant have been added in the proposed models. Initially, optimal levels of minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) oil flow rate, liquid LN2 flow rate, air pressure, and nanoparticle concentration were found. Based on optimal technological parameters, experiments were performed under the same cutting conditions (machining parameters) for MQL and cryogenic LN2-assisted external turning of Ti6-Al-4V titanium alloy. The electric power and energy consumption, production time/cost, and CO2 emissions were assessed for a unit cutting-tool life. Later, specific responses were measured and compared between both cooling and lubrication approaches. Results showed that hybrid Al-GnP nanofluid consumed 80.6% less specific cumulative energy and emitted 88.7% less total CO2 emissions. However, cryogenic LN2 extended tool life by nearly 70% and incurred 4.12% less specific costs with 11.1% better surface quality. In summary, after Energy–Economy–Ecology–Engineering technology (4E)-based analysis, cryogenic LN2 is sustainable economically but not environmentally and there is a need to improve the sustainable production of LN2 at an industrial scale to achieve environmental sustainability. The present study provides useful information to establish clean machining processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Machining of Modern Difficult-to-Cut Materials)
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18 pages, 3811 KiB  
Article
Variation of Grain Height Characteristics of Electroplated cBN Grinding-Wheel Active Surfaces Associated with Their Wear
by Anna Bazan, Andrzej Kawalec, Tomasz Rydzak and Pawel Kubik
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1479; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111479 - 06 Nov 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1787
Abstract
During the operation of a single-layer grinding wheel (SLGW), irreversible changes occur on its active surface due to wear. The study of grinding-wheel microgeometry changes can be based on the measurement of the surface texture as well as the determination and analysis of [...] Read more.
During the operation of a single-layer grinding wheel (SLGW), irreversible changes occur on its active surface due to wear. The study of grinding-wheel microgeometry changes can be based on the measurement of the surface texture as well as the determination and analysis of its parameters. The article deals with the selection of suitable texture parameters and an appropriate mathematical model carrying information about the SLGW condition. In the study, samples of Pyrowear 53 steel were ground using electroplated cBN single-layer grinding wheels until they were completely worn out or removed assumed volume of the workpiece material. Each SLGW worked with constant process parameters. Among the 144 parameters tested, the highest sensitivity to changes in wheel active surfaces caused by wear was shown by the mean value of the mean island heights Zmean_m. In-depth research was conducted for Zmean_m and reduced peak height Spk. Compared to Spk, Zmean_m has proven to be a better measure of wear, especially when large areas of sticking occur. Moreover, the second-degree models linking Zmean_m and Spk to the process parameters and the specific material loss were better suited to the empirical data than the exponential models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Machining of Modern Difficult-to-Cut Materials)
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