Special Issue "Development of Bainitic Steels"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Thomas Sourmail
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Asco Industries CREAS, 57301 Hagondange, France
Interests: physical metallurgy; heat treatments; phase transformations; mechanical properties; alloy design; bainite and nanostructured bainite

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Steels with fully or partially bainitic microstructures are used in a variety of applications, ranging from the ~0.5 mm advanced high strength steel sheets for vehicle bodies in white, to the ~250 mm wall thickness of nuclear reactor pressure vessels.

For this reason, and perhaps as the results of one of the last major controversies in the field of phase transformation in steels, the bainitic transformation has continued to receive considerable attention, from both industry and academia, over the past twenty years.

Successful development implies the ability to achieve specific criteria (tensile strength, toughness, ductility, fatigue or wear resistance, etc.). Notwithstanding costly trial and error approaches, the design of new steel compositions or processes usually require the bringing together of two major fields of investigations.

A first domain of investigation is the understanding and quantification of the relationship between microstructure (carbides distribution if they are present, density of low/high misorientation interfaces, retained austenite, including its carbon content and morphology, etc.) and target properties.

A second one is similarly concerned with the relationship between composition, thermo-mechanical processing and resulting microstructure; both from a characterization and modeling point of view.

While there are a significant number of recent advances on these topics, they are seldom brought together in a single forum. The objective of this Special Issue will thus be to compile a wide-ranging collection of contributions, covering both mechanical properties and microstructural development of bainitic steels.

Papers discussing recent advances, and also review articles, whether they fall within the first or second (or both) line(s) of investigations, are invited for inclusion in this Special Issue on "Development of Bainitic Steels”.

Dr. Thomas Sourmail
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bainite
  • Alloy Design
  • Mechanical Properties
  • TRIP
  • Carbide Free Bainite
  • Nano-Bainite
  • Austempering

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Understanding Mechanical Properties of Nano-Grained Bainitic Steels from Multiscale Structural Analysis
Metals 2019, 9(4), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9040426 - 09 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Steel components working in extreme conditions require materials presenting the highest performances. Nowadays, nanoengineering is being applied to the development of ultra-high strength steels as a key-enabling technology in the steel sector. The present article describes the multiscale structure of nano-grained steels designed [...] Read more.
Steel components working in extreme conditions require materials presenting the highest performances. Nowadays, nanoengineering is being applied to the development of ultra-high strength steels as a key-enabling technology in the steel sector. The present article describes the multiscale structure of nano-grained steels designed using atomic transformation theory and processed by a simple heat treatment. Outstanding mechanical properties for these novel steels are reported, and strain-hardening mechanisms are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Bainitic Steels)
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Open AccessArticle
Combined Effects of Deformation and Undercooling on Isothermal Bainitic Transformation in an Fe-C-Mn-Si Alloy
Metals 2019, 9(2), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9020138 - 27 Jan 2019
Abstract
Both ausforming and transformation temperature affect the successive bainitic transformation and microstructure. The individual influence of each case is clear, whereas the combined effects are still unknown. Thermomechanical simulation and metallography were used to investigate the combined effects of ausforming and transformation temperature [...] Read more.
Both ausforming and transformation temperature affect the successive bainitic transformation and microstructure. The individual influence of each case is clear, whereas the combined effects are still unknown. Thermomechanical simulation and metallography were used to investigate the combined effects of ausforming and transformation temperature on bainitic transformation and microstructure. The kinetics of isothermal bainitic transformation in non-deformed and deformed materials was analyzed. A lower transformation temperature can lead to more bainite formation without deformation. However, ausforming with small strains can partially compensate for the decrease of bainite amount caused by the decreased undercooling. The larger the applied strain is, the smaller the difference between the final amounts of bainite with different undercooling. Ausforming at a relatively higher temperature is more favorable to the acceleration of subsequent isothermal bainitic transformation. The results in the present work provide reference for optimizing the fabrication technology of medium-carbon nanobainite steels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Bainitic Steels)
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Open AccessCommunication
New Technology to Produce 1 GPa Low Carbon Microalloyed Steels from Cast Strip
Metals 2018, 8(9), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8090662 - 24 Aug 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Global economy requires steel with further increasing mechanical properties and simultaneously decreasing price. In mass manufacturing three major methods can be used to increase strength: (i) increase microalloying element additions (increases cost), (ii) decrease deformation temperature and (iii) increase cooling rate after high [...] Read more.
Global economy requires steel with further increasing mechanical properties and simultaneously decreasing price. In mass manufacturing three major methods can be used to increase strength: (i) increase microalloying element additions (increases cost), (ii) decrease deformation temperature and (iii) increase cooling rate after high temperature processing (both can be challenging for equipment). Thin strip casting is an effective way to reduce cost as it brings a reduction in number of deformation passes and shortens the production line. However, the mechanical properties can be missed due to insufficient microstructure development. In this article, we investigate a recently proposed technology based on Austenite Conditioning followed by Accelerated Cooling and Warm Deformation (AC2WD). Two low carbon steels microalloyed with either 0.012Ti or 0.1Mo-0.064Nb-0.021Ti (wt.%) were subjected to three processing modifications of the AC2WD-technology with two, one or no deformation of cast microstructure in the austenite temperature field. The Ti- and MoNbTi-steels exhibited 685–765 MPa and 880–950 MPa of the yield stress, 780–840 MPa and 1035–1120 MPa of tensile strength, and 20–30% and 22–24% of elongation to failure, respectively. The nature of strengthening mechanisms associated with the AC2WD-technology is discussed on the basis of detailed microstructure characterisation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Bainitic Steels)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Pipe Flattening in API X65 Linepipe Steels Having Bainite vs. Ferrite/Pearlite Microstructures
Metals 2018, 8(5), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050354 - 15 May 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
The influence of microstructure on pipe flattening response was assessed using two different commercially produced U-ing, O-ing, and expansion (UOE) pipes from API X65 steels having either a bainitic microstructure (steel B) or a ferrite/pearlite microstructure (steel FP). A four-point bending apparatus and [...] Read more.
The influence of microstructure on pipe flattening response was assessed using two different commercially produced U-ing, O-ing, and expansion (UOE) pipes from API X65 steels having either a bainitic microstructure (steel B) or a ferrite/pearlite microstructure (steel FP). A four-point bending apparatus and distinctive procedure were used to minimize strain localization during flattening. The flattened specimens were sectioned at different positions through the thickness, and tensile tested in both the longitudinal (LD) and transverse directions (TD) to assess the through-thickness variation in properties. Yield strength (YS) distributions in the LD show V-shaped profiles through thickness in both steels, whereas the YS in the TD nearest the outside diameter (OD) surface is reduced. These variations in YS are due to the Bauschinger effect associated with the compressive flattening pre-strain. The uniform elongation (UE) of steel FP is almost independent of specimen position through the thickness, but for steel B there is a substantial reduction of the UE at both the inside and outside diameter positions and this reduction is greater in the LD. This work confirms that flattened pipe mechanical properties exhibit an important dependence on their microstructure type and it is postulated that the flattening procedure also influences the mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Bainitic Steels)
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