Special Issue "Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women"

A special issue of Medicina (ISSN 1648-9144). This special issue belongs to the section "Obstetrics and Gynecology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Masafumi Koshiyama
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Women’s Health, The University of Shiga Prefecture, Shiga, Japan
Interests: gynecologic oncology; dietary therapy; edema; women’s health; medical equipment
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Women’s health belongs to the branch of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions that affect a woman’s physical and emotional well-being.

In the forthcoming Special Issue on “Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment for diseases specific to women”, we would like call for papers on a wide range of topics relating to the diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and nursing care regarding reproductive diseases, including maternal and child health, genital diseases, breast diseases, endocrine (hormonal) diseases including menstruation, birth-control, and menopause, and finally general health topics (medical diseases) specific to women.

We warmly welcome your submissions, including novel and interesting original articles or reviews in this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Masafumi Koshiyama
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Medicina is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Women’s health
  • Gynecologic disease
  • Gynecologic cancer
  • Perinatal disease
  • Endocrine disease
  • Medical disease

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
The Fertility Indicator Equation Using Serum Progesterone and Urinary Pregnanediol-3-Glucuronide for Assessment of Ovulatory to Luteal Phase Transition
Medicina 2021, 57(2), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57020134 - 03 Feb 2021
Viewed by 413
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The Fertility Indicator Equation (FIE) has been shown to signal the fertile phase during the ovulatory menstrual cycle. It was hypothesized that this formulation, a product of two sequential normalized changes with a sign indicating direction of change, could [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The Fertility Indicator Equation (FIE) has been shown to signal the fertile phase during the ovulatory menstrual cycle. It was hypothesized that this formulation, a product of two sequential normalized changes with a sign indicating direction of change, could be used to identify the transition from ovulatory to luteal phase with daily serum progesterone (P) and urinary pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PDG) levels. Materials and Methods: Day-specific serum P levels from two different laboratories and day-specific urinary PDG levels from an additional two different laboratories were submitted for FIE analysis. These day-specific levels included mean or median, 5th, 10th, 90th and 95th percentile data. They were indexed to the day of ovulation, day 0, by ultrasonography, serum or urinary luteinizing hormone (LH). Results: All data sets showed a clear “cluster”—a periovulatory sequence of positive FIE values with a maximum. All clusters of +FIE signaled the transition from the ovulatory to luteal phase and were at least four days in length. The start day for the serum P and urinary PDG FIE clusters ranged from −3 to −1 and −3 to +2, respectively. The end day for serum P and PDG clusters went from +2 to +7 and +4 to +8, respectively. Outside these periovulatory FIE-P and FIE-PDG clusters, there were no consecutive positive FIE values. In addition, the maximum FIE-P and FIE-PDG values throughout the entire cycles were found in the clusters. Conclusions: FIE analysis with either daily serum P or urinary PDG levels provided a distinctive signature to recognize the periovulatory interval. The Fertility Indicator Equation served to robustly signal the transition from the ovulatory phase to the luteal phase. This may have applications in natural family planning especially with the recent emergence of home PDG tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)
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Open AccessArticle
Factors Affecting Quality of Work Life in a Sample of Cancer Survivor Female Nurses
Medicina 2020, 56(12), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56120721 - 21 Dec 2020
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Background and objectives: Identifying the factors affecting the Quality of Work Life (QWL) of cancer survivor female nurses is important and necessary to overcome the various challenges experienced by these professionals upon returning to work following recovery from the disease. Therefore, this study [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Identifying the factors affecting the Quality of Work Life (QWL) of cancer survivor female nurses is important and necessary to overcome the various challenges experienced by these professionals upon returning to work following recovery from the disease. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the factors affecting the level of nurses’ QWL. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 115 registered female nurses who had survived cancer, in general hospitals and clinics in South Korea. SPSS statistics version 21 was used for ordinary least squares, and Stata version 12.0 was used for quantile regression analysis. Results: Workplace spirituality affected all quantiles of QWL except the 90% quantile; fatigue was an affecting factor in the 20%, 30%, and 70% quantiles; and job stress in the 20%, 30%, 40%, and 60%, 70%, 80% quantiles. For workplace spirituality, the effect size was 0.33 (p < 0.001) in the 10% quantile, increasing to 0.45 (p < 0.001) in the 80% quantile. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, suggestions for clinical practice include providing the mediating strategies and programs to manage fatigue and job stress as well as workplace spirituality. Job-related factors such as shift work should also be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)
Open AccessArticle
Early-Stage Ovarian Malignancy Score versus Risk of Malignancy Indices: Accuracy and Clinical Utility for Preoperative Diagnosis of Women with Adnexal Masses
Medicina 2020, 56(12), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56120702 - 16 Dec 2020
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Background and objectives: To compare the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of the Early-stage Ovarian Malignancy (EOM) score with the Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI) in the presurgical assessment of women presenting with adnexal masses. Materials and Methods: A secondary analysis was carried [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: To compare the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of the Early-stage Ovarian Malignancy (EOM) score with the Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI) in the presurgical assessment of women presenting with adnexal masses. Materials and Methods: A secondary analysis was carried out in a retrospective cohort of women who presented with an adnexal mass and were scheduled for surgery at Phrapokklao Hospital between September 2013 and December 2017. The clinical characteristics, ultrasonographic features of the masses, and preoperative CA-125 levels were recorded. The EOM and the RMI score were calculated and compared in terms of accuracy and clinical utility. Decision curve analysis (DCA), which examined the net benefit (NB) of applying the EOM and the RMI in practice at a range of threshold probabilities, was presented. Results: In this study, data from 270 patients were analyzed. Fifty-four (20.0%) women in the sample had early-stage ovarian cancer. All four RMI versions demonstrated a lower sensitivity for the detection of patients with early-stage ovarian cancer compared to an EOM score ≥ 15. An EOM ≥ 15 resulted in a higher proportion of net true positive or NB than all versions of the RMIs from a threshold probability of 5% to 30%. Conclusions: It also showed a higher capability to reduce the number of inappropriate referrals than the RMIs at a threshold probability between 5% and 30%. The EOM score showed higher diagnostic sensitivity and has the potential to be clinically more useful than the RMIs to triage women who present with adnexal masses for referral to oncologic gynecologists. Further external validation is required to support our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)
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Open AccessArticle
Uterine Artery Doppler Ultrasonography for First Trimester Prediction of Preeclampsia in Individuals at Risk from Low-Resource Settings
Medicina 2020, 56(9), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56090428 - 26 Aug 2020
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Abstract
Background and objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of first trimester uterine artery Doppler ultrasonography for the early prediction of preeclampsia (PE), in at-risk pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective longitudinal study, including 120 Caucasian [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of first trimester uterine artery Doppler ultrasonography for the early prediction of preeclampsia (PE), in at-risk pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective longitudinal study, including 120 Caucasian pregnant women with risk factors for PE. The potential of pulsatility indexes (PI) and notch was assessed as a tool for preeclampsia screening. Results: Doppler examination of the uterine artery performed early at 11–14 WA allows the detection of pregnancies that will develop PE with a sensitivity of 61.5% and a specificity of 63.8% based on PI analysis. Predictive power increases slightly by adding bilateral notch (sensitivity = 65.4%; specificity = 66%). Conclusions: Uterine artery Doppler examination is an effective non-invasive screening test for the development of PE in pregnancies at risk, particularly appropriate in health systems with limited means of evaluating other biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)
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Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between the IFNG (rs2430561) Polymorphism and Metabolic Syndrome in Perimenopausal Women
Medicina 2020, 56(8), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56080384 - 31 Jul 2020
Viewed by 585
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a multiple risk factor for atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and strokes. One-third of middle-age women are at risk of MetS, which predisposes them to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Changes in the regulation [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a multiple risk factor for atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and strokes. One-third of middle-age women are at risk of MetS, which predisposes them to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Changes in the regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines―which play an important role in pathologic processes―may contribute to inflammatory disorders. Cytokine polymorphisms are known to have an impact on gene expression. The purpose of this study was to search for the relationship between the IFNG polymorphisms and the levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Materials and Methods: This study, conducted in West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland, involved 416 women. Of these women, 33.6% of them had primary education, 44.8% lived in cities with a population of over 100,000, and 82.7% were married. Of the participants, 28.4% met the criteria for MetS. The study involved: interview performed to collect sociodemographic and medical data, anthropometric measurements, as well as venous blood collection for biochemical analysis, genetic testing and the measurement of inflammatory markers. Results: The link between the IFNG (rs2430561) polymorphism and serum PIC (proinflammatory cytokines) levels was tested with regard to MetS. In the MetS+ subgroup, the T/T and A/T genotypes of the IFNG gene were accompanied by higher IL-6 levels than in the MetS− subgroup. Conclusion: Our study has not confirmed a direct link between the IFNG polymorphisms and the levels of inflammatory biomarkers. Nevertheless, the T/T and A/T genotypes of the IFNG gene may predispose to elevated IL-6 levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)

Review

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Open AccessReview
The Preventive Effect of Dietary Antioxidants on Cervical Cancer Development
Medicina 2020, 56(11), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56110604 - 10 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 617
Abstract
Cervical cancer results from a continuous process, starting from a normal cervical epithelium after human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and progressing to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), before finally developing into invasive squamous carcinoma (ISC). In recent decades, dietary antioxidants, such as vitamins, have received [...] Read more.
Cervical cancer results from a continuous process, starting from a normal cervical epithelium after human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and progressing to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), before finally developing into invasive squamous carcinoma (ISC). In recent decades, dietary antioxidants, such as vitamins, have received much attention in relation to cancer prevention. We reviewed the relevant literature to investigate the dietary and nutrient intake on cervical cancer. The intake of vitamins A and D and carotenoids may inhibit early cervical cancer development. The intake of folate may prevent or inhibit HPV infection rom progressing to various grades of CIN. The intake of vitamins C and E may widely inhibit the process of cervical cancer development. Polyphenols are often used in cases of cervical cancer in combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Regarding nutrients, different antioxidants may have differing abilities to intervene in the natural history of cervical diseases associated with HPV infection. Regarding foods, the intake of both vegetables and fruits containing multiple vitamins may widely suppress cervical cancer development. Most previous papers have described epidemiological studies. Thus, further research using in vitro and in vivo approaches will be needed to clarify the effects of the dietary and nutrient intake in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report
Clitoromegaly, Vulvovaginal Hemangioma Mimicking Pelvic Organ Prolapse, and Heavy Menstrual Bleeding: Gynecologic Manifestations of Klippel-Trénaunay Syndrome
Medicina 2021, 57(4), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57040366 - 09 Apr 2021
Viewed by 193
Abstract
Klippel-Trénaunay Syndrome (KTS) is a genetic vascular malformation involving the capillary, lymphatic, and venous channels. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of KTS with an enlarged fetal limb is well-known; however, postnatal gynecologic manifestations are rarely reported. KTS can cause clitoromegaly, vulvovaginal hemangioma, and heavy menstrual [...] Read more.
Klippel-Trénaunay Syndrome (KTS) is a genetic vascular malformation involving the capillary, lymphatic, and venous channels. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of KTS with an enlarged fetal limb is well-known; however, postnatal gynecologic manifestations are rarely reported. KTS can cause clitoromegaly, vulvovaginal hemangioma, and heavy menstrual bleeding. Somatic mosaicism of the PIK3CA gene is considered as responsible for KTS but reports based on whole-genome sequencing are limited. A 31-year-old woman with KTS presented with bulging of the clitoris and vagina. Analysis of whole-genome sequencing variant data revealed that gene ontology terms related to development and differentiation such as ‘skeletal system morphogenesis’, ‘embryonic morphogenesis’, and ‘sensory organ development’ were nominally significant in non-coding regions. Variants in non-coding genes may be responsible for this phenotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)
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Open AccessCase Report
Dietary Treatment from Birth to Pregnancy in a Woman with Methylmalonic Aciduria
Medicina 2021, 57(2), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57020128 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Methylmalonic aciduria is treated with a natural protein-restricted diet with adequate energy intake to sustain metabolic balance. Natural protein is a source of methylmalonic acid precursors, and intake is individually modified according to the severity and clinical course of the disease. The experience [...] Read more.
Methylmalonic aciduria is treated with a natural protein-restricted diet with adequate energy intake to sustain metabolic balance. Natural protein is a source of methylmalonic acid precursors, and intake is individually modified according to the severity and clinical course of the disease. The experience and approach to MMA treatment in European centers is variable with different amounts of natural protein and precursor-free l-amino acids being prescribed, although the outcome appears independent of the use of precursor-free l-amino acids. Further long-term outcome data is necessary for early treated patients with MMA. This case study, a woman with MMA followed from birth to the age of 35 years, including pregnancy, illustrates the long-term course of the disease and lifetime changes in dietary treatment. A low natural protein diet (1.5 g–1.0 g/kg/day) was the foundation of treatment, but temporary supplementation with precursor-free l-amino acids, vitamin-mineral mixture, and energy supplements were necessary at different timepoints (in childhood, adolescence, adulthood and pregnancy). Childhood psychomotor development was slightly delayed but within the normal range in adulthood. There were few episodes of metabolic decompensation requiring IV glucose, but at age 27 years, she required intensive care following steroid treatment. In pregnancy, she remained stable but received intensive biochemical and medical follow-up. This successful long-term follow-up of a patient with MMA from childhood, throughout pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum confirms that careful clinical, biochemical, and dietetic monitoring is crucial to ensure a favourable outcomes in MMA. Personalized treatment is necessary according to the individual clinical course. Knowledge about long-term treatment and clinical outcome is important information to influence future MMA clinical guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)
Open AccessCase Report
Positive Anti-SSA/Ro Antibody in a Woman with SARS-CoV-2 Infection Using Immunophenotyping: A Case Report
Medicina 2020, 56(10), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100521 - 05 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1114
Abstract
The clinical spectrum of novel coronavirus infection appears to be wide, encompassing asymptomatic infection, mild upper respiratory tract illness, and severe viral pneumonia, with respiratory failure and even death. Autoantibodies, especially antiphospholipid antibodies, can occur in severe infections. Other autoantibodies are seldom reported. [...] Read more.
The clinical spectrum of novel coronavirus infection appears to be wide, encompassing asymptomatic infection, mild upper respiratory tract illness, and severe viral pneumonia, with respiratory failure and even death. Autoantibodies, especially antiphospholipid antibodies, can occur in severe infections. Other autoantibodies are seldom reported. Here, a 60-year-old female patient without dry-mouth symptoms detected positive for anti-60 kDa SSA/Ro antibodies on day 43 after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. To investigate this unique clinical case of SARS-CoV-2 infection, immunological characteristics of this case were detected by using flow cytometry and were compared to the other three groups of patients—health subjects, 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) recovery patients, and Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) patients. Monitoring the autoantibody level and the development of subsequently related autoimmune diseases are warranted after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment for Diseases Specific to Women)
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