Special Issue "New Concepts for Dental Treatments and Evaluations"

A special issue of Medicina (ISSN 1648-9144). This special issue belongs to the section "Dentistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 August 2022 | Viewed by 10691

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Cosmin Sinescu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Prostheses Technology and Dental Materials, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 300070 Timisoara, Romania
Interests: optical coherence tomography; micro-computer tomography; nanotechnologies; ceramics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Virgil-Florin Duma
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. 3OM Optomechatronics Group, Faculty of Engineering, Aurel Vlaicu University of Arad, 310032 Arad, Romania
2. Doctoral School, Polytechnic University of Timisoara, 300006 Timisoara, Romania
Interests: measuring systems; metrology; optomechatronics; laser systems; imaging techniques; optical coherence tomography (OCT); materials studies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dental medicine has benefited from significant advances in terms of both diagnosis and treatment. Thus, well-established techniques such as radiography, microscopy, and the gold standard of histopathology for clinical assessments as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro-CT for research purposes are being complemented by rapidly evolving techniques such as optical coherence tomography (OCT). The latter targets both hard and soft tissue of the oral cavity, including the use of Doppler OCT.

Modern dental treatments, such as laser-based procedures, complement the classical approaches.

Biomaterials have been developed, including for dental crowns, scaffolds (for example, for bone augmentation in implantology), or dental adhesives.

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide a forum for contributions regarding all the above topics as well as other relevant and timely aspects concerning techniques for both diagnosis and treatment in addition to their assessment.

While this forum is open to all researchers in the fields above, it also provides a topical selection of papers presented at the 1st International Conference ‘Advances in 3OM: Opto-Mechatronics, Opto-Mechanics, and Optical Metrology’ (Timisoara, Romania), organized in celebration of 100 years of the Polytechnic University of Timisoara but also in the frame of UNESCO’s International Day of Light (IDL).

All types of contributions, e.g., research papers, reviews, and communications are welcome.

Prof. Cosmin Sinescu
Prof. Virgil-Florin Duma
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Medicina is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dental medicine
  • dental treatments
  • prosthodontics
  • lasers in dentistry
  • dental evaluations
  • biomedical imaging
  • optical coherence tomography (OCT)
  • confocal microscopy
  • micro-CT
  • non-destructive testing (NDT)
  • biomaterials
  • dental adhesives
  • scaffolds

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Article
Comparative Evaluation of Influence of Nd:YAG Laser (1064 nm) and 980 nm Diode Laser on Enamel around Orthodontic Brackets: An In Vitro Study
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58050633 - 01 May 2022
Viewed by 747
Abstract
(1) Background: The prevention of demineralizing lesions at the enamel structure level continues to represent a challenge in daily dental practice. When bacteria influence the pH level, this will decrease below the threshold for remineralization and the dissociation of hydroxyapatite will occur with [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The prevention of demineralizing lesions at the enamel structure level continues to represent a challenge in daily dental practice. When bacteria influence the pH level, this will decrease below the threshold for remineralization and the dissociation of hydroxyapatite will occur with a high percentage of phosphate and calcium loss. These elements continue to be studied by many authors in order to obtain a working protocol that will lead to their stabilization at the level of the enamel structure, thus preventing the demineralization process. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the influence of two types of laser wavelengths on the surface morphology and mineral components of the enamel through an examination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). (2) Methods: Thirty permanent human incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from patients aged 25–40 years old were selected for this study. Metallic brackets (SS Standard 022 Slot, OC Orthodontics, McMinnville, OR, 97128, USA) were bonded onto each tooth. The buccal surface was randomly assigned three sections: Section A—negative control (no treatment), section B—treated with 980 nm Gallium–Aluminum–Arsenide diode laser (a 300 µm optic fiber was used with 0.8 W output power, energy density of 5.33 J/mm2, in continuous mode, for 30 s, oriented perpendicularly to the enamel surface in contact mode) (KaVo GENTLEray 980 Diode Laser, Kaltenbach & Voigt GmbH, Biberach, Germany), and section C—treated with Nd:YAG laser (a 300 µm fiber was carried out at a 1 mm distance from the enamel surface with 0.75 W power, 75 mJ pulse energy, pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz, 5 J/mm2 fluency, average exposure time of 30 s, and water cooling assisted) (LIGHTWALKER AT S, M021-5AF/1 S, Fotona d.o.o, Ljubljana, Slovenia). The elements evaluated in this study were calcium (Ca), phosphate (P), oxygen (O), and carbon (C). A one-way analysis of variance, paired t-tests, and independent t-tests were carried out to evaluate the results using the SPSS 19 IBM Statistical package software for Microsoft. (3) Results: The evaluation of the data indicated that both wavelengths produced an increase in Ca wt% (for diode laser the mean of Ca wt% before irradiation was 21.06, while that after treatment reached 28.24; and for Nd:YAG laser, the mean of Ca wt% before irradiation was 21.31, while that after treatment reached 33.88); as well, the 980 nm diode laser decreased P wt% (from 17.20 before irradiation to 16.92 after irradiation) and the Nd:YAG laser increased P wt% (from 17.46 before irradiation to 18.28 after irradiation). These results showed a statistically significant difference at the p < 0.05 level. (4) Conclusions: It can be concluded that the best improvement of enamel chemical composition was obtained with Nd:YAG irradiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Concepts for Dental Treatments and Evaluations)
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Article
Extruded Nucleoli of Human Dental Pulp Cells
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020260 - 10 Feb 2022
Viewed by 667
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The dental pulp stem cells are highly proliferative and can differentiate into various cell types, including endothelial cells. We aimed to evaluate the ultrastructural characteristics of the human dental pulp cells of the permanent frontal teeth. Materials and Methods [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The dental pulp stem cells are highly proliferative and can differentiate into various cell types, including endothelial cells. We aimed to evaluate the ultrastructural characteristics of the human dental pulp cells of the permanent frontal teeth. Materials and Methods: Human adult bioptic dental pulp was collected from n = 10 healthy frontal teeth of five adult patients, prior to prosthetic treatments for aesthetic purposes. Tissues were examined under transmission electron microscopy. Results: We identified cells with a peculiar trait: giant nucleoli resembling intranuclear endoplasmic reticulum, which mimicked extrusion towards the cytoplasm. These were either partly embedded within the nuclei, the case in which their adnuclear side was coated by marginal heterochromatin and the abnuclear side was coated by a thin rim of ribosomes, or were apparently isolated from the nuclei, while still being covered by ribosomes. Conclusions: Similar electron microscopy features were previously reported in the human endometrium, as nucleolar channel system; or R-Rings induced by Nopp140. To our knowledge, this is the first report of extruded nucleolar structure in the dental pulp. Moreover, the aspect of giant extruded nucleoli was not previously reported in any human cell type, although similar evidence was gathered in other species as well as in plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Concepts for Dental Treatments and Evaluations)
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Article
Counterclockwise Drilling with Different Tapered Drills Condenses the Implant Bed—An Optical Coherence Tomography In Vitro Study
Medicina 2021, 57(9), 940; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57090940 - 06 Sep 2021
Viewed by 807
Abstract
Background and Objectives: To evaluate the condensation and the microarchitecture of implant bed walls of sites prepared with counterclockwise drilling with tapered implant drills using optical coherence tomography. Materials and Methods: Four drill designs with different wall and tip angles were used. [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: To evaluate the condensation and the microarchitecture of implant bed walls of sites prepared with counterclockwise drilling with tapered implant drills using optical coherence tomography. Materials and Methods: Four drill designs with different wall and tip angles were used. Polyurethane laminas resembling type IV bone microarchitecture were superimposed and clamped with a vice to simulate the coronal, middle, and apical aspects of the implant site. Twenty implant beds were prepared at 1200 rpm in clockwise (control) and counterclockwise (test) directions (N = 160). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to evaluate the condensation and microarchitecture characteristics of the implant bed walls. The relative condensation was calculated using the Image J software Bone application. The microarchitecture was evaluated in reconstructed 3D volumes in XY, XZ, and YZ sections. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA. Dunnet test was applied to determine differences between groups. Significance was set as p < 0.05. Results: Counterclockwise drilling (Test) condensed and changed the microarchitecture of the apical regions for all the implant beds in all of the groups when compared to clockwise drilling (control). The apical region of test groups showed the highest relative bone condensation (p = 0.026) when compared to controls. Conclusions: The direction of rotation (counterclockwise drilling) and not the design of tapered drills (tip and wall angles) is responsible for the condensation at the apical area observed in polyurethane blocks. The OCT method can be used for the evaluation of changes in density and microstructure of polyurethane blocks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Concepts for Dental Treatments and Evaluations)
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Article
Association between Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Histological and Immunohistochemical Features in Periapical Lesions Correlated with Thickened Maxillary Sinus Mucosa
Medicina 2021, 57(8), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57080840 - 19 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1258
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Odontogenic sinusitis is a frequently underestimated pathology with fewer symptoms in patients with periapical lesions, periodontal disease, or iatrogenic foreign bodies in the maxillary sinus. The aim of our study was to determine the correlation between maxillary sinusitis and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Odontogenic sinusitis is a frequently underestimated pathology with fewer symptoms in patients with periapical lesions, periodontal disease, or iatrogenic foreign bodies in the maxillary sinus. The aim of our study was to determine the correlation between maxillary sinusitis and periapical lesions using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging and histological and immunohistochemical investigations. Materials and Methods: A total of 1450 initial patients diagnosed with maxillary sinusitis in the Ear-Nose-Throat (ENT) Department, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa” Iasi, Romania, were treated with anti-inflammatory drugs. Of these, 629 still had unresolved symptomatology and were later referred to the Dental Medicine departments for further investigations. Only 50 subjects with periapical lesions in the premolar/molar maxillary area were included in the present study. All the periapical lesions were observed on CBCT and classified using the Periapical Status Index (PSI) and the mean maxillary sinus mucosa thicknesses (MSMT). The enrolled patients underwent surgical procedures with the excision of periapical lesions. The excised samples were submitted to the histological and immunohistochemical investigations. Results: The 50 patients presented periapical lesions of their maxillary teeth in 328 dental units. There was a higher prevalence of periapical lesions in men than in women (chi-square test). We observed a significant difference between the mean MSMT of individuals with periapical lesions compared to those without (p < 0.01). Mean MSMT was 1.23 mm for teeth without periapical lesions and 3.95 mm for teeth with periapical lesions. The histopathological study identified 50% cases with periapical granulomas, 10% cases with periapical granulomas with cystic potential, and 40% cases as periapical cysts. Immunohistochemical stainings showed that CD4+ helper and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes, along with CD20+ B lymphocytes and CD68+ macrophages, were diffusely distributed in all periapical cysts and in some periapical granulomas, but CD79α+ plasma cells characterized especially periapical granulomas. Conclusions: The current study observed a significant correlation between CBCT maxillary mucosa thickness and type of periapical lesion. Chronic inflammatory lympho-histiocytic infiltrate predominates in periapical lesions, supporting the idea that lesion progression is determined by a humoral-type (CD20+ and CD79α+ B lymphocytes) but also by a cellular-type (CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte population) immune mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Concepts for Dental Treatments and Evaluations)
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Article
Micro-CT and Microscopy Study of Internal and Marginal Gap to Tooth Surface of Crenelated versus Conventional Dental Indirect Veneers
Medicina 2021, 57(8), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57080772 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 709
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Ceramic veneers represent the most appropriate treatment option for minimally invasive aesthetic rehabilitation. For long-term clinical success, the accurate marginal and internal adaptation of dental restorations are of paramount importance. The aim of this in vitro study is to [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Ceramic veneers represent the most appropriate treatment option for minimally invasive aesthetic rehabilitation. For long-term clinical success, the accurate marginal and internal adaptation of dental restorations are of paramount importance. The aim of this in vitro study is to assess the effect of a novel (patented) design of veneers compared to conventional ones on their marginal and internal gap to the prepared tooth surface. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four lithium disilicate ceramic veneers are obtained using Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) and then milled using Computer-Aided-Manufacturing (CAM). The samples are divided into two groups: 12 conventional (CO) veneers (i.e., with a linear marginal contour) and 12 crenelated (CR) veneers, the latter with the novel sinusoidal marginal design. All samples are bonded to frontal teeth, and the adhesive interfaces are analyzed using two methods, optical microscopy and micro-Computed Tomography (CT): the former for the accuracy of the marginal gap and the latter for the internal gap (as well as for the homogeneity of the luting cement) of ceramic veneers. Results: STATA and one-way ANOVA tests reveal significant differences between CO and CR veneers: (i) the marginal gap is smaller for CR (64 μm) than for CO veneers (236 μm); (ii) the internal adaptation is better for CR veneers: for a cement width of up to 120 μm, the covered surface for the CR group is 81.5%, while for the CO group it is 64.5%; (iii) the mean of the porosities within the cement is not significantly different (3.4·106 μm3 for CO and 3.9·106 μm3 for CR veneers), with a higher standard deviation for the CO group. Analytical modeling is achieved for internal gaps using the micro-CT results. The characteristic functions obtained allow us to compare the volume of luting cement for the two types of veneers. Conclusion: The novel veneers design produces an improvement in the marginal and internal adaptation of the restorations to the prepared tooth surface. Thus, it provides favorable premises for better clinical performances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Concepts for Dental Treatments and Evaluations)
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Article
The Effects of Prednisone/Ketoprofen Administration in Association with Amoxicillin Clavulanate Following Periodontal Surgical Therapy in Patients with Severe Chronic Periodontitis
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57050447 - 04 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 915
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of two different anti-inflammatory drugs (ketoprofen and prednisone) combined with an antibiotic (amoxicillin + clavulanic acid) and periodontal surgery on dental and periodontal parameters in patients with [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of two different anti-inflammatory drugs (ketoprofen and prednisone) combined with an antibiotic (amoxicillin + clavulanic acid) and periodontal surgery on dental and periodontal parameters in patients with severe chronic periodontitis. In addition, salivary stress expressed by cortisol levels was assessed. Materials and Methods: An interventional study was performed on 22 periodontal subjects and 19 clinical healthy controls. The patients were divided in four groups, depending on treatment planning, as follows: eight patients received prednisone and antibiotherapy, associated with surgical periodontal therapy; seven patients received ketoprofen and antibiotherapy, associated with surgical periodontal therapy (group II); seven patients received only prednisone. Periodontal healthy patients underwent routine scaling and polishing. Bleeding on probing (BOP), dental mobility and salivary cortisol (ng/mL) were assessed before and after treatment. The means and standard deviations for the salivary cortisol levels (SCLs), dental and periodontal parameters were calculated for all groups using each patient as a unit of analysis. Results: Data analyses showed that the two different anti-inflammatory drugs associated with or without surgical therapy were efficient on inflammation periodontal parameters (BOP, dental mobility). Prednisone treatment alone was associated with a significant decrease of SCLs between pretreatment and post-treatment. Conclusions: In the present study, the effects of either of the anti-inflammatory drugs on inflammation evolution and salivary stress were comparable in patients undergoing antibiotherapy and surgical periodontal therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Concepts for Dental Treatments and Evaluations)
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Article
Complementarity of Photo-Biomodulation, Surgical Treatment, and Antibiotherapy for Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws (MRONJ)
Medicina 2021, 57(2), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57020145 - 05 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1063
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Antiresorptive or anti-angiogenic agents may induce medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ), which represents a challenge for clinicians. The aim of this study is to design and apply a composed and stage-approach therapy combining antibiotherapy, surgical treatment, and photo-biomodulation [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Antiresorptive or anti-angiogenic agents may induce medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ), which represents a challenge for clinicians. The aim of this study is to design and apply a composed and stage-approach therapy combining antibiotherapy, surgical treatment, and photo-biomodulation (PBM) for the prevention or treatment of MRONJ lesions. Materials and Methods: The proposed treatment protocol was carried out in the Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery of the “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Farmacy of Timisoara, in 2018–2020. A total of 241 patients who were previously exposed to antiresorptive or anti-angiogenic therapy, as well as patients already diagnosed with MRONJ at different stages of the disease were treated. A preventive protocol was applied for patients in an “at risk” stage. Patients in more advanced stages received a complex treatment. Results: The healing proved to be complete, with spontaneous bone coverage in all the n = 84 cases placed in an “at risk” stage. For the n = 49 patients belonging to stage 0, pain reductions and decreases of mucosal inflammations were also obtained in all cases. For the n = 108 patients proposed for surgery (i.e., in stages 1, 2, or 3 of MRONJ), a total healing rate of 91.66% was obtained after the first surgery, while considering the downscaling to stage 1 as a treatment “success”, only one “failure” was reported. This brings the overall “success” rate to 96.68% for a complete healing, and to 99.59% when downscaling to stage 1 is included in the healing rate. Conclusions: Therefore, the clinical outcome of the present study indicates that patients with MRONJ in almost all stages of the disease can benefit from such a proposed association of methods, with superior clinical results compared to classical therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Concepts for Dental Treatments and Evaluations)
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Review

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Review
A Bibliometric Analysis (2010–2020) of the Dental Scientific Literature on Chemo-Mechanical Methods of Caries Removal Using Carisolv and BRIX3000
Medicina 2022, 58(6), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58060788 - 11 Jun 2022
Viewed by 299
Abstract
Reports in the literature have proposed and analyzed several minimally invasive techniques for caries removal in recent decades. In light of recent events surrounding the ongoing epidemiological context, concerns have been raised regarding the generation of aerosols during dental procedures. The aim of [...] Read more.
Reports in the literature have proposed and analyzed several minimally invasive techniques for caries removal in recent decades. In light of recent events surrounding the ongoing epidemiological context, concerns have been raised regarding the generation of aerosols during dental procedures. The aim of our research was to provide an overview of the scientific literature on the topic of chemo-mechanical caries removal (CMCR) methods, focusing on two products (Carisolv, BRIX3000), commercially available in Europe. A bibliometric analysis was used to investigate the scientific articles included in Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection database, published from January 2010 to December 2020. We analyzed the co-occurrence of all keywords (Author Keywords and the KeyWords Plus section), co-authorship and co-citation, using the free software VOSviewer. Our bibliometric analysis revealed a worldwide interest in the subject of chemo-mechanical methods of caries removal, which has transcended the area of pediatric dentistry. The analyzed studies have been conducted mainly in high-income countries that have developed sanitary policies regarding prevention and early treatment of carious lesions as a health priority. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Concepts for Dental Treatments and Evaluations)
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Other

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Systematic Review
Effectiveness and Clinical Performance of Erythritol Air-Polishing in Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy: A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials
Medicina 2022, 58(7), 866; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58070866 - 28 Jun 2022
Viewed by 196
Abstract
Background and objectives: The purpose of the present systematic review was to analyze the effectiveness of erythritol-based air-polishing in non-surgical periodontal therapy. Materials and methods: The protocol details were registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42021267261). This review was conducted under the PRISMA guidelines. [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The purpose of the present systematic review was to analyze the effectiveness of erythritol-based air-polishing in non-surgical periodontal therapy. Materials and methods: The protocol details were registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42021267261). This review was conducted under the PRISMA guidelines. The electronic search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases to find relevant clinical trials published until January 2022. The inclusion criteria consisted of human clinical trials which reported the use of non-surgical periodontal treatment and erythritol air-polishing compared to non-surgical periodontal treatment alone in patients with good systemic health requiring treatment for periodontal disease. Results: 810 studies were imported into the Covidence Platform. Of these, seven clinical trials met the inclusion criteria. In active periodontal therapy, for PD (probing depth), CAL (clinical attachment level), and BOP (bleeding on probing), no statistical significance was achieved at 6 months follow-up. In supportive periodontal therapy for PD, CAL, and BOP, no statistical significance was achieved at 3 months follow-up. Conclusions: The findings suggest that erythritol air-polishing powder did not determine superior improvements of periodontal parameters compared to other non-surgical periodontal therapies. Future randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with calibrated protocols for diagnosis, therapeutic approaches, and longer follow-up are needed to draw a clear conclusion about the efficiency of erythritol air-polishing powder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Concepts for Dental Treatments and Evaluations)
Systematic Review
Efficiency of Hyaluronic Acid in Infrabony Defects: A Systematic Review of Human Clinical Trials
Medicina 2022, 58(5), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58050580 - 23 Apr 2022
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Background and objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to assess the electronic literature about the benefits of using hyaluronic acid (HA) in the surgical periodontal treatment of infrabony defects. Materials and methods: This review was conducted under the PRISMA guidelines. The [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to assess the electronic literature about the benefits of using hyaluronic acid (HA) in the surgical periodontal treatment of infrabony defects. Materials and methods: This review was conducted under the PRISMA guidelines. The electronic search was conducted on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases until February 2022. The inclusion criteria consisted of human clinical trials that reported the use of HA in open-flap debridement (OFD) for infrabony defects. The assessment of risk of bias was performed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager. Results: Overall, three RCTs were found eligible for the statistical analysis. Probing depth (PD) reduction and clinical attachment level (CAL) gain in the HA test group presented WMs of −1.11 mm (95% CI −2.38 to 0.16 mm; p = 0.09) and −1.38 mm (95% CI −2.26 to −0.49 mm; p = 0.002), respectively. However, the heterogeneity of the RCTs was high, and the risk of bias, in general, was low. Conclusions: The use of hyaluronic acid seems to have beneficial effects in periodontal surgery using OFD, in terms of PD and CAL. To draw a clear conclusion, more adapted and well-designed clinical trials are needed to assess the advantage of this product in comparison with other products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Concepts for Dental Treatments and Evaluations)
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Case Report
A Novel Technique for Shortening Orthodontic Treatment: The “JET System”
Medicina 2022, 58(2), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina58020150 - 19 Jan 2022
Viewed by 743
Abstract
We have developed a novel technique, the Jiyugaoka Enjoyable Treatment (JET) system, to complete orthodontic treatment in a short time. It entails the use of the regional acceleratory phenomenon (RAP), light continuous forces and low friction in cases involving extraction. In the JET [...] Read more.
We have developed a novel technique, the Jiyugaoka Enjoyable Treatment (JET) system, to complete orthodontic treatment in a short time. It entails the use of the regional acceleratory phenomenon (RAP), light continuous forces and low friction in cases involving extraction. In the JET system, tooth extraction not only creates space, but also triggers the RAP; thus tooth extraction accelerates orthodontic treatment. We describe for the first time how to use the JET system to shorten treatment time in a patient in whom four premolars were extracted. A 15 year old girl patient exhibited an Angle Class I bimaxillary protrusion with moderate crowding in the maxillary (−5.0 mm) and mandibular arches (−3.5 mm). Her facial appearance was slightly asymmetric, and her facial profile was convex. Immediately after the simultaneous extraction of the maxillary first premolars and mandibular second premolars, orthodontic treatment was started with a combination of passive self-ligating brackets and super-elastic nickel-titanium closed coil springs that provided orthodontic forces of less than 50 gf (1.8 ozf). The appliance was adjusted once a month. The total treatment time was 13 months. Cephalometric superimpositions showed a slight anchorage loss, and panoramic radiographs showed a slight apical root resorption but no significant reduction in the crest bone height. At the 3-year 6-month retention follow-up, stability was excellent. The JET system might shorten the orthodontic treatment period without serious anchorage loss or other adverse effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Concepts for Dental Treatments and Evaluations)
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Systematic Review
The Outcomes of Enamel Matrix Derivative on Periodontal Regeneration under Diabetic Conditions
Medicina 2021, 57(10), 1071; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57101071 - 08 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 871
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) is a biomaterial used for periodontal regenerative therapy due to its properties of stimulating cementum development and bone synthesis. Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects healing and predisposes to infection. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) is a biomaterial used for periodontal regenerative therapy due to its properties of stimulating cementum development and bone synthesis. Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects healing and predisposes to infection. The aim of this review was to evaluate the current studies available on the application and results of EMD for periodontal regenerative therapy under diabetic conditions. Materials and Methods: Five databases (PubMed, ResearchGate, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar) were searched for relevant articles, using specific keywords in different combinations. The inclusion criteria were clinical trials, case reports, case studies, and animal studies published in English, where periodontal treatment for bone defects includes EMD, and it is performed under diabetic conditions. Results: Of the 310 articles resulted in search, five studies published between 2012 and 2020 met the inclusion criteria and were selected for the current review. In human studies, the use of EMD in infrabony defects showed favorable results at follow-up. In animal studies, periodontal regeneration was reduced in diabetic rats. Conclusions: EMD might promote bone healing when used under diabetic conditions for the regenerative periodontal therapy. Due to limited number of studies, more data are required to sustain the effects of EMD therapy in diabetic settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Concepts for Dental Treatments and Evaluations)
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