Imaging of Skin Diseases

A special issue of Medicina (ISSN 1648-9144). This special issue belongs to the section "Dermatology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 4067

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Dermatology, University of Rzeszów, 35-310 Rzeszów, Poland
Interests: dermoscopy; videodermoscopy; reflectance confocal microscopy; dermato-oncology; melanoma malignum

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, the incidence of skin cancers has increased worldwide. Despite the huge progress in novel treatment modalities dedicated to patients, fast diagnosis remains a crucial factor in the treatment’s success.

Over recent decades, the development of new skin-imaging techniques significantly improved the diagnosis of benign and malignant cutaneous neoplasms. Nowadays, dermatoscopy is considered the so-called gold standard for skin cancer evaluation. However, other non-invasive technologies have great potential, such as reflectance confocal microscopy or optical coherence tomography. Moreover, with recent teledermatology and artificial intelligence (AI) advancements, it is expected that AI-powered devices may be part of standard diagnostic procedures in the near future. Novel diagnostic techniques also offer the possibility to better visualize, diagnose and analyze other dermatoses, being currently employed in the treatment of inflammatory skin, hair and nail disorders.

This Special Issue will discuss the latest skin imaging techniques and their places in modern dermatology.

Prof. Dr. Adam Reich
Dr. Dominika Kwiatkowska
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • dermoscopy
  • capillaroscopy
  • inflammoscopy
  • skin sonography
  • reflectance confocal microscopy
  • optical coherent tomography
  • optoacoustic mesoscopy
  • atomic force microscopy

Published Papers (3 papers)

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10 pages, 870 KiB  
Article
The Assessment of the Long-Term Impact of Radiotherapy on Biophysical Skin Properties in Patients after Head and Neck Cancer
by Jakub Pazdrowski, Adriana Polańska, Joanna Kaźmierska, Michał J. Kowalczyk, Mateusz Szewczyk, Patryk Niewinski, Wojciech Golusiński and Aleksandra Dańczak-Pazdrowska
Medicina 2024, 60(5), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60050739 - 29 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Chronic radiotherapy-induced skin injury (cRISI) is an irreversible and progressive condition that can significantly impact a patient’s quality of life. Despite the limited literature available on the assessment of the epidermal barrier in cRISI, there is a consensus that appropriate [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Chronic radiotherapy-induced skin injury (cRISI) is an irreversible and progressive condition that can significantly impact a patient’s quality of life. Despite the limited literature available on the assessment of the epidermal barrier in cRISI, there is a consensus that appropriate skincare, including the use of emollients, is the primary therapeutic approach for this group of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biophysical properties of the skin during the late period (at least 90 days) following radiation therapy (RT) for head and neck cancer. Materials and Methods: This was a single-center prospective non-randomized study. It involved the analysis of 16 adult patients with head and neck cancer who underwent RT at the Greater Poland Cancer Center, along with 15 healthy volunteers. The study and control groups were matched for gender and age (p = 0.51). Clinical assessment, based on the LENT-SOMA scale, was conducted for all patients. Evaluation of the skin’s biophysical properties included: an analysis of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum hydration (SCH), and skin visualization using high-frequency ultrasonography (HF-USG). Results: A significantly higher TEWL was observed in the irradiated area compared to the control area in the study group (p = 0.004). However, there was no statistically significant difference in SCH (p = 0.073). Additionally, no significant difference was observed in the values of TEWL and SCH in the irradiated area between the group of patients with and without clinically obvious RISI (p = 0.192 and p = 0.415, respectively). The skin thickness of the irradiated area, assessed by HF-USG, did not differ significantly from the skin thickness of the control area (p = 0.638). Furthermore, no difference in skin thickness was observed in patients with clinical features of cRISI in the irradiated and control areas (p = 0.345). The mean time after RT was 6.1 years. Conclusions: This study marks the first demonstration of epidermal barrier damage in patients in the long term following RT for head and neck cancer. The impairment of the epidermal barrier was observed independently of evident cRISI features. This observation underscores the necessity to recommend appropriate skin care, including the use of emollients, for all patients following RT. We also suggest that HF-USG examination is generally inconclusive in determining the degree of skin damage in the late period after RT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Skin Diseases)
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19 pages, 4491 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Surface Structure and Morphological Phenomena of Caucasian Virgin Hair with Atomic Force Microscopy
by Karolina Krawczyk-Wołoszyn, Damian Roczkowski and Adam Reich
Medicina 2024, 60(2), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60020297 - 9 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) as a type of scanning microscopy (SPM), which has a resolution of fractions of a nanometer on the atomic scale, is widely used in materials science. To date, research using AFM in medicine has focused on [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) as a type of scanning microscopy (SPM), which has a resolution of fractions of a nanometer on the atomic scale, is widely used in materials science. To date, research using AFM in medicine has focused on neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporosis, cancer tumors, cell receptors, proteins and the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system. Only a few small studies of hair imaging have been conducted, mostly in biotechnology or cosmetology. Thanks to the possibilities offered by AFM imaging, dermatologists can non-invasively assess the condition of hair and its possible disorders. Our goal was to capture images and microscopically analyze morphological changes in the surface of healthy hair. Materials and Methods: In this study, three to five hairs were collected from each person. Each hair was examined at nine locations (0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; 3.5; 4.5; 5.5; 6.5 and 7.0 cm from the root). At least 4 images (4–10 images) were taken at each of the 9 locations. A total of 496 photos were taken and analyzed. Metric measurements of hair scales, such as apparent length, width and scale step height, were taken. Results: This publication presents the changes occurring in hair during the natural delamination process. In addition, morphoological changes visualized on the surface of healthy hair (pitting, oval indentations, rod-shaped macro-fibrillar elements, globules, scratches, wavy edge) are presented. A quantitative analysis of the structures found was carried out. Conclusions: The findings of this study can be used in further research and work related to the subject of human hair. They can serve as a reference for research on scalp and hair diseases, as well as hair care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Skin Diseases)
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8 pages, 922 KiB  
Case Report
Combined Carbon Dioxide Laser with Photodynamic Therapy for Nodular Basal Cell Carcinoma Monitored by Reflectance Confocal Microscopy
by Antonio Alma, Linda Pongetti, Alessandro Clementi, Johanna Chester, Matteo Toccaceli, Silvana Ciardo, Elena Zappia, Marco Manfredini, Giovanni Pellacani, Maurizio Greco, Luigi Bennardo and Francesca Farnetani
Medicina 2024, 60(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60010030 - 24 Dec 2023
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Abstract
Introduction: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represents around 80% of all malignant skin cancers worldwide, constituting a substantial burden on healthcare systems. Due to excellent clearance rates (around 95%), surgery is the current gold-standard treatment. However, surgery is not always possible or preferred [...] Read more.
Introduction: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represents around 80% of all malignant skin cancers worldwide, constituting a substantial burden on healthcare systems. Due to excellent clearance rates (around 95%), surgery is the current gold-standard treatment. However, surgery is not always possible or preferred by patients. Numerous non-surgical therapies, sometimes combined, have been associated with promising tumor free survival rates (80–90%) in non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Most research has enrolled superficial basal cell carcinomas (sBCCs), with limited recent studies also involving low-risk nodular BCCs (nBCCs). Given lower efficacy rates compared to surgery, close monitoring during the follow-up period is essential for patients treated with non-surgical therapies. Monitoring with dermoscopy is constrained by low sensitivity rates. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is more sensitive in monitoring non-surgically treated NMSCs. Case presentation: A 41-year-old woman with a single nBCC relapse following photodynamic therapy (PDT) located on the dorsum of the nose presented to our center. Given the aesthetically sensitive location of the lesion and the patient’s preference for a non-surgical approach, a combined treatment of CO2 laser and PDT was prescribed. A superpulsed CO2 laser (power: 0.5–3 W, frequency: 10 Hz, spot size 2 mm) with two PDT sessions (2 weeks apart) were conducted. At 6 weeks follow-up, monitoring performed with RCM revealed a reduction but not eradication of basaloid tumor islands. Another 2 sessions of PDT were recommended. At 3, 12 and 30 months of follow-up, the nasal dorsum area of the previous nBBC lesion was noted to be slightly hypopigmented (observed clinically), with a mild erythematous background (observed by dermoscopy). RCM evaluation confirmed the absence of RCM BCC criteria. The cosmetic outcome was very much improved. Conclusions: Combined CO2 laser and PDT for the treatment of a localized nBCC on the dorsum of the nose of a 41-year-old proved to offer tumor free survival at 30-month follow-up, as monitored with RCM. RCM is useful for the evaluation of non-surgical therapies as it has comparably higher sensitivity than dermoscopy and is especially useful in cases of suspected late recurrence. Further studies are needed to validate ongoing tumor free survival following this combined nonsurgical approach in the treatment of nBCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging of Skin Diseases)
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