Special Issue "Nanodiamond Particles: Properties and Applications"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Carbon Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Shane Aaron Catledge
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, United States
Interests: diamond, boriding, boronizing, chemical vapor deposition, superhard materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanodiamond particles have found their way into a plethora of scientific investigations, with applications ranging from highly-stable fluorescent biomarkers for cellular probes to strengthening additives in composite materials. The surface of these tiny gems can be chemically modified to achieve a desired interaction with their environment, leading to molecular grafting and the ability to be either hydrophilic or hydrophobic, depending on attached functional groups. It is no wonder that the remarkable properties and tailored response of such a nanoparticle has sparked tremendous scientific investigation in recent years. Nanodiamond’s excellent mechanical and optical properties, high surface area, non-toxicity and tunable surface structures, combined with refined techniques for mass-production and commercialization, has created amazing research opportunities and discoveries in fields as diverse as medicine and astrochemistry.

We kindly invite you to submit a manuscript(s) for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Prof. Dr. Shane Aaron Catledge
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanodiamond
  • fluorescent
  • biomarker
  • composite
  • functional group
  • mechanical
  • optical
  • toxicity
  • nanomedicine

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Molecularly Imprinted Polyacrylamide with Fluorescent Nanodiamond for Creatinine Detection
Materials 2019, 12(13), 2097; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12132097 - 29 Jun 2019
Abstract
Creatinine measurement in blood and urine is an important diagnostic test for assessing kidney health. In this study, a molecularly imprinted polymer was obtained by incorporating fluorescent nanodiamond into a creatinine-imprinted polyacrylamide hydrogel. The quenching of peak nanodiamond fluorescence was significantly higher in [...] Read more.
Creatinine measurement in blood and urine is an important diagnostic test for assessing kidney health. In this study, a molecularly imprinted polymer was obtained by incorporating fluorescent nanodiamond into a creatinine-imprinted polyacrylamide hydrogel. The quenching of peak nanodiamond fluorescence was significantly higher in the creatinine-imprinted polymer compared to the non-imprinted polymer, indicative of higher creatinine affinity in the imprinted polymer. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and microscopic imaging was used to investigate the nature of chemical bonding and distribution of nanodiamonds inside the hydrogel network. Nanodiamonds bind strongly to the hydrogel network, but as aggregates with average particle diameter of 3.4 ± 1.8 µm and 3.1 ± 1.9 µm for the non-imprinted and molecularly imprinted polymer, respectively. Nanodiamond fluorescence from nitrogen-vacancy color centers (NV and NV0) was also used to detect creatinine based on nanodiamond-creatinine surface charge interaction. Results show a 15% decrease of NV/NV0 emission ratio for the creatinine-imprinted polymer compared to the non-imprinted polymer, and are explained in terms of changes in the near-surface band structure of diamond with addition of creatinine. With further improvement of sensor design to better disperse nanodiamond within the hydrogel, fluorescent sensing from nitrogen-vacancy centers is expected to yield higher sensitivity with a longer range (Coulombic) interaction to imprinted sites than that for a sensor based on acceptor/donor resonance energy transfer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanodiamond Particles: Properties and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Study on Optimization Technology to Strengthen Ni-Based Composite Coating Electroplate Containing Nanodiamond
Materials 2019, 12(10), 1654; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12101654 - 21 May 2019
Abstract
Ni-based composite coating containing nanodiamonds was deposited on the substrate of Q235A low-carbon steel in a traditional Watts solution, without any additive. The nanodiamond grains prepared by detonation synthesis were measured by Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical behavior [...] Read more.
Ni-based composite coating containing nanodiamonds was deposited on the substrate of Q235A low-carbon steel in a traditional Watts solution, without any additive. The nanodiamond grains prepared by detonation synthesis were measured by Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical behavior of Ni2+ ion in the composite bath including nanodiamonds was studied by linear sweep voltammetry experiments, and the morphology, elastic modulus, and hardness of Ni-based composite coating were characterized using Scanning Electron microscope (SEM) and the nano-indenter XP tester. Effects of the nanodiamond concentration in the bath, stirring speed, and the electroplate mode on the properties of Ni-based composite coating were investigated. The results show that the reduction of Ni2+ ion in the electroplating process increased initially, and then decreased as the nanodiamond concentration in the bath increased from 4 g/L to 16 g/L, irrespective of whether direct current (DC), single-pulse, or double-pulse electroplating mode was used. The highest over-potential could be obtained when the nanodiamond concentration in the bath was 8 g/L. Moreover, the hardness and elastic modulus of the composite coating prepared by the DC electroplating mode were 4.68 and 194.30 GPa, respectively. By using the same plating parameters, the coating prepared by the double-pulse electroplating mode showed better properties, with hardness and elastic modulus values of 5.22 and 197.38 GPa, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanodiamond Particles: Properties and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Nanodiamond Concentration and the Current Density of the Electrolyte on the Texture and Mechanical Properties of Ni/Nanodiamond Composite Coatings Produced by Electrodeposition
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1105; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12071105 - 03 Apr 2019
Abstract
An Ni/nanodiamond composite coating was deposited on carbon steel in a traditional Watt’s solution without additives via direct current (DC) electroplating. The effects of the nanodiamond concentration and current density in the plating solution on the morphology, grain size, and texture of the [...] Read more.
An Ni/nanodiamond composite coating was deposited on carbon steel in a traditional Watt’s solution without additives via direct current (DC) electroplating. The effects of the nanodiamond concentration and current density in the plating solution on the morphology, grain size, and texture of the Ni/nanodiamond composite coating were observed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The distribution of the nanodiamond particles in the composite coating was investigated by Raman spectra and SEM. The mechanical properties of the composite coating, such as its elastic modulus and hardness, were examined using a Nano Indenter XP nanometer mechanical test system. The coefficient of friction was tested using a Universal Micro-Tribotester. The results demonstrated that the preferential orientation of the Ni/nanodiamond composite coating varied from the (111) crystal orientation of the pure nickel coating to the (200) crystal orientation. When the nanodiamond concentration in the plating solution was 8.0 g/L and the current density was 3.0 A/dm2, the hardness of the composite coating reached the maximum value of 5.302 GPa and the friction factor was maintained at around 0.1. The average grain size of the composite coating was reduced to 20.4 nm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanodiamond Particles: Properties and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect by Diamond Surface Modification on Biomolecular Adhesion
Materials 2019, 12(6), 865; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060865 - 15 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Diamond, as material, show very attractive properties. They include superior electronic properties (when doped), chemical inertness, controllable surface termination, and biocompatibility. It is thus clear that surface termination is very important for those applications where the implant material is based on diamond. The [...] Read more.
Diamond, as material, show very attractive properties. They include superior electronic properties (when doped), chemical inertness, controllable surface termination, and biocompatibility. It is thus clear that surface termination is very important for those applications where the implant material is based on diamond. The present theoretical work has focused on the effect of diamond surface termination, in combination with type of surface plane, on the adhesion of important biomolecules for vascularization and bone regeneration. These biomolecules include Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid (RGD), Chitosan, Heparin, Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP2), Angiopoietin 1 (AGP1), Fibronectin and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). The various surface planes are diamond diamond (100)-2x1 and (111). The theoretical results show that the non-covalent binding of these biomolecules is in proportion with their molecular weights. Moreover, three groups of biomolecules were observed for both types of surface planes. The most strongly binding biomolecule was the BMP2 molecule. The smaller polypeptides (RGD, Chitosan and Heparin) formed a less strongly binding group. Finally, the biomolecules VEGF, Fibronectin and Angiopoietin showed bond strengths numerically in between the other two groups (thereby forming a third group). Moreover, the (111) surface was generally observed to display a stronger bonding of the biomolecules, as compared with the (100)-2x1 surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanodiamond Particles: Properties and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Tribological Performance of Nanocomposite Carbon Lubricant Additive
Materials 2019, 12(1), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010149 - 04 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this research, nanocomposite carbon has been found to have excellent tribological properties as a lubricant additive. To reduce high friction and wear in friction pairs, the modified nanocomposite carbon has been prepared for chemical technology. The morphology and microstructure of the modified [...] Read more.
In this research, nanocomposite carbon has been found to have excellent tribological properties as a lubricant additive. To reduce high friction and wear in friction pairs, the modified nanocomposite carbon has been prepared for chemical technology. The morphology and microstructure of the modified nanocomposite carbon were investigated via TEM, SEM, EDS, XPS, and Raman. In this study, varying concentrations (1, 3, and 5 wt. %) within the modified nanocomposite carbon were dispersed at 350 SN lubricant for base oil. The suspension stability of lubricating oils with the modified nanocomposite carbon was determined by ultraviolet-visible light (UV-VIS) spectrophotometry. The friction and wear characteristics of lubricants containing materials of the modified nanocomposite carbon were evaluated under reciprocating test conditions to simulate contact. The morphology and microstructure of the friction pair tribofilms produced during frictional contact were investigated via SEM, EDS, and a 3D surface profiler. The results showed that scratches, pits, grooves, and adhesive wear were significantly reduced on the surface of the friction pair which was used with 3% nanocomposite carbon lubricant. Additionally, the modified nanocomposite carbon showed excellent friction reducing and anti-wear performance, with great potential for the application of anti-wear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanodiamond Particles: Properties and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Single-Step Metal-Free Grafting of Cationic Polymer Brushes on Fluorescent Nanodiamonds
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1479; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081479 - 20 Aug 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Cationic polymers are often employed in conjugation with nanomaterials, and the resultant hybrids are useful for various bioapplications. Here, a single-step metal-free method for the synthesis of fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) conjugated with cationic polymer brushes is reported. Distinct from the common methods such [...] Read more.
Cationic polymers are often employed in conjugation with nanomaterials, and the resultant hybrids are useful for various bioapplications. Here, a single-step metal-free method for the synthesis of fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) conjugated with cationic polymer brushes is reported. Distinct from the common methods such as atom transfer radical polymerization and reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer, our ring-opening-polymerization-based method is simple and less time consuming and hazardous. Infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, zeta potential, and dynamic light scattering confirmed the synthesis. The produced FND-polymer brushes showed markedly higher cell labeling and internalization efficiency without noticeable cytotoxicity. Our method is general and applicable to other nanoparticles as well for uses in diverse research areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanodiamond Particles: Properties and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Effective Method for Obtaining the Hydrosols of Detonation Nanodiamond with Particle Size < 4 nm
Materials 2018, 11(8), 1285; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11081285 - 25 Jul 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Detonation nanodiamond is a commercially available synthetic diamond that is obtained from the carbon of explosives. It is known that the average particle size of detonation nanodiamond is 4–6 nm. However, it is possible to separate smaller particles. Here we suggest a new [...] Read more.
Detonation nanodiamond is a commercially available synthetic diamond that is obtained from the carbon of explosives. It is known that the average particle size of detonation nanodiamond is 4–6 nm. However, it is possible to separate smaller particles. Here we suggest a new approach for the effective separation of detonation nanodiamond particles by centrifugation of a “hydrosol/glycerol” system. The method allows for the production of the detonation nanodiamond hydrosol with a very sharp distribution in size, where more than 85% of particles have a size ranging 1–4 nm. The result is supported by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanodiamond Particles: Properties and Applications)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Applications of Nanodiamonds in the Detection and Therapy of Infectious Diseases
Materials 2019, 12(10), 1639; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12101639 - 20 May 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
We are constantly exposed to infectious diseases, and they cause millions of deaths per year. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that antibiotic resistance could cause 10 million deaths per year by 2050. Multidrug-resistant bacteria are the cause of infection in at least [...] Read more.
We are constantly exposed to infectious diseases, and they cause millions of deaths per year. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that antibiotic resistance could cause 10 million deaths per year by 2050. Multidrug-resistant bacteria are the cause of infection in at least one in three people suffering from septicemia. While antibiotics are powerful agents against infectious diseases, the alarming increase in antibiotic resistance is of great concern. Alternatives are desperately needed, and nanotechnology provides a great opportunity to develop novel approaches for the treatment of infectious diseases. One of the most important factors in the prognosis of an infection caused by an antibiotic resistant bacteria is an early and rigorous diagnosis, jointly with the use of novel therapeutic systems that can specifically target the pathogen and limit the selection of resistant strains. Nanodiamonds can be used as antimicrobial agents due to some of their properties including size, shape, and biocompatibility, which make them highly suitable for the development of efficient and tailored nanotherapies, including vaccines or drug delivery systems. In this review, we discuss the beneficial findings made in the nanodiamonds field, focusing on diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. We also highlight the innovative platform that nanodiamonds confer for vaccine improvement, drug delivery, and shuttle systems, as well as their role in the generation of faster and more sensitive clinical diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanodiamond Particles: Properties and Applications)
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