Special Issue "Graphene in Biomedical Application"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (5 May 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Minna Hakkarainen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 58, 11428 Stockholm, Sweden
Interests: biobased materials; degradable polymers; recycling; graphene oxide; carbon dots; polymer nanocomposites; materials for packaging; biomedical applications and water purification

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues

It is my pleasure to invite you to submit reviews, regular research papers and communications to this Special Issue on “Graphene in Biomedical Applications”. This issue provides a forum to present recent results and developments, highlighting the progress and vast future possibilities of graphene and graphene derivatives in biomedical applications. The physical and chemical properties of graphene derivatives vary over wide span depending on, e.g., dimensions, surface functionality, covalent derivatization or functionalization by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Thanks to the palette of structures and properties the potential applications of graphene derivatives in the field of biomedicine are many ranging from imaging and biosensors to photodynamic therapy, drug/gene delivery and tissue engineering, where graphene can provide multiple new functionalities and options. Of great interest is also the antibacterial activity and good biocompatibility in cell cultures demonstrated by many of the graphene derivatives, such as graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide.

I look forward to your submissions within this fascinating topic.

Prof. Minna Hakkarainen
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Graphene
  • Biomedical
  • Drug delivery
  • Gene Delivery
  • Tissue Engineering
  • Imaging
  • Biosensors
  • Biocompatibility
  • Antimicrobial
  • Bioactivity

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Graphene-Based Surface Plasmon Resonance Optical Sensor Chip for Potential Biomedical Application
Materials 2019, 12(12), 1928; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12121928 - 14 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The emergence of unintentional poisoning and uncontrolled vector diseases have contributed to sensor technologies development, leading to the more effective detection of diseases. In this study, we present the combination of graphene-based material with surface plasmon resonance technique. Two different graphene-based material sensor [...] Read more.
The emergence of unintentional poisoning and uncontrolled vector diseases have contributed to sensor technologies development, leading to the more effective detection of diseases. In this study, we present the combination of graphene-based material with surface plasmon resonance technique. Two different graphene-based material sensor chips were prepared for rapid and quantitative detection of dengue virus (DENV) and cobalt ion (Co2+) as an example of typical metal ions. As the fundamental concept of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor that relies on the refractive index of the sensor chip surface, this research focused on the SPR signal when the DENV and Co2+ interact with the graphene-based material sensor chip. The results demonstrated that the proposed sensor-based graphene layer was able to detect DENV and Co2+ as low as 0.1 pM and 0.1 ppm respectively. Further details in the detection and quantification of analyte were also discussed in terms of sensitivity, affinity, and selectivity of the sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene in Biomedical Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Novel Biosensor Based on Tyrosinase/Platinum Nanoparticles/Chitosan/Graphene Nanostructured Layer with Applicability in Bioanalysis
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1009; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12071009 - 27 Mar 2019
Abstract
The present paper describes the preparation and characterization of a graphene, chitosan, platinum nanoparticles and tyrosinase-based bionanocomposite film deposited on the surface of a screen-printed carbon electrode for the detection of L-tyrosine by voltammetry. The redox process on the biosensor surface is associated [...] Read more.
The present paper describes the preparation and characterization of a graphene, chitosan, platinum nanoparticles and tyrosinase-based bionanocomposite film deposited on the surface of a screen-printed carbon electrode for the detection of L-tyrosine by voltammetry. The redox process on the biosensor surface is associated with the enzymatic oxidation of L-tyrosine, which is favoured by graphene and platinum nanoparticles that increase electrical conductivity and the electron transfer rate. Chitosan ensures the biocompatibility between the tyrosinase enzyme and the solid matrix, as well as a series of complex interactions for an efficient immobilization of the biocatalyst. Experimental conditions were optimized so that the analytical performances of the biosensor were maximal for L-tyrosine detection. By using square wave voltammetry as the detection method, a very low detection limit (4.75 × 10−8 M), a vast linearity domain (0.1–100 μM) and a high affinity of the enzyme for the substrate (KMapp is 53.4 μM) were obtained. The repeatability of the voltammetric response, the stability, and the reduced interference of the chemical species present in the sample prove that this biosensor is an excellent tool to be used in bioanalysis. L-tyrosine detection in medical and pharmaceutical samples was performed with very good results, the analytical recovery values obtained being between 99.5% and 101%. The analytical method based on biosensor was validated by the standard method of analysis, the differences observed being statistically insignificant at the 99% confidence level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene in Biomedical Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Surface Modification of Graphene Nanoplatelets by Organic Acids and Ultrasonic Radiation for Enhance Uremic Toxins Adsorption
Materials 2019, 12(5), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12050715 - 01 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Ultrasound energy is a green and economically viable alternative to conventional techniques for surface modification of materials. The main benefits of this technique are the decrease of processing time and the amount of energy used. In this work, graphene nanoplatelets were treated with [...] Read more.
Ultrasound energy is a green and economically viable alternative to conventional techniques for surface modification of materials. The main benefits of this technique are the decrease of processing time and the amount of energy used. In this work, graphene nanoplatelets were treated with organic acids under ultrasonic radiation of 350 W at different times (30 and 60 min) aiming to modify their surface with functional acid groups and to improve the adsorption of uremic toxins. The modified graphene nanoplatelets were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optimum time for modification with organic acids was 30 min. The modified nanoplatelets were tested as adsorbent material for uremic toxins using the equilibrium isotherms where the adsorption isotherm of urea was adjusted for the Langmuir model. From the solution, 75% of uremic toxins were removed and absorbed by the modified nanoplatelets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene in Biomedical Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication and Characterization of an Electrospun PHA/Graphene Silver Nanocomposite Scaffold for Antibacterial Applications
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1673; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091673 - 10 Sep 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Many wounds are unresponsive to currently available treatment techniques and therefore there is an immense need to explore suitable materials, including biomaterials, which could be considered as the crucial factor to accelerate the healing cascade. In this study, we fabricated polyhydroxyalkanoate-based antibacterial mats [...] Read more.
Many wounds are unresponsive to currently available treatment techniques and therefore there is an immense need to explore suitable materials, including biomaterials, which could be considered as the crucial factor to accelerate the healing cascade. In this study, we fabricated polyhydroxyalkanoate-based antibacterial mats via an electrospinning technique. One-pot green synthesized graphene-decorated silver nanoparticles (GAg) were incorporated into the fibres of poly-3 hydroxybutarate-co-12 mol.% hydroxyhexanoate (P3HB-co-12 mol.% HHx), a co-polymer of the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) family which is highly biocompatible, biodegradable, and flexible in nature. The synthesized PHA/GAg biomaterial has been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), elemental mapping, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). An in vitro antibacterial analysis was performed to investigate the efficacy of PHA/GAg against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strain 12,600 ATCC and gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain 8739 ATCC. The results indicated that the PHA/GAg demonstrated significant reduction of S. aureus and E. coli as compared to bare PHA or PHA- reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in 2 h of time. The p value (p < 0.05) was obtained by using a two-sample t-test distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene in Biomedical Application)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Nano-Graphene Oxide Functionalized Bioactive Poly(lactic acid) and Poly(ε-caprolactone) Nanofibrous Scaffolds
Materials 2018, 11(4), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11040566 - 06 Apr 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
A versatile and convenient way to produce bioactive poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds is described. PLA and PCL are extensively used as biocompatible scaffold materials for tissue engineering. Here, biobased nano graphene oxide dots (nGO) are incorporated in PLA [...] Read more.
A versatile and convenient way to produce bioactive poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds is described. PLA and PCL are extensively used as biocompatible scaffold materials for tissue engineering. Here, biobased nano graphene oxide dots (nGO) are incorporated in PLA or PCL electrospun scaffolds during the electrospinning process aiming to enhance the mechanical properties and endorse osteo-bioactivity. nGO was found to tightly attach to the fibers through secondary interactions. It also improved the electrospinnability and fiber quality. The prepared nanofibrous scaffolds exhibited enhanced mechanical properties, increased hydrophilicity, good cytocompatibility and osteo-bioactivity. Therefore, immense potential for bone tissue engineering applications is anticipated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene in Biomedical Application)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Graphene Nanomaterials-Based Radio-Frequency/Microwave Biosensors for Biomaterials Detection
Materials 2019, 12(6), 952; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060952 - 21 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this paper, the advances in radio-frequency (RF)/microwave biosensors based on graphene nanomaterials including graphene, graphene oxide (GO), and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are reviewed. From a few frontier studies, recently developed graphene nanomaterials-based RF/microwave biosensors are examined in-depth and discussed. Finally, the [...] Read more.
In this paper, the advances in radio-frequency (RF)/microwave biosensors based on graphene nanomaterials including graphene, graphene oxide (GO), and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are reviewed. From a few frontier studies, recently developed graphene nanomaterials-based RF/microwave biosensors are examined in-depth and discussed. Finally, the prospects and challenges of the next-generation RF/microwave biosensors for wireless biomedical applications are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene in Biomedical Application)
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