Special Issue "Carbon-Based Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Carbon Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Julia A. Baimova
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems of RAS, Ufa, Russian Federation
Interests: graphene; mechanical properties; molecular dynamics; carbon nanostructures; plastic deformation; diamond

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The aim of this Special Issue is to present the state-of-the-art research progress in the field of carbon-based nanomaterials. Since the experimental discovery of graphene in 2004, the field of carbon nanostructures has become one of the fast developed fields of science. In addition to studying the basic polymorphs of carbon (nanotubes, fullerenes, and graphene), carbon nanostructures of various morphology have been extensively studied. Moreover, new carbon materials with improved mechanical, electrical, chemical, and optical properties are predicted and considered to be very promising for practical application. The properties of such nanomaterials are commonly determined by their structural features.

The transition from carbon polymorphs to three-dimensional nanomaterials of complex architecture is currently an important task of material science. It is necessary to determine the possibilities of the existence of such structures at macroscopic and microscopic levels and examine in detail their properties to create a new generation of functional materials. Carbon-based materials in the form of films, fabrics, aerogels or microstructural materials are known by their large surface areas and pore volumes, light weight, a great variety of structural morphology, and how promising they are for nanoelectronics, energy storage, gas sensing, to name a few.

It is my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Prof. Julia A. Baimova
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • graphene
  • carbon nanotubes
  • fullerenes
  • carbon nanostructures

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Surface Morphology of the Interface Junction of CVD Mosaic Single-Crystal Diamond
Materials 2020, 13(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010091 - 23 Dec 2019
Abstract
The diamond mosaic grown on the single-crystal diamond substrates by the microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) method has been studied. The average growth rate was about 16–17 μm/h during 48 hours’ growth. The surface morphologies of the as-grown diamond layer were observed. [...] Read more.
The diamond mosaic grown on the single-crystal diamond substrates by the microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) method has been studied. The average growth rate was about 16–17 μm/h during 48 hours’ growth. The surface morphologies of the as-grown diamond layer were observed. It was found that the step flow was able to move across the substrates and cover the junction interface. Raman spectroscopic mapping in the central area of the junction revealed the high stress region movement across the junction interface from one substrate to the other for about 200–400 μm. High-resolution X-ray diffractometry (HRXRD) results proved that the surface step flow movement direction had nothing to do with the off-axis directions of the original substrates. It was found that the surface height difference of substrate was the main driving force for the step flow movement, junction combination and surface morphology changing. The mechanism of the mosaic interface junction combination and step flow transformation on the mosaic surface was proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Modeling of One-Side Surface Modifications of Graphene
Materials 2019, 12(24), 4179; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12244179 - 12 Dec 2019
Abstract
We model, with the use of the force field method, the dependence of mechanical conformations of graphene sheets, located on flat substrates, on the density of unilateral (one-side) attachment of hydrogen, fluorine or chlorine atoms to them. It is shown that a chemically-modified [...] Read more.
We model, with the use of the force field method, the dependence of mechanical conformations of graphene sheets, located on flat substrates, on the density of unilateral (one-side) attachment of hydrogen, fluorine or chlorine atoms to them. It is shown that a chemically-modified graphene sheet can take four main forms on a flat substrate: the form of a flat sheet located parallel to the surface of the substrate, the form of convex sheet partially detached from the substrate with bent edges adjacent to the substrate, and the form of a single and double roll on the substrate. On the surface of crystalline graphite, the flat form of the sheet is lowest in energy for hydrogenation density p < 0.21 , fluorination density p < 0.20 , and chlorination density p < 0.16 . For higher attachment densities, the flat form of the graphene sheet becomes unstable. The surface of crystalline nickel has higher adsorption energy for graphene monolayer and the flat form of a chemically modified sheet on such a substrate is lowest in energy for hydrogenation density p < 0.47 , fluorination density p < 0.30 and chlorination density p < 0.21 . Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Homoepitaxy Growth of Single Crystal Diamond under 300 torr Pressure in the MPCVD System
Materials 2019, 12(23), 3953; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12233953 - 28 Nov 2019
Abstract
The high-quality single crystal diamond (SCD) grown in the Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPCVD) system was studied. The CVD deposition reaction occurred in a 300 torr high pressure environment on a (100) plane High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) diamond type II a [...] Read more.
The high-quality single crystal diamond (SCD) grown in the Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPCVD) system was studied. The CVD deposition reaction occurred in a 300 torr high pressure environment on a (100) plane High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) diamond type II a substrate. The relationships among the chamber pressure, substrate surface temperature, and system microwave power were investigated. The surface morphology evolution with a series of different concentrations of the gas mixture was observed. It was found that a single lateral crystal growth occurred on the substrate edge and a systemic step flow rotation from the [100] to the [110] orientation was exhibited on the surface. The Raman spectroscopy and High Resolution X-Ray Diffractometry (HRXRD) prove that the homoepitaxy part from the original HPHT substrate shows a higher quality than the lateral growth region. A crystal lattice visual structural analysis was applied to describe the step flow rotation that originated from the temperature driven concentration difference of the C2H2 ion charged particles on the SCD center and edge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Chain Model for Carbon Nanotube Bundle under Plane Strain Conditions
Materials 2019, 12(23), 3951; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12233951 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have record high tensile strength and Young’s modulus, which makes them ideal for making super strong yarns, ropes, fillers for composites, solid lubricants, etc. The mechanical properties of CNT bundles have been addressed in a number of experimental and theoretical [...] Read more.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have record high tensile strength and Young’s modulus, which makes them ideal for making super strong yarns, ropes, fillers for composites, solid lubricants, etc. The mechanical properties of CNT bundles have been addressed in a number of experimental and theoretical studies. The development of efficient computational methods for solving this problem is an important step in the design of new CNT-based materials. In the present study, an atomistic chain model is proposed to analyze the mechanical response of CNT bundles under plane strain conditions. The model takes into account the tensile and bending rigidity of the CNT wall, as well as the van der Waals interactions between walls. Due to the discrete character of the model, it is able to describe large curvature of the CNT wall and the fracture of the walls at very high pressures, where both of these problems are difficult to address in frame of continuum mechanics models. As an example, equilibrium structures of CNT crystal under biaxial, strain controlled loading are obtained and their thermal stability is analyzed. The obtained results agree well with previously reported data. In addition, a new equilibrium structure with four SNTs in a translational cell is reported. The model offered here can be applied with great efficiency to the analysis of the mechanical properties of CNT bundles composed of single-walled or multi-walled CNTs under plane strain conditions due to considerable reduction in the number of degrees of freedom. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of the Organic Functional Group on the Grafting Ability of Trialkoxysilanes onto Graphene Oxide: A Combined NMR, XRD, and ESR Study
Materials 2019, 12(23), 3828; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12233828 - 21 Nov 2019
Abstract
The functional properties displayed by graphene oxide (GO)-polymer nanocomposites are strongly affected by the dispersion ability of GO sheets in the polymeric matrix, which can be largely improved by functionalization with organosilanes. The grafting to GO of organosilanes with the general formula RSi(OCH [...] Read more.
The functional properties displayed by graphene oxide (GO)-polymer nanocomposites are strongly affected by the dispersion ability of GO sheets in the polymeric matrix, which can be largely improved by functionalization with organosilanes. The grafting to GO of organosilanes with the general formula RSi(OCH3)3 is generally explained by the condensation reactions of silanols with GO reactive groups. In this study, the influence of the organic group on the RSi(OCH3)3 grafting ability was analyzed in depth, taking into account the interactions of the R end chain group with GO oxidized groups. Model systems composed of commercial graphene oxide reacted with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS), 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS), and 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, (MaPTMS), respectively, were characterized by natural abundance 13C, 15N and 29Si solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron spin resonance (ESR). The silane organic tail significantly impacts the grafting, both in terms of the degree of functionalization and direct interaction with GO reactive sites. Both the NMR and XRD proved that this is particularly relevant for APTMS and to a lower extent for MPTMS. Moreover, the epoxy functional groups on the GO sheets appeared to be the preferential anchoring sites for the silane condensation reaction. The characterization approach was applied to the GO samples prepared by the nitric acid etching of graphene and functionalized with the same organosilanes, which were used as a filler in acrylic coatings obtained by cataphoresis, making it possible to correlate the structural properties and the corrosion protection ability of the layers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermoresistive Properties of Graphite Platelet Films Supported by Different Substrates
Materials 2019, 12(21), 3638; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12213638 - 05 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Large-area graphitic films, produced by an advantageous technique based on spraying a graphite lacquer on glass and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) substrates were studied for their thermoresistive applications. The spray technique uniformly covered the surface of the substrate by graphite platelet (GP) unities, which [...] Read more.
Large-area graphitic films, produced by an advantageous technique based on spraying a graphite lacquer on glass and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) substrates were studied for their thermoresistive applications. The spray technique uniformly covered the surface of the substrate by graphite platelet (GP) unities, which have a tendency to align parallel to the interfacial plane. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the deposited films were composed of overlapped graphite platelets of different thickness, ranging from a few tens to hundreds of graphene layers, and Raman measurements provided evidence for a good graphitic quality of the material. The GP films deposited on glass and LDPE substrates exhibited different thermoresistive properties during cooling–heating cycles in the −40 to +40 °C range. Indeed, negative values of the temperature coefficient of resistance, ranging from −4 × 10−4 to −7 × 10−4 °C−1 have been observed on glass substrates, while positive values varying between 4 × 10−3 and 8 × 10−3 °C−1 were measured when the films were supported by LDPE. These behaviors were attributed to the different thermal expansion coefficients of the substrates. The appreciable thermoresistive properties of the graphite platelet films on LDPE could be useful for plastic electronic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Doping Temperatures and Nitrogen Precursors on the Physicochemical, Optical, and Electrical Conductivity Properties of Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide
Materials 2019, 12(20), 3376; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12203376 - 16 Oct 2019
Abstract
The greatest challenge in graphene-based material synthesis is achieving large surface area of high conductivity. Thus, tuning physico-electrochemical properties of these materials is of paramount importance. An even greater problem is to obtain a desired dopant configuration which allows control over device sensitivity [...] Read more.
The greatest challenge in graphene-based material synthesis is achieving large surface area of high conductivity. Thus, tuning physico-electrochemical properties of these materials is of paramount importance. An even greater problem is to obtain a desired dopant configuration which allows control over device sensitivity and enhanced reproducibility. In this work, substitutional doping of graphene oxide (GO) with nitrogen atoms to induce lattice–structural modification of GO resulted in nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO). The effect of doping temperatures and various nitrogen precursors on the physicochemical, optical, and conductivity properties of N-rGO is hereby reported. This was achieved by thermal treating GO with different nitrogen precursors at various doping temperatures. The lowest doping temperature (600 °C) resulted in less thermally stable N-rGO, yet with higher porosity, while the highest doping temperature (800 °C) produced the opposite results. The choice of nitrogen precursors had a significant impact on the atomic percentage of nitrogen in N-rGO. Nitrogen-rich precursor, 4-nitro-ο-phenylenediamine, provided N-rGO with favorable physicochemical properties (larger surface area of 154.02 m2 g−1) with an enhanced electrical conductivity (0.133 S cm−1) property, making it more useful in energy storage devices. Thus, by adjusting the doping temperatures and nitrogen precursors, one can tailor various properties of N-rGO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Materials)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Synthesis of Vertically Oriented Graphene Sheets or Carbon Nanowalls—Review and Challenges
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2968; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182968 - 12 Sep 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The paper presents a review on the current methods for deposition of vertically oriented multilayer graphene sheets (often called carbon nanowalls—CNWs) on solid substrates. Thin films of CNWs are among the most promising materials for future applications in capacitors, batteries, electrochemical devices, and [...] Read more.
The paper presents a review on the current methods for deposition of vertically oriented multilayer graphene sheets (often called carbon nanowalls—CNWs) on solid substrates. Thin films of CNWs are among the most promising materials for future applications in capacitors, batteries, electrochemical devices, and photovoltaics, but their application is currently limited by slow deposition rates and difficulties in providing materials of a desired structure and morphology. The review paper analyzes results obtained by various groups and draws correlations between the reported experimental conditions and obtained results. Challenges in this scientific field are presented and technological problems stressed. The key scientific challenge is providing the growth rate as well as morphological and structural properties of CNWs thin films versus plasma parameters, in particular versus the fluxes of reactive plasma species onto the substrate surface. The technological challenge is upgrading of deposition techniques to large surfaces and fast deposition rates, and development of a system for deposition of CNWs in the continuous mode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon-Based Materials)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: On the Impact of Substrate Uniform Stretching on the Graphene Band Structure

Authors: Konstantin P. Katin, Mikhail M. Maslov, Konstantin S. Krylov and Vadim D. Mur

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