Special Issue "Biomaterials, Implants and Scaffolds in Additive Manufacturing"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Dohyung Lim
Website
Guest Editor
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University Korea
Interests: implant & scaffold design; biomaterials; total joint arthroplasty; orthopedic biomechanics; bone morphology & mechanics; injury biomechanics; computer simulation; metallography; additive manufacturing
Vice Director Dr. Bongju Kim
Website
Co-Guest Editor
Dental Life Science Research Institute, Clinical Translational Research Center for Dental Science, Seoul National University Dental Hospital, Korea
Interests: dental implant design; biomaterials; biomechanics; cell biology; computer simulation; additive manufacturing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Additive manufacturing (AM) is revolutionizing the production of implants and scaffolds with complex or intricate geometries for advanced functionality. Nevertheless, the AM processing conditions for manufacturing implants and scaffolds that fulfill clinical, material, and mechanical requirements requires further investigation. This can lead to undesirable material and mechanical characteristics that result in lower functionality. It is, therefore, importance to focus research efforts on the inter/post-processing optimization of the production of implants and scaffolds specialized for AM.

It is important to assess aspects of advanced/optimized biomaterials (surface morphology, design, geometry, porosity, and mechanical properties, material properties and materials composition) in AM in biomedical applications, including implants and scaffolds for the further development of high biocompatibility and safety.

This Special Issue of Materials on “Biomaterials, Implants and Scaffolds in Additive Manufacturing” will focus on recent progress in the development of implants and scaffolds using AM. Submitted manuscripts may cover all aspects of AM for the development of implants and scaffolds, ranging from the assessment of biological responses to biomaterials for AM to inter/post-processing optimization.

It is my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript to this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Dohyung Lim
Vice Director Dr. Bongju Kim
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • additive manufacturing
  • manufacturing process optimization
  • biomaterials
  • implant & scaffold design
  • porous structure morphology & mechanics, biological responses
  • materials & mechanical properties

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Titanium Porous Coating Using 3D Direct Energy Deposition (DED) Printing for Cementless TKA Implants: Does It Induce Chronic Inflammation?
Materials 2020, 13(2), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13020472 - 19 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Because of the recent technological advances, the cementless total knee arthroplasty (TKA) implant showed satisfactory implant survival rate. Newly developed 3D printing direct energy deposition (DED) has superior resistance to abrasion as compared to traditional methods. However, there is still concern about the [...] Read more.
Because of the recent technological advances, the cementless total knee arthroplasty (TKA) implant showed satisfactory implant survival rate. Newly developed 3D printing direct energy deposition (DED) has superior resistance to abrasion as compared to traditional methods. However, there is still concern about the mechanical stability and the risk of osteolysis by the titanium (Ti) nanoparticles. Therefore, in this work, we investigated whether DED Ti-coated cobalt-chrome (CoCr) alloys induce chronic inflammation reactions through in vitro and in vivo models. We studied three types of implant surfaces (smooth, sand-blasted, and DED Ti-coated) to compare their inflammatory reaction. We conducted the in vitro effect of specimens using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and an inflammatory cytokine assay. Subsequently, in vivo analysis of the immune profiling, cytokine assay, and histomorphometric evaluation using C57BL/6 mice were performed. There were no significant differences in the CCK-8 assay, the cytokine assay, and the immune profiling assay. Moreover, there were no difference for semi-quantitative histomorphometry analysis at 4 and 8 weeks among the sham, smooth, and DED Ti-coated samples. These results suggest that DED Ti-coated printing technique do not induce chronic inflammation both in vitro and in vivo. It has biocompatibility for being used as a surface coating of TKA implant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials, Implants and Scaffolds in Additive Manufacturing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Development of 18 Quality Control Gates for Additive Manufacturing of Error Free Patient-Specific Implants
Materials 2019, 12(19), 3110; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12193110 - 24 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Unlike subtractive manufacturing technologies, additive manufacturing (AM) can fabricate complex shapes from the macro to the micro scale, thereby allowing the design of patient-specific implants following a biomimetic approach for the reconstruction of complex bone configurations. Nevertheless, factors such as high design variability [...] Read more.
Unlike subtractive manufacturing technologies, additive manufacturing (AM) can fabricate complex shapes from the macro to the micro scale, thereby allowing the design of patient-specific implants following a biomimetic approach for the reconstruction of complex bone configurations. Nevertheless, factors such as high design variability and changeable customer needs are re-shaping current medical standards and quality control strategies in this sector. Such factors necessitate the urgent formulation of comprehensive AM quality control procedures. To address this need, this study explored and reported on a variety of aspects related to the production and the quality control of additively manufactured patient-specific implants in three different AM companies. The research goal was to develop an integrated quality control procedure based on the synthesis and the adaptation of the best quality control practices with the three examined companies and/or reported in literature. The study resulted in the development of an integrated quality control procedure consisting of 18 distinct gates based on the best identified industry practices and reported literature such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guideline for AM medical devices and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards, to name a few. This integrated quality control procedure for patient-specific implants seeks to prepare the AM industry for the inevitable future tightening in related medical regulations. Moreover, this study revealed some critical success factors for companies developing additively manufactured patient-specific implants, including ongoing research and development (R&D) investment, investment in advanced technologies for controlling quality, and fostering a quality improvement organizational culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials, Implants and Scaffolds in Additive Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle
Corrosion and Corrosion Fatigue Properties of Additively Manufactured Magnesium Alloy WE43 in Comparison to Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4V in Physiological Environment
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2892; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182892 - 07 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) of metals enables the manufacturing of highly complex geometries which opens new application fields in the medical sector, especially with regard to personalized implants. In comparison to conventional manufacturing techniques, L-PBF causes different microstructures, and thus, new challenges [...] Read more.
Laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) of metals enables the manufacturing of highly complex geometries which opens new application fields in the medical sector, especially with regard to personalized implants. In comparison to conventional manufacturing techniques, L-PBF causes different microstructures, and thus, new challenges arise. The main objective of this work is to investigate the influence of different manufacturing parameters of the L-PBF process on the microstructure, process-induced porosity, as well as corrosion fatigue properties of the magnesium alloy WE43 and as a reference on the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. In particular, the investigated magnesium alloy WE43 showed a strong process parameter dependence in terms of porosity (size and distribution), microstructure, corrosion rates, and corrosion fatigue properties. Cyclic tests with increased test duration caused an especially high decrease in fatigue strength for magnesium alloy WE43. It can be demonstrated that, due to high process-induced surface roughness, which supports locally intensified corrosion, multiple crack initiation sites are present, which is one of the main reasons for the drastic decrease in fatigue strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials, Implants and Scaffolds in Additive Manufacturing)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Parameters Influencing the Outcome of Additive Manufacturing of Tiny Medical Devices Based on PEEK
Materials 2020, 13(2), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13020466 - 18 Jan 2020
Abstract
In this review, we discuss the parameters of fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology used in finished parts made from polyether ether ketone (PEEK) and also the possibility of printing small PEEK parts. The published articles reporting on 3D printed PEEK implants were obtained [...] Read more.
In this review, we discuss the parameters of fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology used in finished parts made from polyether ether ketone (PEEK) and also the possibility of printing small PEEK parts. The published articles reporting on 3D printed PEEK implants were obtained using PubMed and search engines such as Google Scholar including references cited therein. The results indicate that although many have been experiments conducted on PEEK 3D printing, the consensus on a suitable printing parameter combination has not been reached and optimized parameters for printing worth pursuing. The printing of reproducible tiny-sized PEEK parts with high accuracy has proved to be possible in our experiments. Understanding the relationships among material properties, design parameters, and the ultimate performance of finished objects will be the basis for further improvement of the quality of 3D printed medical devices based on PEEK and to expand the polymers applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials, Implants and Scaffolds in Additive Manufacturing)
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