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Advanced Metal Forming Processes II

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 November 2023) | Viewed by 12305

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Materials, Metallurgy and Recycling, Technical University of Kosice, Kosice, Slovakia
Interests: powder metallurgy; metal forming; ECAP; ECAR; additive manufacturing; metal and alloys; light-weight materials; soft magnetic materials; microstructure; porosity; mechanical properties
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Guest Editor
Bodva Industry and Innovation Cluster, Budulov 174, 04501 Moldava nad Bodvou, Slovakia
Interests: metal forming technology and processes; powder metallurgy; additive manufacturing; lightweight materials; soft magnetic materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is a great honour and privilege to be involved as Guest Editors of a Special Issue of Materials focusing on advanced metal forming processes. We are glad to inform you about an opportunity to contribute a research paper or review to this Special Issue as a second edition. We believe it will become a very important Special Issue with your kind support, as the first edition collected more than 50 papers.

It is well-known that metals and alloys are typically hard, malleable materials with good electrical and thermal conductivity. The plastic deformation of metals and alloys is very important in metal forming processes. Metal forming is a general term for a large and varied group of manufacturing processes. Metal forming processes are characterized by the fact that the metal being processed is plastically deformed to shape it into the desired geometry. Along with the change in size and shape of a plastically deformed product, the structure and properties vary. This makes it possible to use a plastic deformation process step, modifying the structure and properties of the metals and alloys in the desired direction. Many procedures and methods exist, such as traditional (forging, extrusion, pressing, and rolling) and advanced metal forming processes; for example, severe plastic deformation processes (equal channel angular pressing (ECAP), equal channel angular rolling (ECAR), and high-pressure torsion (HPT)) and additive manufacturing processes (powder bed fusion). The aim of these processes is usually to achieve the proper microstructure and material properties (mechanical, electrical, and magnetic) in innovative materials.

This Special Issue aims to present the latest works in the research and development of advanced metal forming processes. It is our pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript to this Special Issue. Full papers, communications, and reviews are welcome for submission.

Dr. Jana Bidulská
Prof. Dr. Robert Bidulský
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • powder metallurgy
  • metal forming
  • ECAP
  • ECAR
  • additive manufacturing
  • metals and alloys
  • sheet metals
  • lightweight materials
  • soft magnetic materials
  • microstructure
  • porosity
  • mechanical properties

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 8344 KiB  
Article
On optimization of Spin-Forming Process Parameters for Magnesium Alloy Wheel Hub Based on Gray Relational Analysis
by Zheng Zhang, Yongting Lan, Haochuan Ding and Yuanhang Xie
Materials 2024, 17(4), 959; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17040959 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 553
Abstract
To study the influencing factors of process parameters on the wall thickness deviation and internal warpage deviation of the workpiece in magnesium alloy wheel hub spin molding, a two-pass heterogeneous spin molding model is proposed. To ensure the accuracy of the simulation results, [...] Read more.
To study the influencing factors of process parameters on the wall thickness deviation and internal warpage deviation of the workpiece in magnesium alloy wheel hub spin molding, a two-pass heterogeneous spin molding model is proposed. To ensure the accuracy of the simulation results, the stress–strain data of AZ31 magnesium alloy at different temperatures and different strain rates were obtained through tests. Wall thickness deviation and internal warp deviation after molding were used as evaluation indexes of workpiece molding quality. ABAQUS software facilitated the numerical simulation and analysis of the magnesium alloy wheel hub spinning process. Gray relational degree analysis optimized the first-pass process parameters, elucidating the impact of the axial offset, the thinning ratio, and the feed ratio on forming quality. The application of optimized parameters in the hub spinning simulation resulted in a substantial 28.84% reduction in wall thickness deviation and a 4.88% reduction in inner diameter deviation. This study underscores the efficacy of employing Gray Relational Analysis for comprehensive parameter optimization, ensuring wheel hub quality. Moreover, it provides a theoretical foundation for enterprises to expedite research and development cycles and minimize associated costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Metal Forming Processes II)
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24 pages, 21491 KiB  
Article
Experimental Research and Numerical Modelling of the Cold Forming Process of the Inconel 625 Alloy Sheets Using Flexible Punch
by Maciej Balcerzak, Krzysztof Żaba, Marcin Hojny, Sandra Puchlerska, Łukasz Kuczek, Tomasz Trzepieciński and Vit Novák
Materials 2024, 17(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17010085 - 23 Dec 2023
Viewed by 778
Abstract
The paper presents the numerical and experimental results of research aimed at determining the influence of hardness in the range of 50–90 Shore A of layered tools composed of elastomeric materials on the possibility of forming Inconel 625 nickel-based alloy sheets. A stamping [...] Read more.
The paper presents the numerical and experimental results of research aimed at determining the influence of hardness in the range of 50–90 Shore A of layered tools composed of elastomeric materials on the possibility of forming Inconel 625 nickel-based alloy sheets. A stamping die composed of 90MnCrV8 steel (hardness 60HRC) was designed for forming embosses in drawpieces, ensuring various stress states on the cross-section of the formed element. The principle of operating the stamping die was based on the Guerin method. The finite-element-based numerical modelling of the forming process for various configurations of polyurethane inserts was also carried out. The drawpieces obtained through sheet forming were subjected to geometry tests using optical 3D scanning. The results confirmed that, in the case of forming difficult-to-deform Inconel 625 Ni-based alloy sheets, the hardness of the polyurethane inserts significantly affected the geometric quality of the obtained drawpieces. The assumptions determined in numerical simulations were verified in experimental studies. Based on the test results, it was concluded that the selection of polyurethane hardness should be determined by the shape of the formed element. Significant nonuniform sheet metal deformations were also found, which may pose a problem in the process of designing forming tools and the technology of the plastic forming of Inconel 625 Ni-based alloy sheets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Metal Forming Processes II)
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13 pages, 25851 KiB  
Article
Simulation of 316L Stainless Steel Produced the Laser Powder Bed Fusion Process
by Ľuboš Kaščák, Ján Varga, Jana Bidulská and Róbert Bidulský
Materials 2023, 16(24), 7653; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16247653 - 15 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
Additive manufacturing is increasingly being used in the production of parts of simple as well as complex shapes designed for various areas of industry. Prevention of errors in the production process is currently enabled using simulation tools that have the function of predicting [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing is increasingly being used in the production of parts of simple as well as complex shapes designed for various areas of industry. Prevention of errors in the production process is currently enabled using simulation tools that have the function of predicting possible errors and, at the same time, providing a set of information about the behaviour of the material in the metal additive manufacturing process. This paper discusses the simulation processes of 316L stainless steel produced using the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process. Simulation of the printing process in the Simufact Additive simulation program made it possible to predict possible deformations and errors that could occur in the process of producing test samples. After analysing the final distortion already with compensation, the simulation values of maximum deviation −0.01 mm and minimum −0.13 mm were achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Metal Forming Processes II)
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19 pages, 9490 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Study of a Novel Explosively Hardened Pure Titanium Alloy for Medical Applications
by Michał Gloc, Sylwia Przybysz, Judyta Dulnik, Dorota Kołbuk, Marcin Wachowski, Robert Kosturek, Tomasz Ślęzak, Agnieszka Krawczyńska and Łukasz Ciupiński
Materials 2023, 16(22), 7188; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16227188 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 649
Abstract
Pure titanium is gaining increasing interest due to its potential use in dental and orthopedic applications. Due to its relatively weak mechanical parameters, a limited number of components manufactured from pure titanium are available on the market. In order to improve the mechanical [...] Read more.
Pure titanium is gaining increasing interest due to its potential use in dental and orthopedic applications. Due to its relatively weak mechanical parameters, a limited number of components manufactured from pure titanium are available on the market. In order to improve the mechanical parameters of pure titanium, manufacturers use alloys containing cytotoxic vanadium and aluminum. This paper presents unique explosive hardening technology that can be used to strengthen pure titanium parameters. The analysis confirms that explosive induced α-ω martensitic transformation and crystallographic anisotropy occurred due to the explosive pressure. The mechanical properties related to residual stresses are very nonuniform. The corrosion properties of the explosive hardened pure titanium test do not change significantly compared to nonhardened titanium. The biocompatibility of all the analyzed samples was confirmed in several tests. The morphology of bone cells does not depend on the titanium surface phase composition and crystallographic orientation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Metal Forming Processes II)
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14 pages, 9855 KiB  
Article
Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of Ultrafine-Grained Ti-2Fe-0.1B
by Yaoyao Mi, Yanhuai Wang, Yu Wang, Yuecheng Dong, Hui Chang and I. V. Alexandrov
Materials 2023, 16(8), 2955; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16082955 - 7 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1040
Abstract
In the present study, a novel Ti-2Fe-0.1B alloy was processed using equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) via route Bc for four passes. The isochronal annealing of the ultrafine-grained (UFG) Ti-2Fe-0.1B alloy was conducted at various temperatures between 150 and 750 °C with holding [...] Read more.
In the present study, a novel Ti-2Fe-0.1B alloy was processed using equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) via route Bc for four passes. The isochronal annealing of the ultrafine-grained (UFG) Ti-2Fe-0.1B alloy was conducted at various temperatures between 150 and 750 °C with holding times of 60 min. The isothermal annealing was performed at 350–750 °C with different holding times (15 min–150 min). The results indicated that no obvious changes in the microhardness of the UFG Ti-2Fe-0.1B alloy are observed when the annealing temperature (AT) is up to 450 °C. Compared to the UFG state, it was found that excellent strength (~768 MPa) and ductility (~16%) matching can be achieved for the UFG Ti-2Fe-0.1B alloy when annealed at 450 °C. The microstructure of the UFG Ti-2Fe-0.1B alloy before and after the various annealing treatments was characterized using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the average grain size remained at an ultrafine level (0.91–1.03 μm) when the annealing temperature was below 450 °C. The good thermal stability of the UFG Ti-2Fe-0.1B alloy could be ascribed to the pinning of the TiB needles and the segregation of the Fe solute atoms at the grain boundaries, which is of benefit for decreasing grain boundary energy and inhibiting the mobility of grain boundaries. For the UFG Ti-2Fe-0.1B alloy, a recrystallization activation energy with an average value of ~259.44 KJ/mol was analyzed using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). This is much higher than the lattice self-diffusion activation energy of pure titanium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Metal Forming Processes II)
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12 pages, 3823 KiB  
Article
Effect of Supergravity Field on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Highly Conductive Cu Alloys
by Lu Wang, Xi Lan, Zhe Wang and Zhancheng Guo
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2485; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062485 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 881
Abstract
In consideration of the characteristics of supergravity to strengthen solidification structures, the effect of the supergravity field (SGF) on the grain refinement and mechanical properties of Cu-0.5Sn alloys was investigated in this paper. Firstly, it was experimentally verified that the addition of Sn [...] Read more.
In consideration of the characteristics of supergravity to strengthen solidification structures, the effect of the supergravity field (SGF) on the grain refinement and mechanical properties of Cu-0.5Sn alloys was investigated in this paper. Firstly, it was experimentally verified that the addition of Sn could effectively refine the grain. Subsequently, the variations in grain size, tensile strength, and plasticity of the Cu-0.5Sn alloy were compared in normal and SGF conditions. The results revealed that the tensile strength and plasticity of the alloy increased with the increase in gravity coefficient. The ultimate tensile strength of the Cu-0.5Sn alloy in a normal gravity field was 145.2 MPa, while it was 160.2, 165.3, 167.9, and 182.0 MPa in an SGF with G = 100, 300, 500, and 1000, respectively, and there was almost no effect on conductivity. Finally, it was clarified that the mechanism of grain refinement by SGF was that the intense convection caused the fracture of the dendrites to become new nucleating particles. The increased viscosity under SGF hindered the diffusion of atoms in the melt and slowed down the movement of atoms toward the nucleus, leading to a decrease in grain size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Metal Forming Processes II)
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17 pages, 7413 KiB  
Article
Experimental Compaction of a High-Silica Sand in Quasi-Static Conditions
by Krzysztof Szwajka, Marek Szewczyk and Tomasz Trzepieciński
Materials 2023, 16(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16010028 - 21 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1367
Abstract
In the compaction process, an uneven densification of the powder through the entire height of the die is a major problem which determines the strength properties of the final product, which vary throughout the entire volume. The aim of this investigation was to [...] Read more.
In the compaction process, an uneven densification of the powder through the entire height of the die is a major problem which determines the strength properties of the final product, which vary throughout the entire volume. The aim of this investigation was to determine the distribution of the forming pressure inside the die and to visualise the differences in compaction. To determine the pressure inside the die during the compaction process, the deformation on the die surface was measured by means of strain gauges. However, in order to visualise the densification of high-silica sand during the compaction process, an X-ray tomograph was used, which permits one to visualise the interior of the die. The authors developed an analytical model of how the change in internal pressure influences the change in stresses arising on the outer surface of the die, and, as a result, the friction force. It has been observed that the highest values of pressure as well as the highest concentrations of the loose medium are found closest to the punch and decrease with distance from the punch. Moreover, based on the measurements of deformation, a dependence of the pressure distribution on the value of friction forces was observed, which prompted further analysis of this phenomenon. As a result, tests to determine the coefficient of friction between the die and the loose medium were carried out. This made it possible to describe the pressure distribution inside the die, based on the pressure applied and the height of the die. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Metal Forming Processes II)
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16 pages, 6826 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Numerical Thickness Analysis of TRIP Steel under Various Degrees of Deformation in Bulge Test
by Emil Spišák, Janka Majerníková, Ľuboš Kaščák, Peter Mulidrán, Vladimír Rohaľ and Róbert Bidulský
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2299; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062299 - 20 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1573
Abstract
To design a reliable forming process it is necessary to determine the mechanical and formability properties of the processed material, which are used as input parameters for forming simulations. High-strength steel is irreplaceable as a material for producing the deformation zones of current [...] Read more.
To design a reliable forming process it is necessary to determine the mechanical and formability properties of the processed material, which are used as input parameters for forming simulations. High-strength steel is irreplaceable as a material for producing the deformation zones of current automobiles. This type of steel can be processed by conventional or unconventional forming methods. In the sheet forming process, the material is usually under uniaxial and biaxial stress. The bulge test is utilized for determination of biaxial stress–strain curves, which are often used as input material data for forming simulations. In this work, numerical simulations of bulge tests using TRIP RAK 40/70 steel were performed to study the impact of yield criteria and hardening laws on the accuracy of thickness prediction of the deformed steel sheet. Additionally, the impact of different solvers and integration schemes on the thickness prediction was tested. Furthermore, the impact of various degrees of deformation (various dome heights) on thickness prediction accuracy was evaluated. Numerical results showed a good correlation with experimental data. When the Hill90 yield criterion was used, the software with implicit solver was more accurate in predicting thickness compared to software with explicit integration scheme, in most cases. In addition, the thickness prediction of parts with lower deformation was more accurate compared to parts with greater deformation (higher dome height). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Metal Forming Processes II)
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18 pages, 9718 KiB  
Article
Polynomial Multiple Regression Analysis of the Lubrication Effectiveness of Deep Drawing Quality Steel Sheets by Eco-Friendly Vegetable Oils
by Tomasz Trzepieciński
Materials 2022, 15(3), 1151; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15031151 - 2 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1766
Abstract
Ensuring adequate lubrication is a key task in the sheet metal forming process. The replacement of commonly used synthetic lubricants in metal forming operations by eco-friendly equivalents is a way to introduce sustainable manufacturing. In this paper, six kinds of vegetable oils (linseed, [...] Read more.
Ensuring adequate lubrication is a key task in the sheet metal forming process. The replacement of commonly used synthetic lubricants in metal forming operations by eco-friendly equivalents is a way to introduce sustainable manufacturing. In this paper, six kinds of vegetable oils (linseed, palm, sunflower, cotton seed, soybean and coconut) were used to study the effect of lubricant type on the value of the coefficient of friction (COF) in sheet metal forming. The strip drawing test was used to simulate the friction conditions. The tests were carried out for various lubrication conditions and pressures. The polynomial quadratic regression model was used to determine the relationship between the input variables (test conditions) and the COF. For the range of the nominal pressures considered (2–12 MPa), the following oils provided the highest lubrication efficiency: palm, sunflower and cotton seed. These oils decreased the value of the COF by about 11–16% depending on the nominal pressure. Linseed oil had the most unfavourable properties, reducing the COF by about 7–12%. For the whole range of pressures considered, the increase in the viscosity of the oil caused a reduction in the value of the COF. The effect of oil density on the COF value was similar. The most unfavourable friction conditions occurred when there was low density and low viscosity of the oil at the same time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Metal Forming Processes II)
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Review

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29 pages, 14203 KiB  
Review
Review of Magnesium Wheel Types and Methods of Their Manufacture
by Anna Dziubinska, Ewa Siemionek, Piotr Surdacki, Monika Kulisz and Bartosz Koczurkiewicz
Materials 2024, 17(3), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17030584 - 25 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
This article provides a detailed review of the types of magnesium wheels available in the industry and the current methods of the wheels’ production. The past several years have seen a significant development of magnesium-based lightweight alloys employed as a structural material for [...] Read more.
This article provides a detailed review of the types of magnesium wheels available in the industry and the current methods of the wheels’ production. The past several years have seen a significant development of magnesium-based lightweight alloys employed as a structural material for modern light vehicles. Magnesium alloys are characterized by their low density while maintaining good mechanical properties. The use of these alloys in the industry enables vehicles’ weight reduction while increasing their technical parameters. The first part of the article presents the unique properties of magnesium alloys that determine the application of this material for lightweight vehicle wheels. The advantages of using magnesium wheels over aluminum wheels are also presented. Next, a classification of the types of magnesium wheels was made in regard to their construction, applications, and manufacturing methods. At present, magnesium wheels by construction can be classified according to their geometry as single parts or assembled parts. In reference to geometry, wheels can have different shapes: classic, multi-spoke, with holes, or with frames. Depending on the geometry used, magnesium wheels can have different parameters, such as their mounting hole spacing, wheel diameters, or rim width. Considering the applications in various industries, main distinctions can be made between magnesium wheels for automobiles, motorcycles, bicycles, and wheelchairs. Magnesium wheels can also be categorized in regards to the manufacturing methods: casting, machining, forging, and hybrid manufacturing. The second part of the article focuses on the analysis of magnesium alloy wheel-manufacturing technologies used in the industry and developed by research centers. This article discusses these manufacturing technologies in detail and indicates prospective directions for further development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Metal Forming Processes II)
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