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Advanced Materials for Biophotonics Applications

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Optical and Photonic Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 July 2022) | Viewed by 32493

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Institute of Physics and Science Medical Center, Saratov State University, Saratov, Russia
2. Laboratory of Laser Molecular Imaging and Machine Learning, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
3. А.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, FRC “Fundamentals of Biotechnology”, Moscow, Russia
Interests: biological and medical physics; biophotonics; biomaterials, laser spectroscopy; laser and optical systems; optical and laser measurements; nanobiophotonics; terahertz dielectric spectroscopy and microscopy; LIBS; phototherapy
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Guest Editor
Department of Metrology and Optoelectronics, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland
Interests: biophotonics; biomedical optics; fiber-optic sensors; optical sensors; low coherent interferometry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biophotonics is a science about how light reacts with biological objects such as tissues, cells, and organisms. Recently, new materials have been playing a big role in the discovery of new aspects of biophotonics. It can be observed that progress in material science has a strong impact on the recent progress in biophotonics. Thanks to the application of new materials, new biosensors, imaging systems, and measurement assays can be delivered. Another group of materials used in biophotonics research is bio-mimicking materials, which are still growing and give us better phantoms of tissues each time.

Furthermore, it has recently become possible to make a group of materials which were inspired by biology. Thanks to these materials, we have bio-inspired photonics with new optical devices and solutions.

The connection between biophotonics and materials is strong, and we can observe that both biophotonics and materials have inspired each other, which can lead only to new solutions, bringing science and people a better understanding of nature.

Prof. Dr. Valery Tuchin
Prof. Malgorzata Szczerska
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Design and fabrication of:
  • - Materials for active optical elements
  • - Materials for passive optical elements
  • - Bioinspired materials
  • - Biomimicking materials
  • - Nanoparticles for imaging and sensing

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 7260 KiB  
Article
Tet-Regulated Expression and Optical Clearing for In Vivo Visualization of Genetically Encoded Chimeric dCas9/Fluorescent Protein Probes
by Liliya Maloshenok, Gerel Abushinova, Natalia Kazachkina, Alexei Bogdanov, Jr. and Victoria Zherdeva
Materials 2023, 16(3), 940; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16030940 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1684
Abstract
The catalytically inactive mutant of Cas9 (dCas9) endonuclease has multiple biomedical applications, with the most useful being the activation/repression of transcription. dCas9 family members are also emerging as potential experimental tools for gene mapping at the level of individual live cells and intact [...] Read more.
The catalytically inactive mutant of Cas9 (dCas9) endonuclease has multiple biomedical applications, with the most useful being the activation/repression of transcription. dCas9 family members are also emerging as potential experimental tools for gene mapping at the level of individual live cells and intact tissue. We performed initial testing on a set of tools for Cas9-mediated visualization of nuclear compartments. We investigated doxycycline (Dox)-inducible (Tet-On) intracellular distribution of constructs encoding dCas9 orthologs from St. thermophilus (St) and N. meningitides (Nm) fused with EGFP and mCherry fluorescent proteins (FP) in human A549 cells. We also studied time-dependent expression of these chimeric fluorescent constructs (dCas9-FP) after Tet-On induction in live cells and compared it with the time course of dCas9-FP expression in experimental dCas9-FP-expressing tumor xenografts using a combination of fluorescence imaging and in vivo contrast-assisted magnetic resonance imaging for assessing the extent of tumor perfusion. In vivo Dox-induction of mCherry-chimera expression occurred in tumor xenografts as early as 24 h post-induction and was visualized by using optical clearing (OC) of the skin. OC via topical application of gadobutrol enabled high-contrast imaging of FP expression in tumor xenografts due to a 1.1–1.2-fold increase in FI in both the red and green channels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Biophotonics Applications)
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18 pages, 6407 KiB  
Article
Optical Properties and Fluence Distribution in Rabbit Head Tissues at Selected Laser Wavelengths
by Alaa Sabeeh Shanshool, Ekaterina Nikolaevna Lazareva, Omnia Hamdy and Valery Victorovich Tuchin
Materials 2022, 15(16), 5696; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15165696 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1736
Abstract
The accurate estimation of skin and skull optical properties over a wide wavelength range of laser radiation has great importance in optogenetics and other related applications. In the present work, using the Kubelka–Munk model, finite-element solution of the diffusion equation, inverse adding-doubling (IAD), [...] Read more.
The accurate estimation of skin and skull optical properties over a wide wavelength range of laser radiation has great importance in optogenetics and other related applications. In the present work, using the Kubelka–Munk model, finite-element solution of the diffusion equation, inverse adding-doubling (IAD), and Monte-Carlo simulation, we estimated the refractive index, absorption and scattering coefficients, penetration depth, and the optical fluence distribution in rabbit head tissues ex vivo, after dividing the heads into three types of tissues with an average thickness of skin of 1.1 mm, skull of 1 mm, and brain of 3 mm. The total diffuse reflectance and transmittance were measured using a single integrating sphere optical setup for laser radiation of 532, 660, 785, and 980 nm. The calculated optical properties were then applied to the diffusion equation to compute the optical fluence rate distribution at the boundary of the samples using the finite element method. Monte-Carlo simulation was implemented for estimating the optical fluence distribution through a model containing the three tissue layers. The scattering coefficient decreased at longer wavelengths, leading to an increase in optical fluence inside the tissue samples, indicating a higher penetration depth, especially at 980 nm. In general, the obtained results show good agreement with relevant literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Biophotonics Applications)
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21 pages, 3901 KiB  
Article
Nonlinear Elasticity Assessment with Optical Coherence Elastography for High-Selectivity Differentiation of Breast Cancer Tissues
by Ekaterina V. Gubarkova, Aleksander A. Sovetsky, Lev A. Matveev, Aleksander L. Matveyev, Dmitry A. Vorontsov, Anton A. Plekhanov, Sergey S. Kuznetsov, Sergey V. Gamayunov, Alexey Y. Vorontsov, Marina A. Sirotkina, Natalia D. Gladkova and Vladimir Y. Zaitsev
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3308; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093308 - 05 May 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1884
Abstract
Soft biological tissues, breast cancer tissues in particular, often manifest pronounced nonlinear elasticity, i.e., strong dependence of their Young’s modulus on the applied stress. We showed that compression optical coherence elastography (C-OCE) is a promising tool enabling the evaluation of nonlinear properties in [...] Read more.
Soft biological tissues, breast cancer tissues in particular, often manifest pronounced nonlinear elasticity, i.e., strong dependence of their Young’s modulus on the applied stress. We showed that compression optical coherence elastography (C-OCE) is a promising tool enabling the evaluation of nonlinear properties in addition to the conventionally discussed Young’s modulus in order to improve diagnostic accuracy of elastographic examination of tumorous tissues. The aim of this study was to reveal and quantify variations in stiffness for various breast tissue components depending on the applied pressure. We discussed nonlinear elastic properties of different breast cancer samples excised from 50 patients during breast-conserving surgery. Significant differences were found among various subtypes of tumorous and nontumorous breast tissues in terms of the initial Young’s modulus (estimated for stress < 1 kPa) and the nonlinearity parameter determining the rate of stiffness increase with increasing stress. However, Young’s modulus alone or the nonlinearity parameter alone may be insufficient to differentiate some malignant breast tissue subtypes from benign. For instance, benign fibrous stroma and fibrous stroma with isolated individual cancer cells or small agglomerates of cancer cells do not yet exhibit significant difference in the Young’s modulus. Nevertheless, they can be clearly singled out by their nonlinearity parameter, which is the main novelty of the proposed OCE-based discrimination of various breast tissue subtypes. This ability of OCE is very important for finding a clean resection boundary. Overall, morphological segmentation of OCE images accounting for both linear and nonlinear elastic parameters strongly enhances the correspondence with the histological slices and radically improves the diagnostic possibilities of C-OCE for a reliable clinical outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Biophotonics Applications)
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11 pages, 1752 KiB  
Article
Raman Spectroscopic Study of TiO2 Nanoparticles’ Effects on the Hemoglobin State in Individual Red Blood Cells
by Elena Perevedentseva, Yu-Chung Lin, Artashes Karmenyan, Kuan-Ting Wu, Andrei Lugovtsov, Evgeny Shirshin, Alexander Priezzhev and Chia-Liang Cheng
Materials 2021, 14(20), 5920; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14205920 - 09 Oct 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2683
Abstract
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is considered to be a nontoxic material and is widely used in a number of everyday products, such as sunscreen. TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) are also considered as prospective agents for photodynamic therapy and drug delivery. These applications [...] Read more.
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is considered to be a nontoxic material and is widely used in a number of everyday products, such as sunscreen. TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) are also considered as prospective agents for photodynamic therapy and drug delivery. These applications require an understanding of the potential effects of TiO2 on the blood system and its components upon administration. In the presented work, we analyze the interaction of TiO2 nanoparticles of different crystal phases (anatase and rutile) with individual rat Red Blood Cells (RBC) and the TiO2 influence on the oxygenation state and functionality of RBC, estimated via analysis of Raman spectra of Hemoglobin (Hb) and their distribution along individual RBC. Raman spectral signals also allow localization of the TiO2 NP on the RBC. No penetration of the NP inside RBC was observed; however, both kinds of TiO2 NP adsorbed on the RBC membrane can affect the Hb state. Mechanisms involving the NP–membrane–Hb interaction, resulting in partial deoxygenation of Hb and TiO2 photothermal effect on Hb under Raman laser excitation, are suggested. The possible influence on the safety of TiO2 use in advanced medical application, especially on the safety and efficiency of photothermal therapy, is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Biophotonics Applications)
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12 pages, 2765 KiB  
Article
Colored Tattoo Ink Screening Method with Optical Tissue Phantoms and Raman Spectroscopy
by Filip Sadura, Maciej S. Wróbel and Katarzyna Karpienko
Materials 2021, 14(12), 3147; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123147 - 08 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2717
Abstract
Due to the increasing popularity of tattoos among the general population, to ensure their safety and quality, there is a need to develop reliable and rapid methods for the analysis of the composition of tattoo inks, both in the ink itself and in [...] Read more.
Due to the increasing popularity of tattoos among the general population, to ensure their safety and quality, there is a need to develop reliable and rapid methods for the analysis of the composition of tattoo inks, both in the ink itself and in already existing tattoos. This paper presents the possibility of using Raman spectroscopy to examine tattoo inks in biological materials. We have developed optical tissue phantoms mimicking the optical scattering coefficient typical for human dermis as a substitute for an in vivo study. The material employed herein allows for mimicking the tattoo-making procedure. We investigated the effect of the scattering coefficient of the matrix in which the ink is located, as well as its chemical compositions on the spectra. Raman surface line scanning has been carried out for each ink in the skin phantom to establish the spatial gradient of ink concentration distribution. This ensures the ability to detect miniature concentrations for a tattoo margin assessment. An analysis and comparison of the spectra of the inks and the tattooed inks in the phantoms are presented. We recommend the utilization of Raman spectroscopy as a screening method to enforce the tattoo ink safety legislations as well as an early medical diagnostic screening tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Biophotonics Applications)
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16 pages, 4384 KiB  
Article
Inactivating SARS-CoV-2 Using 275 nm UV-C LEDs through a Spherical Irradiation Box: Design, Characterization and Validation
by Nicola Trivellin, Matteo Buffolo, Francesco Onelia, Alberto Pizzolato, Marco Barbato, Viviana Teresa Orlandi, Claudia Del Vecchio, Fabrizio Dughiero, Enrico Zanoni, Gaudenzio Meneghesso, Andrea Crisanti and Matteo Meneghini
Materials 2021, 14(9), 2315; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092315 - 29 Apr 2021
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3814
Abstract
We report on the design, characterization and validation of a spherical irradiation system for inactivating SARS-CoV-2, based on UV-C 275 nm LEDs. The system is designed to maximize irradiation intensity and uniformity and can be used for irradiating a volume of 18 L. [...] Read more.
We report on the design, characterization and validation of a spherical irradiation system for inactivating SARS-CoV-2, based on UV-C 275 nm LEDs. The system is designed to maximize irradiation intensity and uniformity and can be used for irradiating a volume of 18 L. To this aim: (i) several commercially available LEDs have been acquired and analyzed; (ii) a complete optical study has been carried out in order to optimize the efficacy of the system; (iii) the resulting prototype has been characterized optically and tested for the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 for different exposure times, doses and surface types; (iv) the result achieved and the efficacy of the prototype have been compared with similar devices based on different technologies. Results indicate that a 99.9% inactivation can be reached after 1 min of treatment with a dose of 83.1 J/m2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Biophotonics Applications)
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11 pages, 2885 KiB  
Article
Porous Phantoms Mimicking Tissues—Investigation of Optical Parameters Stability Over Time
by Paulina Listewnik, Monika Ronowska, Michał Wąsowicz, Valery V. Tuchin and Małgorzata Szczerska
Materials 2021, 14(2), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14020423 - 16 Jan 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2265
Abstract
Optical phantoms are used to validate optical measurement methods. The stability of their optical parameters over time allows them to be used and stored over long-term periods, while maintaining their optical parameters. The aim of the presented research was to investigate the stability [...] Read more.
Optical phantoms are used to validate optical measurement methods. The stability of their optical parameters over time allows them to be used and stored over long-term periods, while maintaining their optical parameters. The aim of the presented research was to investigate the stability of fabricated porous phantoms, which can be used as a lung phantom in optical system. Measurements were performed in multiple series with an interval of 6 months, recreating the same conditions and using the same measuring system consisting of an integrating sphere, a coherent light source with a wavelength of 635 nm and a detector. Scattering and absorption parameters were determined on the basis of the measured reflectance and transmittance. The tested samples were made of silicone and glycerol in various proportions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Biophotonics Applications)
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17 pages, 10079 KiB  
Article
Facile Synthesis of Surface-Modified Carbon Quantum Dots (CQDs) for Biosensing and Bioimaging
by Łukasz Janus, Julia Radwan-Pragłowska, Marek Piątkowski and Dariusz Bogdał
Materials 2020, 13(15), 3313; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13153313 - 25 Jul 2020
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 3742
Abstract
Recently, fluorescent probes became one of the most efficient tools for biosensing and bioimaging. Special attention is focused on carbon quantum dots (CQDs), which are characterized by the water solubility and lack of cytotoxicity. Moreover, they exhibit higher photostability comparing to traditional organic [...] Read more.
Recently, fluorescent probes became one of the most efficient tools for biosensing and bioimaging. Special attention is focused on carbon quantum dots (CQDs), which are characterized by the water solubility and lack of cytotoxicity. Moreover, they exhibit higher photostability comparing to traditional organic dyes. Currently, there is a great need for the novel, luminescent nanomaterials with tunable properties enabling fast and effective analysis of the biological samples. In this article, we propose a new, ecofriendly bottom-up synthesis approach for intelligent, surface-modified nanodots preparation using bioproducts as a raw material. Obtained nanomaterials were characterized over their morphology, chemical structure and switchable luminescence. Their possible use as a nanodevice for medicine was investigated. Finally, the products were confirmed to be non-toxic to fibroblasts and capable of cell imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Biophotonics Applications)
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20 pages, 2978 KiB  
Article
Optical Studies of Nanodiamond-Tissue Interaction: Skin Penetration and Localization
by Elena Perevedentseva, Nsrein Ali, Artashes Karmenyan, Ilya Skovorodkin, Renata Prunskaite-Hyyryläinen, Seppo Vainio, Chia-Liang Cheng and Matti Kinnunen
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3762; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223762 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2963
Abstract
In this work, several optical-spectroscopic methods have been used to visualize and investigate the penetration of diamond nanoparticles (NPs) of various sizes (3–150 nm), surface structures and fluorescence properties into the animal skin in vitro. Murine skin samples have been treated with nanodiamond [...] Read more.
In this work, several optical-spectroscopic methods have been used to visualize and investigate the penetration of diamond nanoparticles (NPs) of various sizes (3–150 nm), surface structures and fluorescence properties into the animal skin in vitro. Murine skin samples have been treated with nanodiamond (ND) water suspensions and studied using optical coherence tomography (OCT), confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). An analysis of the optical properties of the used nanodiamonds (NDs) enables the selection of optimal optical methods or their combination for the study of nanodiamond–skin interaction. Among studied NDs, particles of 100 nm in nominal size were shown to be appropriate for multimodal imaging using all three methods. All the applied NDs were able to cross the skin barrier and penetrate the different layers of the epidermis to finally arrive in the hair follicle niches. The results suggest that NDs have the potential for multifunctional applications utilizing multimodal imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Biophotonics Applications)
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Review

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31 pages, 1474 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Analysis of the UVC LEDs’ Applications and Decontamination Capability
by Talita Nicolau, Núbio Gomes Filho, Jorge Padrão and Andrea Zille
Materials 2022, 15(8), 2854; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15082854 - 13 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2868
Abstract
The application of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has been gaining popularity over the last decades. LEDs have advantages compared to traditional light sources in terms of lifecycle, robustness, compactness, flexibility, and the absence of non-hazardous material. Combining these advantages with the possibility of emitting [...] Read more.
The application of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has been gaining popularity over the last decades. LEDs have advantages compared to traditional light sources in terms of lifecycle, robustness, compactness, flexibility, and the absence of non-hazardous material. Combining these advantages with the possibility of emitting Ultraviolet C (UVC) makes LEDs serious candidates for light sources in decontamination systems. Nevertheless, it is unclear if they present better decontamination effectiveness than traditional mercury vapor lamps. Hence, this research uses a systematic literature review (SLR) to enlighten three aspects: (1) UVC LEDs’ application according to the field, (2) UVC LEDs’ application in terms of different biological indicators, and (3) the decontamination effectiveness of UVC LEDs in comparison to conventional lamps. UVC LEDs have spread across multiple areas, ranging from health applications to wastewater or food decontamination. The UVC LEDs’ decontamination effectiveness is as good as mercury vapor lamps. In some cases, LEDs even provide better results than conventional mercury vapor lamps. However, the increase in the targets’ complexity (e.g., multilayers or thicker individual layers) may reduce the UVC decontamination efficacy. Therefore, UVC LEDs still require considerable optimization. These findings are stimulating for developing industrial or final users’ applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Biophotonics Applications)
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20 pages, 6541 KiB  
Review
Functionalized Microstructured Optical Fibers: Materials, Methods, Applications
by Timur Ermatov, Julia S. Skibina, Valery V. Tuchin and Dmitry A. Gorin
Materials 2020, 13(4), 921; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13040921 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4335
Abstract
Microstructured optical fiber-based sensors (MOF) have been widely developed finding numerous applications in various fields of photonics, biotechnology, and medicine. High sensitivity to the refractive index variation, arising from the strong interaction between a guided mode and an analyte in the test, makes [...] Read more.
Microstructured optical fiber-based sensors (MOF) have been widely developed finding numerous applications in various fields of photonics, biotechnology, and medicine. High sensitivity to the refractive index variation, arising from the strong interaction between a guided mode and an analyte in the test, makes MOF-based sensors ideal candidates for chemical and biochemical analysis of solutions with small volume and low concentration. Here, we review the modern techniques used for the modification of the fiber’s structure, which leads to an enhanced detection sensitivity, as well as the surface functionalization processes used for selective adsorption of target molecules. Novel functionalized MOF-based devices possessing these unique properties, emphasize the potential applications for fiber optics in the field of modern biophotonics, such as remote sensing, thermography, refractometric measurements of biological liquids, detection of cancer proteins, and concentration analysis. In this work, we discuss the approaches used for the functionalization of MOFs, with a focus on potential applications of the produced structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Biophotonics Applications)
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