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Adhesives and Composite Resins in Contemporary Restorative Dentistry: From the Lab to the Clinic

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 January 2023) | Viewed by 18015

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: operative dentistry; dental materials; composite resins; adhesive systems; dental adhesion; bond strength; adhesive restorations; clinical trials

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Guest Editor
Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: adhesion; composite resins; dental trauma; ergonomics; pulp biology (conservative and regenerative treatments); endosseous dental implants; periimplantites

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Guest Editor
Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: biomechanics; implant dentistry; prosthodontics; fixed prosthodontics; removable prostheses; biomaterials for dentistry; 3D printing
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As general medical care, contemporary dentistry should be guided by preventive and conservative principles, using minimally invasive approaches to promote personalized restorative and regenerative procedures, always keeping aesthetics in mind.

The introduction in the 1960s of the concept of adhesion between different biomaterials and dental tissues using composite resins and adhesive systems was a game changer towards the fulfilment of several of these principles in areas as diverse as operative dentistry, prosthodontics, paediatric dentistry, endodontics and orthodontics. Over time, composite resins and adhesive systems naturally became the most used materials in restorative dentistry due to their versatility and transversal use.

In this context, the study of adhesive interfaces between dental tissues and various biomaterials such as composite resins for direct use, CAD-CAM blocks for indirect restorations, ceramics, endodontic filling materials and calcium silicate cements used in conservative/regenerative pulp treatments plays a crucial role in the development of new, more predictable and long-lasting therapeutics. Likewise, the study of the biomechanical properties of restorative biomaterials is also fundamental for the optimization of their clinical use.

We are proposing a Special Issue of Materials dedicated to dental composite resins and dental adhesive systems to highlight the importance of this growing and developing area of research, bringing together a series of articles directed to the resolution of some current clinical problems. Basic, clinical and translational investigation studies are welcome, as long as they are original and innovative.

We would be most honoured to receive your contribution in the form of an original research article.

Prof. Dr. Vinagre Alexandra
Prof. Dr. Ramos Joao Carlos
Prof. Dr. Ana Messias
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • adhesion
  • adhesive systems
  • composite resins
  • indirect restoration
  • dentin
  • biomechanical properties
  • hydraulic calcium silicate cements
  • pulp regeneration
  • regenerative endodontics

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 7240 KiB  
Article
The Retention Effect of Resin-Based Desensitizing Agents on Hypersensitivity—A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Manami Tadano, Tomoaki Nakamura, Seira Hoshikawa, Ryoko Hino, Yuriko Maruya, Aya Yamada, Satoshi Fukumoto and Kan Saito
Materials 2022, 15(15), 5172; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15155172 - 26 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1585
Abstract
Recently, the development of dental materials has increased the availability of various hyperesthesia desensitizers. However, there are no studies on the duration of retreatment in terms of adherence rates. Thus, the adhesion rates of resin-based desensitizers were investigated. We used a conventional desensitizer [...] Read more.
Recently, the development of dental materials has increased the availability of various hyperesthesia desensitizers. However, there are no studies on the duration of retreatment in terms of adherence rates. Thus, the adhesion rates of resin-based desensitizers were investigated. We used a conventional desensitizer and a recently developed desensitizer containing calcium salt of 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic acid (C-MET) and 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen calcium phosphate (MDCP). These colored agents were applied to the surfaces of premolars and molars, and the area was measured from weekly oral photographs. Areas were statistically analyzed and mean values were calculated using 95% confidence intervals. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. These rates were significantly higher on the buccal side of the maxilla and lower on the lingual side of the maxilla. In addition, the desensitizer containing C-MET and MDCP displayed significantly higher adhesion rates. It is suggested that this will require monthly follow-ups and reevaluation because both agents cause less than 10% adherence and there is almost no sealing effect after 4 weeks. In addition, the significantly higher adhesion rate of the desensitizer containing C-MET and MDCP indicated that the novel monomer contributed to the improvement in the adhesion ability. Full article
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13 pages, 1218 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Dentifrice on Micro-Hardness, Surface Gloss, and Micro-Roughness of Nano Filled Conventional and Bulk-Fill Polymer Composite—A Micro Indentation and Profilometric Study
by Mashael Binhasan, Abdulilah H. Solimanie, Khalid S. Almuammar, Ahmed R. Alnajres, Mai M. Alhamdan, Khold Al Ahdal, Yasser F. Alfaawaz, Khalid Ali, Fahim Vohra and Tariq Abduljabbar
Materials 2022, 15(12), 4347; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15124347 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1602
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of brushing with two whitening dentifrices (Colgate Optic White (COW) and Colgate Optic White Charcoal (COC)) on surface gloss, micro-roughness, and micro-hardness of nanostructured hybrid conventional (Z350) and bulk-fill (Tetric N Ceram [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of brushing with two whitening dentifrices (Colgate Optic White (COW) and Colgate Optic White Charcoal (COC)) on surface gloss, micro-roughness, and micro-hardness of nanostructured hybrid conventional (Z350) and bulk-fill (Tetric N Ceram bulk-fill) polymer composite. In total, 96 disk samples using two nano-hybrid composite polymers (Z350 and Tetric N Ceram Bulk-fill) were prepared. All specimens were exposed to two different dentifrices (COW and COC), resulting in four main subgroups in the study. Specimens were assessed for surface gloss, micro-roughness (Ra), and micro-hardness using standardized methodology. Means and standard deviations of properties compared using paired t-test, one-way and two-way ANOVA, and post hoc test. The presence of dentifrices did not show any significant difference in micro-hardness values of Z350 (p > 0.05), whereas micro-hardness of bulk-fill composite significantly reduced on dentifrices exposure (p ≤ 0.05). Bulk-fill polymer composite showed significant reduction in gloss after dentifrice exposure (p < 0.05), however, Z350 showed no significant loss of gloss due to dentifrices (p > 0.05). A significant increase in Ra was observed for both resin materials after exposure to dentifrices (COC and COW). Conventional resin composite (Z350) showed comparable surface hardness and gloss before and after dentifrice exposure, however, micro-roughness increased significantly due to dentifrice exposure. Bulk-fill resin (Tetric N Ceram) showed significant loss of micro-hardness and gloss and increase in micro-roughness on dentifrice exposure. Conventional nano-hybrid composite polymer showed better durability in resisting loss of surface properties compared to bulk-fill resin polymer in the present experiment. Full article
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17 pages, 3948 KiB  
Article
Structural, Physical, and Mechanical Analysis of ZnO and TiO2 Nanoparticle-Reinforced Self-Adhesive Coating Restorative Material
by Qura Tul Ain Idrees, Nazish Gul, Muhammad Amber Fareed, Salman Aziz Mian, Danish Muzaffar, Muhammad Nasir, Aqif Anwar Chaudhry, Sultan Akhtar, Syed Zubairuddin Ahmed and Abdul Samad Khan
Materials 2021, 14(24), 7507; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14247507 - 7 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2726
Abstract
This study aimed to modify an EQUIA coat (EC; GC, Japan) by incorporating 1 and 2 wt.% of zinc oxide (ZnO; EC-Z1 and EC-Z2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2; EC-T1 and EC-T2) nanoparticles, whereby structural and phase analyses were assessed using Fourier [...] Read more.
This study aimed to modify an EQUIA coat (EC; GC, Japan) by incorporating 1 and 2 wt.% of zinc oxide (ZnO; EC-Z1 and EC-Z2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2; EC-T1 and EC-T2) nanoparticles, whereby structural and phase analyses were assessed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry, micro-hardness, and water absorption analyses were conducted, and the microstructure was studied by scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy. FTIR spectra showed a reduction in peak heights of amide (1521 cm−1) and carbonyl (1716 cm−1) groups. XRD showed peaks of ZnO (2θ ~ 31.3°, 34.0°, 35.8°, 47.1°, 56.2°, 62.5°, 67.6°, and 68.7°) and TiO2 (2θ ~ 25.3°, 37.8°, 47.9, 54.5°, 62.8°, 69.5°, and 75.1°) corresponding to a hexagonal phase with a wurtzite structure and an anatase phase, respectively. Thermal stability was improved in newly modified materials in comparison to the control group. The sequence of obtained glass transitions was EC-T2 (111 °C), EC-T1 (102 °C), EC-Z2 (98 °C), EC-Z1 (92 °C), and EC-C (90 °C). EC-T2 and EC-T1 showed the highest (43.76 ± 2.78) and lowest (29.58 ± 3.2) micro-hardness values. EC showed the maximum water absorption (1.6%) at day 7 followed by EC-T1 (0.82%) and EC-Z1 (0.61%). These results suggest that EC with ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles has the potential to be used clinically as a coating material. Full article
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21 pages, 9419 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Interfaces between Restorative and Regenerative Biomaterials Used in Vital Pulp Therapy
by Maria Teresa Xavier, Ana Luísa Costa, Francisco José Caramelo, Paulo Jorge Palma and João Carlos Ramos
Materials 2021, 14(17), 5055; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14175055 - 3 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2557
Abstract
Background: Calcium-silicate-based cements (CSC) have gained an increasing scientific and clinical relevance, enabling more conservative approaches, namely pulp preservation and regeneration therapies. This research aims to study the influence of four clinical variables on the interfaces between CSC and composite adhesive restoration, concerning [...] Read more.
Background: Calcium-silicate-based cements (CSC) have gained an increasing scientific and clinical relevance, enabling more conservative approaches, namely pulp preservation and regeneration therapies. This research aims to study the influence of four clinical variables on the interfaces between CSC and composite adhesive restoration, concerning shear bond strength (SBS) and ultra-morphological patterns. Methods: SBS tests were performed in 320 specimens divided in 16 groups (n = 20) according to: two CSC (NuSmile® NeoMTA, BiodentineTM); two adhesive systems (ClearfilTM SE Bond 2 (CSEB2), ClearfilTM Universal Bond Quick (CUBQ)); optional application of an additional hydrophobic bonding layer (HBL); two restoration times (immediate, seven days). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to conduct the ultra-morphology interface analysis in 32 deciduous molars prepared and randomly allocated into the 16 groups. Results: Globally, SBS tests showed higher bond strength of CUBQ compared to CSEB2 (p < 0.001), as with an additional HBL application (p = 0.014) and delayed restoration (p < 0.001). SEM showed the interpenetration between adhesive systems and CSC forming a hybrid layer, whose depth and thickness depended on the restoration time and adhesive strategy. Conclusions: The independent clinical variables adhesive system, application of an additional HBL and restoration time affected the bond performance and ultra-morphological interface between composite adhesive restoration and CSC. Full article
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16 pages, 5941 KiB  
Article
Bonding Performance of Universal Adhesives Applied to Nano-Hydroxyapatite Desensitized Dentin Using Etch-and-Rinse or Self-Etch Mode
by Yuchen Meng, Fan Huang, Silin Wang, Meiwen Li, Yi Lu, Dandan Pei and Ang Li
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4746; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164746 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3203
Abstract
The study assessed the bonding performance of three universal adhesives on desensitized dentin with etch-and-rinse mode or self-etch mode after nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp)-based desensitizers application. Simulated sensitive dentin specimens were prepared and separated into four groups: no treatment as the negative control, groups desensitized [...] Read more.
The study assessed the bonding performance of three universal adhesives on desensitized dentin with etch-and-rinse mode or self-etch mode after nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp)-based desensitizers application. Simulated sensitive dentin specimens were prepared and separated into four groups: no treatment as the negative control, groups desensitized by Biorepair toothpaste, Dontodent toothpaste, or nHAp paste. Three universal adhesives of All-Bond Universal, Single Bond Universal, and Clearfil Universal Bond with etch-and-rinse or self-etch mode were bonded to the desensitized dentin specimens separately, followed by resin composite build-ups. Micro-tensile bond strength was measured using a micro-tensile tester. The wettability of desensitized dentin was evaluated by the contact angle of the adhesives. Resin infiltration was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Dentin tubular occlusion and nanoleakage were observed by scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the etch-and-rinse or self-etch mode of each adhesive showed similar bond strength when bonding to nHAp-based desensitized dentin. The dentin surface was partially covered by desensitizers after desensitization. Compared with the self-etch mode, stronger demineralization and more reopened dentin tubules were observed in the etch-and-rinse mode after acid etching; longer resin tags and more nanoleakage in the resin–dentin interface were observed when using the etch-and-rinse mode. When bonding to nHAp-based desensitized dentin with universal adhesives, no significant difference in bond strength was found between self-etch mode or etch-and-rinse mode; while the latter produced more nanoleakage in the resin–dentin interfaces. Full article
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Review

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15 pages, 903 KiB  
Review
Aspects and Principles of Material Connections in Restorative Dentistry—A Comprehensive Review
by Zbigniew Raszewski, Dariusz Brząkalski, Łukasz Derpeński, Marek Jałbrzykowski and Robert E. Przekop
Materials 2022, 15(20), 7131; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15207131 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2456
Abstract
The combination of two dissimilar materials has always been a serious problem in dentistry. In order to meet this challenge, it is necessary to combine both chemical methods (treatment with silanes, (meth)acrylic functional monomers) and the development of the surface of the joined [...] Read more.
The combination of two dissimilar materials has always been a serious problem in dentistry. In order to meet this challenge, it is necessary to combine both chemical methods (treatment with silanes, (meth)acrylic functional monomers) and the development of the surface of the joined material in a physical way, e.g., by sandblasting with alumina, alumina with silica, acid etching, the use of lasers and other means. The purpose of this literature review is to present all methods of joining dental composites with other materials such as ceramics, metal, another composite material. This review covers articles published within the period 2012–2022 in journals indexed in the PubMed database, written in English and describing joining different dental materials to each other. All the critical steps of new joint preparation have been addressed, including proper cleaning of the joint surface, the application of appropriate primers capable of forming a chemical bond between ceramics, zirconium oxide or metals and alloys, and finally, the application of new composite materials. Full article
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Other

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22 pages, 6745 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effectiveness of Self-Adhesive Resin Luting Cement in CAD-CAM Blocks—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Maria João Calheiros-Lobo, Tatiana Vieira, Ricardo Carbas, Lucas F. M. da Silva and Teresa Pinho
Materials 2023, 16(8), 2996; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16082996 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3008
Abstract
Self-adhesive resin cements (SARCs) are used because of their mechanical properties, ease of cementation protocols, and lack of requirements for acid conditioning or adhesive systems. SARCs are generally dual-cured, photoactivated, and self-cured, with a slight increase in acidic pH, allowing self-adhesiveness and increasing [...] Read more.
Self-adhesive resin cements (SARCs) are used because of their mechanical properties, ease of cementation protocols, and lack of requirements for acid conditioning or adhesive systems. SARCs are generally dual-cured, photoactivated, and self-cured, with a slight increase in acidic pH, allowing self-adhesiveness and increasing resistance to hydrolysis. This systematic review assessed the adhesive strength of SARC systems luted to different substrates and computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) ceramic blocks. The PubMed/MedLine and Science Direct databases were searched using the Boolean formula [((dental or tooth) AND (self-adhesive) AND (luting or cement) AND CAD-CAM) NOT (endodontics or implants)]. Of the 199 articles obtained, 31 were selected for the quality assessment. Lava Ultimate (resin matrix filled with nanoceramic) and Vita Enamic (polymer-infiltrated ceramic) blocks were the most tested. Rely X Unicem 2 was the most tested resin cement, followed by Rely X Unicem > Ultimate > U200, and μTBS was the test most used. The meta-analysis confirmed the substrate-dependent adhesive strength of SARCs, with significant differences between them and between SARCs and conventional resin-based adhesive cement (α < 0.05). SARCs are promising. However, one must be aware of the differences in the adhesive strengths. An appropriate combination of materials must be considered to improve the durability and stability of restorations. Full article
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