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Article

Structural, Physical, and Mechanical Analysis of ZnO and TiO2 Nanoparticle-Reinforced Self-Adhesive Coating Restorative Material

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Department of Science of Dental Materials, Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
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Adult Restorative Dentistry, Dental Biomaterials and Prosthodontics Oman Dental College, Muscat 116, Oman
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Department of Dental Materials, Institute of Dentistry, CMH Lahore Medical College, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
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Faculty of Dentistry, SEGi University, Petaling Jaya 47810, Malaysia
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Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
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Department of Biophysics, Institute for Research and Medical Consultations, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31441, Saudi Arabia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alexandre Vinagre, Ramos Joao Carlos and Ana Messias
Materials 2021, 14(24), 7507; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14247507
Received: 24 September 2021 / Revised: 25 November 2021 / Accepted: 26 November 2021 / Published: 7 December 2021
This study aimed to modify an EQUIA coat (EC; GC, Japan) by incorporating 1 and 2 wt.% of zinc oxide (ZnO; EC-Z1 and EC-Z2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2; EC-T1 and EC-T2) nanoparticles, whereby structural and phase analyses were assessed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry, micro-hardness, and water absorption analyses were conducted, and the microstructure was studied by scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy. FTIR spectra showed a reduction in peak heights of amide (1521 cm−1) and carbonyl (1716 cm−1) groups. XRD showed peaks of ZnO (2θ ~ 31.3°, 34.0°, 35.8°, 47.1°, 56.2°, 62.5°, 67.6°, and 68.7°) and TiO2 (2θ ~ 25.3°, 37.8°, 47.9, 54.5°, 62.8°, 69.5°, and 75.1°) corresponding to a hexagonal phase with a wurtzite structure and an anatase phase, respectively. Thermal stability was improved in newly modified materials in comparison to the control group. The sequence of obtained glass transitions was EC-T2 (111 °C), EC-T1 (102 °C), EC-Z2 (98 °C), EC-Z1 (92 °C), and EC-C (90 °C). EC-T2 and EC-T1 showed the highest (43.76 ± 2.78) and lowest (29.58 ± 3.2) micro-hardness values. EC showed the maximum water absorption (1.6%) at day 7 followed by EC-T1 (0.82%) and EC-Z1 (0.61%). These results suggest that EC with ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles has the potential to be used clinically as a coating material. View Full-Text
Keywords: dental materials; EQUIA coat; glass ionomer; FTIR; TGA; DSC; hardness; zinc oxide; titanium dioxide; nanoparticles dental materials; EQUIA coat; glass ionomer; FTIR; TGA; DSC; hardness; zinc oxide; titanium dioxide; nanoparticles
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MDPI and ACS Style

Idrees, Q.T.A.; Gul, N.; Fareed, M.A.; Mian, S.A.; Muzaffar, D.; Nasir, M.; Chaudhry, A.A.; Akhtar, S.; Ahmed, S.Z.; Khan, A.S. Structural, Physical, and Mechanical Analysis of ZnO and TiO2 Nanoparticle-Reinforced Self-Adhesive Coating Restorative Material. Materials 2021, 14, 7507. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14247507

AMA Style

Idrees QTA, Gul N, Fareed MA, Mian SA, Muzaffar D, Nasir M, Chaudhry AA, Akhtar S, Ahmed SZ, Khan AS. Structural, Physical, and Mechanical Analysis of ZnO and TiO2 Nanoparticle-Reinforced Self-Adhesive Coating Restorative Material. Materials. 2021; 14(24):7507. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14247507

Chicago/Turabian Style

Idrees, Qura T.A., Nazish Gul, Muhammad A. Fareed, Salman A. Mian, Danish Muzaffar, Muhammad Nasir, Aqif A. Chaudhry, Sultan Akhtar, Syed Z. Ahmed, and Abdul S. Khan. 2021. "Structural, Physical, and Mechanical Analysis of ZnO and TiO2 Nanoparticle-Reinforced Self-Adhesive Coating Restorative Material" Materials 14, no. 24: 7507. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14247507

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