Special Issue "Development of the Rolling Process in Metallic Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 July 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Zbigniew Pater
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Computer Modelling and Metal Forming Technologies, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin, Poland
Interests: rolling; forging; computer modelling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Rolling is one of the oldest methods of manufacturing, currently widely used not only in metallurgy but also in forging. Apart from the rolling processes that remain in use and have been improved for decades, new rolling methods are being developed. This development allows for an in-depth analysis of the most complicated rolling methods. I hope that this Special Issue of Materials will be a good platform for presenting any scientific work on the theory and technology of rolling. We especially encourage you to present works on:

  • Roll Forging
  • Cross Wedge Rolling
  • Thin Slab Rolling
  • Strip Cold Rolling, Annealing and Coating Processes
  • Thermomechanical Processes, TMCP
  • Mathematical Modelling and Simulation
  • New Rolling Processes
  • Flat Products, including Coated Products
  • Long Products, including Pipes and Tubes
  • Rolling Mills
  • Automation, Measurements, and Control Technology

Prof. Dr. Zbigniew Pater
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Rolling
  • Mills
  • Tools
  • Materials
  • Modelling

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Physical Modeling of Cross Wedge Rolling Limitations
Materials 2020, 13(4), 867; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13040867 - 14 Feb 2020
Abstract
This article presents the results of model tests aiming to verify the possibility of applying commercial plasticine as a model material for modelling the limits to the cross-wedge rolling process. This study presents a comparison of the results of laboratory testing and physical [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of model tests aiming to verify the possibility of applying commercial plasticine as a model material for modelling the limits to the cross-wedge rolling process. This study presents a comparison of the results of laboratory testing and physical modelling of cross-wedge rolling (CWR) processes. Commercial plasticine was the model material used in the research to model 50HS grade steel formed in 1150 °C. The model material was cooled to 0 °C, 5 °C, 10 °C, 12,5 °C, and 15 °C. Physical modelling of neckings and slippages is only possible when the plasticine is heated to 12.5 °C prior to forming. Commercial plasticine does not enable one to model the cracking process inside the rolled element. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of the Rolling Process in Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Rotational Compression of Cylindrical Specimen As a New Calibrating Test for Damage Criteria
Materials 2020, 13(3), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13030740 - 06 Feb 2020
Abstract
The subject-matter of the article is the ductile fracture of materials—A phenomenon occurring in numerous metal forming processes. In order to prognosticate the possibility of a fracture, damage criteria are employed. Their effectiveness, however, depends on the accurate determination of the critical values [...] Read more.
The subject-matter of the article is the ductile fracture of materials—A phenomenon occurring in numerous metal forming processes. In order to prognosticate the possibility of a fracture, damage criteria are employed. Their effectiveness, however, depends on the accurate determination of the critical values of damage. These values are obtained through calibrating tests, where the stress state has to be as similar to the actual process as possible. The currently employed calibrating tests do not enable one to determine the limit values of the damage function when the Mannesmann effect occurs. Therefore it was not possible to effectively prognosticate the material fracture in the processes of cross- and skew-rolling. A new calibrating test, based on rotational compression of a cylindrical sample, in which the fractures are caused by the Mannesmann effect, was developed at the Lublin University of Technology. This test was discussed in the article, with a particular focus on the stress and strain state in the sample. A practical use of the test was presented on the example of C45 grade steel, formed in the temperature equal 1150 °C. In the research ten material damage criteria were adopted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of the Rolling Process in Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Determining Conditions for Thermoplastic Processing Guaranteeing Receipt of High-Quality Wire Rod for Cold Upsetting Using Numerical and Physical Modelling Methods
Materials 2020, 13(3), 711; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13030711 - 05 Feb 2020
Abstract
This paper presents the results of research with regard to determining the conditions of the thermoplastic processing of steel wire rod for cold upsetting, which ensures that a finished product with an even and fine-grained microstructure, without a clear banding and with increased [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of research with regard to determining the conditions of the thermoplastic processing of steel wire rod for cold upsetting, which ensures that a finished product with an even and fine-grained microstructure, without a clear banding and with increased cold deformability is obtained. The material used for the studies was 20MnB4 low carbon steel, and the studies were carried out on wire rod with a final diameter of 5.5 mm. Numerical modelling of the analysed process was carried out using commercial FORGE 2011® and QTSteel® programs, based on the finite element method. The GLEEBLE 3800® metallurgical process simulator was used for the physical modelling studies. The obtained theoretical and experimental results were then verified in industrial conditions. Based on the obtained results, it was found that the optimum strip temperature before deformation in the RSM finishing block of the rolling mill is about 850 °C. The best cooling variant after the deformation process was the one in which the cooling rate was 10 °C/s. Such parameters of thermoplastic processing ensure that a final product with a favourable complex of mechanical and technological properties as well as a fine-grained, even microstructure, lacking clear banding, is obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of the Rolling Process in Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Composite Plate Rolling Technology of 304/Q345R Based on a Corrugated Interface
Materials 2019, 12(23), 3866; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12233866 - 23 Nov 2019
Abstract
A new rolling process of the 304/Q345R composite plate based on a corrugated interface was developed. Through numerical simulation and rolling experiments, the metal deformation law, the stress and strain field distribution, and the bond strength of the corrugated plate were studied. By [...] Read more.
A new rolling process of the 304/Q345R composite plate based on a corrugated interface was developed. Through numerical simulation and rolling experiments, the metal deformation law, the stress and strain field distribution, and the bond strength of the corrugated plate were studied. By comparison, the corrugated interface effectively increased the length of the composite interface. Also, the composite interface from the 2D corrugated surface became a 3D corrugated surface, and a combination of the 304/Q345R composite plate metallurgy was achieved with a low reduction rate. Simultaneously, the interface bonding strength was improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of the Rolling Process in Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Forming Features and Properties of Titanium Alloy Billets After Radial-Shear Rolling
Materials 2019, 12(19), 3179; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12193179 - 27 Sep 2019
Abstract
Radial-shear rolling (RSR) of titanium alloy billets was realized in a three-high rolling mill. Experimental rolling was simulated using DEFORM software. The purpose was to reveal how stress-strain state parameters, grain structure and hardness vary along the billet’s radius in the stationary stage [...] Read more.
Radial-shear rolling (RSR) of titanium alloy billets was realized in a three-high rolling mill. Experimental rolling was simulated using DEFORM software. The purpose was to reveal how stress-strain state parameters, grain structure and hardness vary along the billet’s radius in the stationary stage of the RSR process. It was also the goal to establish a relation between stress state parameters, hardness and grain structure. Changes in the accumulated strain and the stress triaxiality were established by computer simulation. Hardness and grain size changes were obtained after experimental rolling. The novelty aspect is that both computer simulation and experimental rolling showed that there is a ring-shape area with lowered strength in the billet’s cross-section. The radius of the ring-shape area was predicted as a result of the research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of the Rolling Process in Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Limits of the Process of Rotational Compression of Hollow Stepped Shafts
Materials 2019, 12(18), 3049; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12183049 - 19 Sep 2019
Abstract
This article presents the results of theoretical–experimental testing of the process of rotational compression of hollow stepped shafts. The advantages of the technology and the potential area of its application were discussed. Further on, the limits of the rotational compression technology, preventing the [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of theoretical–experimental testing of the process of rotational compression of hollow stepped shafts. The advantages of the technology and the potential area of its application were discussed. Further on, the limits of the rotational compression technology, preventing the manufacturing of high-quality products, were presented. The research was conducted on the basis of numerical modelling using the finite element method in Simufact Forming, as well as the results of experimental tests performed in a forging machine for rotational compression. On the basis of the results obtained, it can be stated that the process of rotational compression of hollow stepped shafts can be hindered by the following phenomena: uncontrolled slip, deformation of the semi-finished product wall, twisting of the formed steps, material cracking, and deformation of the cross-section of the formed steps. The possibility of those hindrances occurring depends heavily on the assumed technological parameters of the process. For this reason, knowledge of the cause of occurrence of those limitations is vital for the development of the technology and the choice of the process parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of the Rolling Process in Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Skew Rolling of Rods from Scrap Rail Heads
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2970; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182970 - 12 Sep 2019
Abstract
This paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental investigations of a new process of rolling rods from scrap rail heads. First, the industrial applications of scrap railway rails and methods of their recycling are discussed, and then the concept of two-stage rolling [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental investigations of a new process of rolling rods from scrap rail heads. First, the industrial applications of scrap railway rails and methods of their recycling are discussed, and then the concept of two-stage rolling of rods from heads cut off from scrap rails is proposed. In the first stage of the process, a rail head preform was rolled in a hexagonal pass of a longitudinal rolling mill. Then in the second stage, the hexagonal bar was skew rolled into a rod in a helical roll pass. Theoretical considerations were based on finite element numerical modelling. The rolling process was simulated under 3D deformation using Forge NxT v.1.1 software developed by Transvalor Company. Calculations were carried out to determine the material flow kinematics, strength, and thermal parameters of the process and to identify the phenomena that might constrain its implementation. The numerical results were verified in experimental tests, during which preforms and rods were formed from scrap rail heads. The tests were conducted in longitudinal and skew rolling mills. The results indicate that rods can be effectively formed from scrap rail heads in just two steps. Rods obtained using the proposed method can be used as full-featured, semifinished products for the manufacture of various types of machine parts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of the Rolling Process in Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of the Prediction Accuracy of a Finite Element Analysis Model for the Coating Thickness in Cross-Wedge Rolled Coaxial Hybrid Parts
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2969; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182969 - 12 Sep 2019
Abstract
The Collaborative Research Centre 1153 (CRC 1153) “Process chain for the production of hybrid high-performance components through tailored forming” aims to develop new process chains for the production of hybrid bulk components using joined semi-finished workpieces. The subproject B1 investigates the formability of [...] Read more.
The Collaborative Research Centre 1153 (CRC 1153) “Process chain for the production of hybrid high-performance components through tailored forming” aims to develop new process chains for the production of hybrid bulk components using joined semi-finished workpieces. The subproject B1 investigates the formability of hybrid parts using cross-wedge rolling. This study investigates the reduction of the coating thickness of coaxially arranged semi-finished hybrid parts through cross-wedge rolling. The investigated parts are made of two steels (1.0460 and 1.4718) via laser cladding with hot-wire. The rolling process is designed by finite element (FE)-simulations and later experimentally investigated. Research priorities include investigations of the difference in the coating thickness of the laser cladded 1.4718 before and after cross-wedge rolling depending on the wedge angle β , cross-section reduction Δ A , and the forming speed ν . Also, the simulations and the experimental trials are compared to verify the possibility of predicting the thickness via finite element analysis (FEA). The main finding was the ability to describe the forming behavior of coaxially arranged hybrid parts at a cross-section reduction of 20% using FEA. For a cross-section reduction of 70% the results showed a larger deviation between simulation and experimental trials. The deviations were between 0.8% and 26.2%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of the Rolling Process in Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effect of the Forming Zone Length on Helical Rolling Processes for Manufacturing Steel Balls
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2917; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182917 - 09 Sep 2019
Abstract
This paper begins with a brief overview of the methods for producing balls. It then discusses the rolling processes for producing balls in helical passes. Next, a method for designing tools for helical rolling (HR) is described. Six different cases of rolling using [...] Read more.
This paper begins with a brief overview of the methods for producing balls. It then discusses the rolling processes for producing balls in helical passes. Next, a method for designing tools for helical rolling (HR) is described. Six different cases of rolling using tools with helical passes of different lengths are modeled by the finite element method (FEM). The simulations are performed with the use of Simufact Forming version 13.3. Based on the 3D simulations, the distributions of effective strain, damage criterion, and temperature, as well as the variations in loads and torques, are determined. This study also predicts the rate and manner of wear of the helical tools, depending on the tool design. As a result, it has been found that an increased length of the helical forming passes is advantageous in terms of tool service life. It has also been found that excessive elongation of the forming zone is not cost-effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of the Rolling Process in Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Study of Helical and Cross-Wedge Rolling Processes for Producing Ball Studs
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2887; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182887 - 06 Sep 2019
Abstract
This paper presents two rolling technologies: cross-wedge rolling (CWR) and helical-wedge rolling (HWR). The two rolling processes were compared using the example of rolling a ball stud forging. The technologies were modeled in the finite element model (FEM) environment. Calculations were performed to [...] Read more.
This paper presents two rolling technologies: cross-wedge rolling (CWR) and helical-wedge rolling (HWR). The two rolling processes were compared using the example of rolling a ball stud forging. The technologies were modeled in the finite element model (FEM) environment. Calculations were performed to obtain distributions of strain and the Cockcroft–Latham damage criterion. The investigated processes were also performed under real-life conditions. The results of the experiments were used to compare the force and energy parameters of the rolling technologies. Tests were also carried out to investigate the microstructure of the studs and a grain size after rolling. The state of the macrostructure, i.e., the grain flow lines, was also compared. The experiments showed that HWR was a more energy-efficient process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of the Rolling Process in Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Prediction of Crack Formation for Cross Wedge Rolling of Harrow Tooth Preform
Materials 2019, 12(14), 2287; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12142287 - 17 Jul 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The article presents the issue of material fracture during the process of cross-wedge rolling (CWR). The object of the research was the process of forming a harrow tooth preform. In the conducted analysis nine damage criteria were applied. The critical value of damage [...] Read more.
The article presents the issue of material fracture during the process of cross-wedge rolling (CWR). The object of the research was the process of forming a harrow tooth preform. In the conducted analysis nine damage criteria were applied. The critical value of damage was determined with a new calibrating test, basing on rotational compression of a sample in a channel. The results of calculations were compared to the results of experimental testing performed in laboratory conditions in Lublin University of Technology. On the basis of the obtained results an assessment of the applied damage criteria and their applicability in the analysis of CWR processes was conducted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of the Rolling Process in Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Hot Deformation Behavior of Q345 Steel and Its Application in Rapid Shear Connection
Materials 2019, 12(13), 2186; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12132186 - 07 Jul 2019
Abstract
The high-temperature deformation behavior of Q345 steel is detected by a Gleeble-3800 thermal simulator. The Arrhenius constitutive equation for high-temperature flow stress and the dynamic recrystallization model are constructed. With the secondary development technology, customized modifications are made on existing Deform-3D software. The [...] Read more.
The high-temperature deformation behavior of Q345 steel is detected by a Gleeble-3800 thermal simulator. The Arrhenius constitutive equation for high-temperature flow stress and the dynamic recrystallization model are constructed. With the secondary development technology, customized modifications are made on existing Deform-3D software. The constructed constitutive model and dynamic recrystallization model are embedded into Deform-3D to realize the secondary development of Deform-3D. The grain size and volume percentage distribution of dynamic recrystallization are obtained by simulating the shear connection process at high temperature and high speed. The results show that the constitutive equation and the dynamic recrystallization model constructed in this paper can be used to predict the evolution of the microstructure. The difference between the prediction results and the experimental data is about 3%. The accuracy of Arrhenius constitutive equation, dynamic recrystallization model and the feasibility of software secondary development are verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of the Rolling Process in Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Inter-Pass Cooling on Microstructural Evolution and Plastic Deformation of Heavy EH47 Plates
Materials 2019, 12(10), 1686; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12101686 - 23 May 2019
Abstract
Herein, the influence of inter-pass cooling (IC) and conventional two-stage rolling (CTR), on microstructural evolution and plastic deformation behavior of ultra-heavy EH47 plates, is demonstrated. It is reported that the deformation amount and deformation rate, in every deformation pass during rough rolling, at [...] Read more.
Herein, the influence of inter-pass cooling (IC) and conventional two-stage rolling (CTR), on microstructural evolution and plastic deformation behavior of ultra-heavy EH47 plates, is demonstrated. It is reported that the deformation amount and deformation rate, in every deformation pass during rough rolling, at 1/4- and 1/2-thickness of IC steel were higher than the CTR steel. The volume fraction of ferrite and acicular ferrite was 45% and 18%, at 1/4-thickness, and 35% and 50% at 1/2-thickness of IC steel, respectively, whereas the sum of both ferrite phases was smaller than 25% in the CTR steel. The austenite grain boundary area and high-angle grain boundary fraction in the IC steel were higher than the CTR steel. The high density of fine and shapeless pearlite has been observed in IC steel, whereas large-size carbides, with hexagonal structure, have been observed in CTR steel. Compared to the CTR steel, the density of precipitates was apparently lower in IC steel. Two kinds of Nb containing precipitates, such as (Ti, Nb)(C, N) and (Nb, Ti)C, were observed in the tested steels. Total ductility and uniform elongation of the IC steel were higher than the CTR steel. During the tensile process, the crack initiation energy and crack propagation energy of the IC steel were higher than the CTR steel. Moreover, the volume fraction of retained austenite (FCC) was reduced from 7.71% to 0.42% near the tensile fracture in IC steel at 1/4-thickness. In additon, the strain of synergetic plastic deformation of the IC steel was higher than the CTR steel. Meanwhile, compared to the CTR steel, the synergetic plastic deformation of the IC steel occurred at low stress after the yield point, which can be ascribed to the presence of fewer microcracks in the IC steel. Hence, a delayed fracture has been observed in the IC steel plate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of the Rolling Process in Metallic Materials)
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