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Special Issue "Recent Advances on Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Features of Alloy/Steel"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Metals and Alloys".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 August 2023 | Viewed by 7992

Special Issue Editor

Institute of Molecule and Crystal Physics, Saint Petersburg State University Ufa Fed Res Ctr, 199034 Saint Petersburg, Russia
Interests: severe plastic deformation; mechanical behavior of materials; recrystallization; grain boundaries; mechanical properties; microstructure; metals; mechanical testing; electron crystallography; X-ray diffraction; phase transformations; materials science

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The modern development of science and technology makes high demands on the mechanical behavior of alloys/steels. The mechanical behavior of metallic materials is directly related to the structural and phase transformations that take place in them. As a result of deformation, thermal, and other effects on alloys/steels, various structural features can be observed in them, affecting mechanical behavior. Modern methods for studying structure and properties have made it possible to discover interesting features—for example, the segregation of grain boundaries in steels and other alloys, the special character of grain boundaries under severe plastic deformation, etc.

This Special Issue focuses on recent studies of the structural features and mechanical behavior of alloys/steels.

Dr. Anna Churakova
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • steels
  • metals
  • mechanical behavior of metals
  • mechanical properties
  • microstructure
  • phase transformations
  • materials science

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Article
Microstructural Assessment, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of a Mg-Sr Alloy Processed by Combined Severe Plastic Deformation
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2279; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062279 - 12 Mar 2023
Viewed by 265
Abstract
The development of high-performance biodegradable alloys with controllable corrosion rates to be used for manufacturing advanced implants is a hot topic of modern materials science and biomedicine. This work features the changes in microstructure, corrosion behavior and mechanical properties of the Mg-2 wt.%Sr [...] Read more.
The development of high-performance biodegradable alloys with controllable corrosion rates to be used for manufacturing advanced implants is a hot topic of modern materials science and biomedicine. This work features the changes in microstructure, corrosion behavior and mechanical properties of the Mg-2 wt.%Sr alloy progressively induced by equal-channel angular pressing, high-pressure torsion and annealing. We show that such processing leads to significant microstructure refinement including diminishing grain size, defect accumulation and fragmentation of the initial eutectics. We demonstrate that the application of severe plastic deformation and heat treatment is capable of considerably enhancing the mechanical and corrosion performance of a biodegradable alloy of the Mg-Sr system. The best trade-off between strength, plasticity and the corrosion resistance has been achieved by annealing of the Mg-Sr alloy subjected to combined severe plastic deformation processing. Full article
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Article
Gradient Microstructure and Texture Formation in a Metastable Austenitic Stainless Steel during Cold Rotary Swaging
Materials 2023, 16(4), 1706; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16041706 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 356
Abstract
The paper aimed to study the evolution of the microstructure and texture gradient of a 321-type metastable austenitic stainless steel during cold rotary swaging. Cold rotary swaging was carried out with a reduction of up to 90% at ambient temperature. Pronounced gradients of [...] Read more.
The paper aimed to study the evolution of the microstructure and texture gradient of a 321-type metastable austenitic stainless steel during cold rotary swaging. Cold rotary swaging was carried out with a reduction of up to 90% at ambient temperature. Pronounced gradients of the α’-martensite volume fraction, the axial texture of austenite (⟨111⟩ and ⟨001⟩) and α’-martensite (⟨101⟩), and non-uniform microhardness distribution along the rod diameter were obtained after a reduction of 80–90%. According to the finite element analysis, moderate tensile stresses were attained in the center, whereas high compressive stresses operated at the edge. Due to water cooling of the rod surface and heating of the rod center during processing, a temperature gradient was also derived. Features of strain-induced martensitic transformation, microstructure and texture evolution, and non-uniform hardening during cold rotary swaging were discussed. Full article
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Article
Phase Equilibria of the In–Pd–Sn System at 500 °C and 800 °C: Experimental Study and CALPHAD Modeling
Materials 2023, 16(4), 1690; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16041690 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 364
Abstract
Phase equilibria in the In–Pd–Sn system were investigated by a combination of key experiments and thermodynamic modeling. Partial isothermal sections at 500 °C and 800 °C of the In–Pd–Sn system for Pd contents above 66 at.% have been plotted experimentally using scanning electron [...] Read more.
Phase equilibria in the In–Pd–Sn system were investigated by a combination of key experiments and thermodynamic modeling. Partial isothermal sections at 500 °C and 800 °C of the In–Pd–Sn system for Pd contents above 66 at.% have been plotted experimentally using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The solubility of the third component in binary compounds InPd3 and Pd3Sn was determined. The new ternary compound τ1 was found in Pd contents ranging from 20 to 25 at.% and at Sn contents varying from 5 to approximately 17 at.% Sn. This compound crystallizes in an Al3Ti-type tetragonal structure. Isostructural InPd2 and Pd2Sn phases from the In–Pd and Pd–Sn binary compositions form a continuous phase field in the ternary system at both temperatures. The temperatures of the solidus, liquidus, and phase transitions of the alloys along the Pd–In50Sn50 line were measured using DTA/DSC. Thermodynamic calculation of the In–Pd–Sn ternary system is performed using the CALPHAD method using the Thermo-Calc® software. The thermodynamic properties of the disordered fcc and liquid phases were described by the Redlich–Kister–Muggianu model. To describe intermetallic phases, namely, InPd3, Pd3Sn, τ1 and Pd2(InxSn1−x), a two-sublattice models was used. Thermodynamic description of the In–Pd–Sn system obtained in this study is in good agreement both with our results and the published experimental data Full article
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Article
Enhanced Fatigue Limit in Ultrafine-Grained Ferritic–Martensitic Steel
Materials 2023, 16(4), 1632; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16041632 - 15 Feb 2023
Viewed by 378
Abstract
The influence of the ultrafine-grained (UFG) structure on the fatigue endurance limit and the nature of fatigue failure have been studied. It is shown that the formation of the UFG structure containing carbides and the coincidence site lattice relationship (CSL) and twin boundaries [...] Read more.
The influence of the ultrafine-grained (UFG) structure on the fatigue endurance limit and the nature of fatigue failure have been studied. It is shown that the formation of the UFG structure containing carbides and the coincidence site lattice relationship (CSL) and twin boundaries leads to an increase in the fatigue endurance limit. To study the mechanisms of fatigue failure, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis were used. Studies have shown that the formation of the UFG structure as a result of rolling and subsequent heat treatment above the temperature of the ferrite/austenite phase transition leads to an increase in the fatigue endurance limit by more than 70%, from 475 to 800 MPa, compared to coarse-grained samples. The dynamic aging observed during fatigue tests was more pronounced in materials with a UFG microstructure. The influence of the CSL and twin boundaries on the nature of the fatigue failure of ferritic–martensitic steel is discussed. Full article
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Article
Superplastic Behavior and Microstructural Features of the VT6 Titanium Alloy with an Ultrafine-Grained Structure during Upsetting
Materials 2023, 16(4), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16041439 - 08 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 325
Abstract
In this paper, the superplastic behavior of the two-phase titanium alloy VT6 with an ultrafine-grained (UFG) structure produced by equal-channel angular pressing is examined. The deformation of specimens with a UFG structure was performed by upsetting in a temperature range of 650–750 °C [...] Read more.
In this paper, the superplastic behavior of the two-phase titanium alloy VT6 with an ultrafine-grained (UFG) structure produced by equal-channel angular pressing is examined. The deformation of specimens with a UFG structure was performed by upsetting in a temperature range of 650–750 °C and strain rate range of 1 × 10−4–5 × 10−1 s−1. Under these conditions, an increased strain-rate sensitivity coefficient m was observed. The calculation of apparent activation energy showed values in a range of 160–200 kJ/mol while the superplastic flow of the VT6 alloy was occurring. When superplastic behavior (SPB) was impeded, the energy Q grew considerably, indicating a change in mechanism from grain-boundary sliding (GBS) to bulk diffusion. A change in temperature and strain rate influenced the development of superplastic flow and the balance of relaxation processes. Microstructural analysis shows that the UFG state is preserved at upsetting temperatures of 650 and 700 °C. A decrease in strain rate and/or an increase in upsetting temperature promoted a more active development of recrystallization and grain growth, as well as α2-phase formation. In a certain temperature and strain-rate range of the UFG VT6 alloy, α2-phase plates were found, the formation of which was controlled by diffusion. The effect of the α2-phase on the alloy’s mechanical behavior is discussed. Full article
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Article
Effect of the Texture of the Ultrafine-Grained Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy on Impact Toughness
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1318; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031318 - 03 Feb 2023
Viewed by 467
Abstract
In this work, the strength properties and impact toughness of the ultrafine-grained (UFG) Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy produced by severe plastic deformation (SPD) in combination with upsetting were studied, depending on the direction of crack propagation. In the billets processed by equal-channel angular pressing [...] Read more.
In this work, the strength properties and impact toughness of the ultrafine-grained (UFG) Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy produced by severe plastic deformation (SPD) in combination with upsetting were studied, depending on the direction of crack propagation. In the billets processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP), the presence of anisotropy of ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and ductility was observed, conditioned by the formation of a metallographic and crystallographic texture. At the same time, the ECAP-processed UFG alloy exhibited satisfactory values of impact toughness, ~0.42 MJ/m2. An additional upsetting of the ECAP-processed billet simulated the processes of shape forming/die forging and was accompanied by the development of recovery and recrystallization. This provided the “blurring” of texture and a reduction in the anisotropy of UTS and ductility, but a difference in impact toughness in several directions of fracture was still observed. It is shown that texture evolution during upsetting provided a significant increase in the crack propagation energy. The relationship between microstructure, texture and mechanical properties in different sections of the material under study is discussed. Full article
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Article
Macro- and Microstructure of In Situ Composites Prepared by Friction Stir Processing of AA5056 Admixed with Copper Powders
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031070 - 26 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 403
Abstract
This paper is devoted to using multi-pass friction stir processing (FSP) for admixing 1.5 to 30 vol.% copper powders into an AA5056 matrix for the in situ fabrication of a composite alloy reinforced by Al-Cu intermetallic compounds (IMC). Macrostructurally inhomogeneous stir zones have [...] Read more.
This paper is devoted to using multi-pass friction stir processing (FSP) for admixing 1.5 to 30 vol.% copper powders into an AA5056 matrix for the in situ fabrication of a composite alloy reinforced by Al-Cu intermetallic compounds (IMC). Macrostructurally inhomogeneous stir zones have been obtained after the first FSP passes, the homogeneity of which was improved with the following FSP passes. As a result of stirring the plasticized AA5056, the initial copper particle agglomerates were compacted into large copper particles, which were then simultaneously saturated by aluminum. Microstructural investigations showed that various phases such as α-Al(Cu), α-Cu(Al) solid solutions, Cu3Al and CuAl IMCs, as well as both S and S’-Al2CuMg precipitates have been detected in the AA5056/Cu stir zone, depending upon the concentration of copper and the number of FSP passes. The number of IMCs increased with the number of FSP passes, enhancing microhardness by 50–55%. The effect of multipass FSP on tensile strength, yield stress and strain-to-fracture was analyzed. Full article
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Article
Deformation Behavior under Tension with Pulse Current of Ultrafine-Grain and Coarse-Grain CP Titanium
Materials 2023, 16(1), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16010191 - 25 Dec 2022
Viewed by 818
Abstract
The problem of the real existence of the electroplastic effect during deformation of metallic materials of different nature is still relevant. At the same time, the influence of structure refinement is not considered enough. In this work, the deformation behavior of ultrafine-grained (UFG) [...] Read more.
The problem of the real existence of the electroplastic effect during deformation of metallic materials of different nature is still relevant. At the same time, the influence of structure refinement is not considered enough. In this work, the deformation behavior of ultrafine-grained (UFG) titanium Grade 4 is compared with that of coarse-grained (CG) titanium under tension with pulse current of the low duty cycle. The deformation curves of both structure states are presented for different regimes of pulsed current and thermal heating from an external source. Structure studies by optical and scanning electron microscopy, as well as microhardness measurements have been carried out. It is shown that Grade 4 titanium under tension accompanied by pulsed current exhibits electroplastic effect (EPE) in the form of a flow stress reduction. EPE in UFG state is much stronger than in CG state. An increase in the density and duration of the current pulse leads to a multiple decrease in the flow stresses in CG and UFG titanium. The contribution in the flow stress reduction from heating by an external source was less than that from tension with pulse current at the same temperatures. The impact of pulsed current during tension does not influence microhardness and grain size. Full article
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Article
Some Slippage Issues in High-Pressure Torsion Using Cu and Ti Samples as an Example
Materials 2023, 16(1), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16010162 - 24 Dec 2022
Viewed by 429
Abstract
The effect of slippage during High Pressure Torsion (HPT) of technically pure Ti and pure Cu samples was investigated. The “joint torsion of the disk halves” method was used to evaluate the effect of slippage. It was shown that slippage starts already at [...] Read more.
The effect of slippage during High Pressure Torsion (HPT) of technically pure Ti and pure Cu samples was investigated. The “joint torsion of the disk halves” method was used to evaluate the effect of slippage. It was shown that slippage starts already at the early stages of HPT. With a further increase in the number of revolutions n, the slippage effect increases, and no torsional deformation occurs after n = 5. The slippage effect is explained by analyzing the surface friction forces between the sample and the anvil. However, studies via TEM and XRD have shown that the structure of Ti samples after HPT at the investigated conditions is grinded to a nanocrystalline state. A structure is formed in Ti similar to that observed after HPT by other authors. The dislocation density increases with increasing HPT degree from n = 5 to n = 10 revolutions, despite slippage. Consequently, despite slippage at HPT at n ≥ 5, deformation still occurs. The following assumptions are made to explain the accumulated strain in the sample at HPT. It is assumed that the planes of the upper and lower anvil during HPT are at a slight inclination relative to each other. Computer modeling using the Deform 3D software package has shown that this leads to the accumulations of significant strain during HPT. Full article
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Article
Dissimilar Friction Stir Welding of AA2519 and AA5182
Materials 2022, 15(24), 8776; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15248776 - 08 Dec 2022
Viewed by 445
Abstract
In this study, the friction-stir welding (FSW) technique was successfully applied for joining of AA2519 to AA5181 alloy. Microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar FSW joints were investigated by optical microscopy, microhardness, and tensile testing. The deformation behaviour of the welded joints was [...] Read more.
In this study, the friction-stir welding (FSW) technique was successfully applied for joining of AA2519 to AA5181 alloy. Microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar FSW joints were investigated by optical microscopy, microhardness, and tensile testing. The deformation behaviour of the welded joints was elucidated via the digital image correlation technique. After welding, the ultimate tensile strength of joints was ~300 MPa and ductility was ~16%. The microhardness values observed at the stir zone were higher than those in the base material AA5182. The produced welds demonstrate nearly 100% (based on AA5182) joint efficiency. Full article
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Article
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of β-Titanium Ti-15Mo Alloy Produced by Combined Processing including ECAP-Conform and Drawing
Materials 2022, 15(23), 8666; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15238666 - 05 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 558
Abstract
At present, researchers pay great attention to the development of metastable β-titanium alloys. A task of current importance is the enhancement of their strength and fatigue properties. An efficient method for increasing the strength of such alloys could be severe plastic deformation. The [...] Read more.
At present, researchers pay great attention to the development of metastable β-titanium alloys. A task of current importance is the enhancement of their strength and fatigue properties. An efficient method for increasing the strength of such alloys could be severe plastic deformation. The object of this study was a medical metastable β-titanium alloy Ti-15Mo (ASTM F2066). The alloy in the (α + β) state was for the first time deformed by combined processing, including equal channel angular pressing-conform and drawing. Such processing enabled the production of long-length rods with a length of 1500 mm. The aim of the work was to study the effect of the combined processing on the alloy’s microstructure and mechanical properties. An ultrafine-grained structure with an average size of structural elements less than 100 nm was obtained. At the same time, high strength and ductility (σuts = 1590 MPa, δ = 10%) were achieved, which led to a record increase in the endurance limit (σ−1 = 710 MPa) under tension-compression terms. Full article
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Article
Effects of Severe Plastic Deformation and Ultrasonic Treatment on the Structure, Strength, and Corrosion Resistance of Mg-Al-Zn Alloy
Materials 2022, 15(20), 7200; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15207200 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 694
Abstract
Nowadays, there is a great demand for increasing the strength and corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys for their wider use in machine engineering, oil industry, and medicine. This paper is devoted to a study on the effects of the combined process of reduction [...] Read more.
Nowadays, there is a great demand for increasing the strength and corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys for their wider use in machine engineering, oil industry, and medicine. This paper is devoted to a study on the effects of the combined process of reduction and equal channel angular pressing, as well as the subsequent ultrasonic irradiation on the structure, strength, and corrosion properties of the Mg-Al-Zn alloy. Deformation processing results in an increase of the strength up to 280 ± 10 MPa. A fine-grained structure is formed with a grain size of 10–20 µm and small recrystallized grains 1–2 µm in size. The corrosion resistance in the HCl medium falls down significantly. Action of ultrasound on the deformed specimen leads to an increased fraction of high-angle boundaries, in particular, the fractions of special, fully overlapping Σ13a boundaries and twin boundaries of Σ15b and Σ17a systems. Due to the ultrasonic treatment, the strength of the Mg-Al-Zn alloy increases up to 310 ± 5 MPa, while the corrosion resistance in HCl almost doubles. Full article
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Article
The Microstructure and Strength of UFG 6060 Alloy after Superplastic Deformation at a Lower Homologous Temperature
Materials 2022, 15(19), 6983; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15196983 - 08 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 696
Abstract
The paper reports on the features of low-temperature superplasticity of the heat-treatable aluminum Al-Mg-Si alloy in the ultrafine-grained state at temperatures below 0.5 times the melting point as well as on its post-deformation microstructure and tensile strength. We show that the refined microstructure [...] Read more.
The paper reports on the features of low-temperature superplasticity of the heat-treatable aluminum Al-Mg-Si alloy in the ultrafine-grained state at temperatures below 0.5 times the melting point as well as on its post-deformation microstructure and tensile strength. We show that the refined microstructure is retained after superplastic deformation in the range of deformation temperatures of 120–180 °C and strain rates of 5 × 10–3 s–1–10–4 s–1. In the absence of noticeable grain growth, the ultrafine-grained alloy maintains the strength up to 380 MPa after SP deformation, which considerably exceeds the value (250 MPa) for the alloy in the peak-aged coarse-grain state. This finding opens pathways to form high-strength articles of Al-Mg-Si alloys after superplastic forming. Full article
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Review

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Review
Residual Stress Measurement Techniques for Metal Joints, Metallic Coatings and Components in the Railway Industry: A Review
Materials 2023, 16(1), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16010232 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 926
Abstract
Manufacturing and maintenance procedures in the railway industry regularly implement welding and metal deposition operations to produce joints, coatings and repair structures. During these processes, residual stresses arise through the generation of heat affected zones and plastic deformation. This makes accurate measurements of [...] Read more.
Manufacturing and maintenance procedures in the railway industry regularly implement welding and metal deposition operations to produce joints, coatings and repair structures. During these processes, residual stresses arise through the generation of heat affected zones and plastic deformation. This makes accurate measurements of the internal stresses a critical aspect of manufacturing, monitoring, repair and model validation in the develop new metallic coating and joining technologies. Selection of an appropriate residual stress measurement method has many important factors including component size, resolution and the magnitude and location of internal stresses, often resulting in a combination of techniques required to obtain complete assessment of the stress state. This paper offers a review of residual stress measurement techniques for railway components including rail joints and coatings through comparison of destructive and non-destructive approaches, their measurement capabilities, benefits and limitations. A comprehensive discussion of different applications is provided with a summary of facilities available to both research and industry. Full article
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