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Numerical and Analytical Modeling of Anisotropic Fiber-Based Materials

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Simulation and Design".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020) | Viewed by 25097

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Institute of Textile Machinery and High Performance Material Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany
Interests: fibers; fabrics; smart textiles and structures; composite materials; simulation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fiber-based materials, such as wood, paper, textile fabrics, and composite materials, are widely used in different fields of application. These include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Wood composites as building materials;
  • Paper- and paperboard-based products as packaging materials;
  • Textile-reinforced composites for structural applications in automotive, aerospace, and other industries;
  • Coated textiles for membrane building constructions.

Their advantages are low weight, flexible adaptability to complex geometries, and excellent specific structural properties. Their material properties are thus adjustable to the individual requirements of processing and construction. Numerical modeling on different length scales supports the design of structures and processes. Considerable progress has been made in recent years concerning simulating the mechanical responses of fiber-based anisotropic structures and materials to a variety of static and dynamic loadings, including modeling of damage and failure.

This Special Issue will focus on recent progress in the numerical and analytical modeling of anisotropic fiber-based materials. Topics can include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Modeling textile fabrics on different length scales;
  • Process and structural models for paper- and paperboard-based materials;
  • Modeling of wood composites;
  • Laminated multi-layer composites and fiber-reinforced polymers.

I would like to invite you to submit contributions presenting your recent research articles, reviews, and brief communications revealing new trends in models for fiber-based materials.

Dr. Thomas Gereke
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Wood composites
  • Fiber-reinforced polymers
  • Textile-reinforced composites
  • Paper and paperboard
  • Simulation
  • Multi-scale modeling
  • Finite element method

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 10086 KiB  
Article
Machine Vision for As-Built Modeling of Complex Draped Composite Structures
by Oliver Döbrich, Ayoh Anderegg, Nicolas Gort and Christian Brauner
Materials 2021, 14(3), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14030682 - 2 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2184
Abstract
The transition in the use of fiber composite structures from special applications to application in the mass market is accompanied by high demands in quality assurance. The consequential costs of unclear process design, unknown fiber orientations, and uncertainty regarding the effects of any [...] Read more.
The transition in the use of fiber composite structures from special applications to application in the mass market is accompanied by high demands in quality assurance. The consequential costs of unclear process design, unknown fiber orientations, and uncertainty regarding the effects of any fiber angle deviations can lead to market considerations (higher costs/time for development) in mass production that advise against the use of fiber composites, despite their superiority compared with conservative materials. Active monitoring of the deposited reinforcement layers and an evaluation of the real fiber orientation can form the basis of a robust industrial use of fiber composites by a first-time right production that is able to reduce the process variability. This paper describes the application of an image analysis system to provide both geometric topology and local reinforcement fiber orientation feedback to a finite-element (FE) model. The application during an industrial composite part production is described, and the possibilities of using it for the improvement of the lightweight character, the reduction of rejects, and the realization of a quality management system are shown. The determined component data are made directly available for use in numerical simulations and, thus, they serve as a non-destructive evaluation of the components under real conditions in which all production-dependent influences that affect the fiber orientation are incorporated. Full article
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13 pages, 19144 KiB  
Article
Numerical Study on the Effect of Z-Warps on the Ballistic Responses of Para-Aramid 3D Angle-Interlock Fabrics
by Yingxue Yang, Xiuqin Zhang, Xiaogang Chen and Shengnan Min
Materials 2021, 14(3), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14030479 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1758
Abstract
In order to achieve an efficient ballistic protection at a low weight, it is necessary to deeply explore the energy absorption mechanisms of ballistic fabric structures. In this paper, finite element (FE) yarn-level models of the designed three-dimensional (3D) angle-interlock (AI) woven fabrics [...] Read more.
In order to achieve an efficient ballistic protection at a low weight, it is necessary to deeply explore the energy absorption mechanisms of ballistic fabric structures. In this paper, finite element (FE) yarn-level models of the designed three-dimensional (3D) angle-interlock (AI) woven fabrics and the laminated two-dimensional (2D) plain fabrics are established. The ballistic impact responses of fabric panels with and without the interlocking Z-warp yarns during the projectile penetration are evaluated in terms of their energy absorption, deformation, and stress distribution. The Z-warps in the 3D fabrics bind different layers of wefts together and provide the panel with structural support along through-the-thickness direction. The results show that the specific energy absorption (SEA) of 3D fabrics is up to 88.1% higher than that of the 2D fabrics. The 3D fabrics has a wider range of in-plane stress dispersion, which demonstrates its structural advantages in dispersing impact stress and getting more secondary yarns involved in energy absorption. However, there is a serious local stress concentration in 2D plain woven fabrics near the impact location. The absence of Z-warps between the layers of 2D laminated fabrics leads to a premature layer by layer failure. The findings are indicative for the future design of ballistic amors. Full article
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23 pages, 3251 KiB  
Article
The Elastic Share of Inelastic Stress–Strain Paths of Woven Fabrics
by Mehran Motevalli, Jörg Uhlemann, Natalie Stranghöner and Daniel Balzani
Materials 2020, 13(19), 4243; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13194243 - 23 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1797
Abstract
Manifold variations of the mechanical behavior of structural woven fabrics appear in the first load cycles. Nevertheless, invariable states, i.e., mechanically saturated states, can be approached by multiple monotonous load cycle biaxial tests. In a state acceptably close to the ideal saturated state, [...] Read more.
Manifold variations of the mechanical behavior of structural woven fabrics appear in the first load cycles. Nevertheless, invariable states, i.e., mechanically saturated states, can be approached by multiple monotonous load cycle biaxial tests. In a state acceptably close to the ideal saturated state, the stress–strain paths reveal the elastic share of the initially inelastic stress–strain paths of woven fabrics. In this paper, the mechanical saturation behavior of two types of PTFE-coated woven glass fiber fabrics is examined and compared to the recently reported saturation behavior of a PVC-coated polyester fabric. With the help of the saturation test data, an extrapolation function is developed that facilitates an estimation of late cycle stiffness behavior based on measured early cycle behavior. Furthermore, the considerable impact of late cycle properties on structural analyses is shown exemplarily in the numerical simulation of a prestressed fabric structure by comparing results achieved from late and early load cycle stiffness parameters. Full article
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13 pages, 2320 KiB  
Article
Nonlinear XFEM Modeling of Mode II Delamination in PPS/Glass Unidirectional Composites with Uncertain Fracture Properties
by Damoon Motamedi, Mahdi Takaffoli and Abbas S. Milani
Materials 2020, 13(16), 3548; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13163548 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2017
Abstract
Initiation and propagation of cracks in composite materials can severely affect their global mechanical properties. Due to the lower strength of the interlaminar bonding compared to fibers and the matrix, delamination between plies is known to be one of the most common failure [...] Read more.
Initiation and propagation of cracks in composite materials can severely affect their global mechanical properties. Due to the lower strength of the interlaminar bonding compared to fibers and the matrix, delamination between plies is known to be one of the most common failure modes in these materials. It is therefore deemed necessary to gain more insight into this type of failure to guide the design of composite structures towards ensuring their robustness and reliability during service. In this work, delamination of interlaminar bonding in composite end-notched flexure (ENF) samples was modeled using a newly developed stochastic 3D extended finite element method (XFEM). The proposed numerical scheme, which also incorporates the cohesive zone model, was used to characterize the mode II delamination results obtained from ENF testing on polyphenylene sulfide (PPS)/glass unidirectional (UD) composites. The nonrepeatable material responses, often seen during fracture testing of UD composites, were well captured with the current numerical model, demonstrating its capacity to predict the stochastic fracture properties of composites under mode II loading conditions. Full article
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16 pages, 6594 KiB  
Article
Modelling Inhomogeneity of Veneer Laminates with a Finite Element Mapping Method Based on Arbitrary Grayscale Images
by David Zerbst, Christian Liebold, Thomas Gereke, André Haufe, Sebastian Clauß and Chokri Cherif
Materials 2020, 13(13), 2993; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13132993 - 5 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1943
Abstract
Failure and deformation behavior of veneer laminates of ring porous wood species vary with the individual arrangement of early- and latewood zones over a veneer sheet. Therefore, a method is presented, where local failure and damage modes are considered for finite element models [...] Read more.
Failure and deformation behavior of veneer laminates of ring porous wood species vary with the individual arrangement of early- and latewood zones over a veneer sheet. Therefore, a method is presented, where local failure and damage modes are considered for finite element models with respect to forming simulations, during the development process of automotive interior trim parts. Within the mapping tool Envyo, a routine has been realized for the discretization of early- and latewood zones from ash wood veneer surfaces to finite element meshes. The routine performs the following steps: reading a grayscale image of known size and generation of a point cloud based on the number of pixels; transformation and scaling of the generated point cloud to align with a target finite element mesh; nearest neighbor search and transfer of grayscale values to the target mesh element centroids; assigning part and therefore material properties to the target elements based on the mapped grayscale value and user-defined grayscale ranges. Due to the absence of measurement data for early- and latewood, optimization was used to identify locally varying material constants. A set of material input parameters for early- and latewood was created, calibrating the force-displacement response of tensile test simulations to corresponding experimental curves. The numerical results gave a very good agreement to the failure behavior of tensile tests in the loading directions longitudinal and transverse to the fiber orientation. Furthermore, in a stochastic analysis the characteristic distribution of tensile strength and ultimate strain could be verified for the suggested procedure. The introduced modelling approach can be applied for the discrete implementation of inhomogeneity to numerical simulations. Full article
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19 pages, 9189 KiB  
Article
3D Numerical Modeling of Laser Assisted Tape Winding Process of Composite Pressure Vessels and Pipes—Effect of Winding Angle, Mandrel Curvature and Tape Width
by Amin Zaami, Ismet Baran, Ton C. Bor and Remko Akkerman
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2449; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112449 - 27 May 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3199
Abstract
Advanced thermoplastic composites manufacturing using laser assisted tape placement or winding (LATP/LATW) is a challenging task as monitoring and predicting nip point (bonding) temperature are difficult especially on curved surfaces. A comprehensive numerical analysis of the heat flux and temperature distribution near the [...] Read more.
Advanced thermoplastic composites manufacturing using laser assisted tape placement or winding (LATP/LATW) is a challenging task as monitoring and predicting nip point (bonding) temperature are difficult especially on curved surfaces. A comprehensive numerical analysis of the heat flux and temperature distribution near the nip point is carried out in this paper for helical winding of fiber reinforced thermoplastic tapes on a cylindrically shaped mandrel. An optical ray-tracing technique is coupled with a numerical heat transfer model in the process simulation tool. The developed optical-thermal model predictions were compared with experimental data available in literature to validate its effectiveness. The influences of winding/placement angle, mandrel curvature and tape width on the incident angles, the laser absorbed intensity, and the process temperature distribution are studied extensively using the validated model. Winding/placement angle has a considerable effect on the temperature distribution. Increase in winding angle results in a higher temperature for tape due to more reflections coming from the substrate. On the other hand, substrate temperature decreases as the winding angle increases due to a decrease in the laser incident angles based on the local surface curvature. An increase in mandrel curvature results in higher nip point temperatures for substrate and lower one for tape. Different mandrel sizes for 90 ° placement path do not have a strong effect on the substrate process temperature as for other winding angles because of less curvature change of the corresponding irradiated area. Tape width causes local temperature variations at the edges of the tape/substrate. In order to obtain the desired process temeprature during LATW or LATP processes, the laser intensity distribution on the tape and substrate surfaces should be regulated. Full article
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17 pages, 6965 KiB  
Article
Simulation of Wrinkling during Bending of Composite Reinforcement Laminates
by Jin Huang, Philippe Boisse, Nahiène Hamila and Yingdan Zhu
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2374; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102374 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4206
Abstract
When a thick laminate is subjected to bending, under certain boundary conditions, wrinkles may appear and develop due to the inextensibility of the fibers. Wrinkling is one of the most critical defects in composite manufacturing. Numerical simulation of the onset and growth of [...] Read more.
When a thick laminate is subjected to bending, under certain boundary conditions, wrinkles may appear and develop due to the inextensibility of the fibers. Wrinkling is one of the most critical defects in composite manufacturing. Numerical simulation of the onset and growth of such wrinkles is an important tool for defining optimal process parameters. Herein, several bending experiments of thick laminates are presented. They were found to lead to severe wrinkling and delamination of different kinds. It is shown that the history of loading changed the developed wrinkles. Stress resultant shell finite elements specific to textile reinforcement forming show their relevance to provide, for these wrinkles induced by bending, results in good agreement with the experiments, both with regard to the onset of the wrinkles and to their development. This numerical approach was used to improve the understanding of the phenomena involved in wrinkling and to define the conditions required to avoid it in a given process. Full article
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20 pages, 13548 KiB  
Article
Numerical Modelling of the Mechanical Behaviour of Biaxial Weft-Knitted Fabrics on Different Length Scales
by Minh Quang Pham, Oliver Döbrich, Wolfgang Trümper, Thomas Gereke and Chokri Cherif
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3693; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223693 - 8 Nov 2019
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4123
Abstract
Weft-knitted fabrics offer an excellent formability into complex shapes for composite application. In biaxial weft-knitted fabric, additional yarns are inserted in the warp (wale-wise) and weft (course-wise) directions as a reinforcement. Due to these straight yarns, the mechanical properties of such fabrics are [...] Read more.
Weft-knitted fabrics offer an excellent formability into complex shapes for composite application. In biaxial weft-knitted fabric, additional yarns are inserted in the warp (wale-wise) and weft (course-wise) directions as a reinforcement. Due to these straight yarns, the mechanical properties of such fabrics are better than those of unreinforced weft-knitted fabrics. The forming process of flat fabrics into 3D preforms is challenging and requires numerical simulation. In this paper, the mechanical behavior of biaxial weft-knitted fabrics is simulated by means of macro- and meso-scale finite element method (FEM) models. The macro-scale modelling approach is based on a shell element formulation and offers reasonable computational costs but has some limitations by the description of fabric mechanical characteristics and forming behavior. The meso-scale modelling approach based on beam elements can describe the fabric’s mechanical and forming characteristics better at a higher computational cost. The FEM models were validated by comparing the results of various simulations with the equivalent experiments. With the help of the parametric models, the forming of biaxial weft-knitted fabrics into complex shapes can be simulated. These models help to predict material and process parameters for optimized forming conditions without the necessity of costly experimental trials. Full article
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17 pages, 6870 KiB  
Article
Micromechanical Modeling of Damage Evolution and Mechanical Behaviors of CF/Al Composites under Transverse and Longitudinal Tensile Loadings
by Zhenjun Wang, Siyuan Yang, Zehui Du, Wugui Jiang, Aodi Zhang, Changchun Cai and Wei Yang
Materials 2019, 12(19), 3133; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12193133 - 26 Sep 2019
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3052
Abstract
This paper investigates the progressive damage and failure behavior of unidirectional graphite fiber-reinforced aluminum composites (CF/Al composites) under transverse and longitudinal tensile loadings. Micromechanical finite element analyses are carried out using different assumptions regarding fiber, matrix alloy, and interface properties. The validity of [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the progressive damage and failure behavior of unidirectional graphite fiber-reinforced aluminum composites (CF/Al composites) under transverse and longitudinal tensile loadings. Micromechanical finite element analyses are carried out using different assumptions regarding fiber, matrix alloy, and interface properties. The validity of these numerical analyses is examined by comparing the predicted stress-strain curves with the experimental data measured under transverse and longitudinal tensile loadings. Assuming a perfect interface, the transverse tensile strength is overestimated by more than 180% and the transverse fracture induced by fiber failure is unrealistic based on the experimental observations. In fact, the simulation and experiment results indicate that the interface debonding arising from the matrix alloy failure dominates the transverse fracture, and the influence of matrix alloy properties on the mechanical behavior is inconspicuous. In the case of longitudinal tensile testing, however, the characteristic of interface bonding has no significant effect on the macroscopic mechanical response due to the low in-situ strength of the fibers. It is demonstrated that ultimate longitudinal fracture is mainly controlled by fiber failure mechanisms, which is confirmed by the fracture morphology of the tensile samples. Full article
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