Special Issue "Biocompatible Materials Investigated with Optical Methods"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Virgil-Florin Duma
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Guest Editor
3OM Optomechatronics Group, Faculty of Engineering, Aurel Vlaicu University of Arad, Romania
Doctoral School, Polytechnic University of Timisoara, Romania
Interests: measuring systems; biomedical Imaging; optical coherence tomography (OCT); non-destructive testing (NDT); optomechatronics; laser scanners; optical modulators
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biocompatible and bioactive materials are essential for various fields of tissue engineering. Hard tissue such as bone or teeth, as well as soft tissue such as skin, muscles, and ligament are targeted by the development of scaffolds of different types. Their characterization often targets trade-offs between contradictory properties (e.g. porosity and mechanical resistance for bone replacement scaffolds). The results of several assessment methods must be therefore correlated in order to design and optimize biomaterials. On the other hand, both in vitro and in vivo investigations are required, the latter after implementing the biomaterials. Optical techniques such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) have the capability to perform non-invasive, real time, quantitative assessments of biomaterials and tissue, but a wide range of methods are utilized for such investigations, that include but are not limited to optical and laser scanning microscopy (including for the gold standard of histological evaluations), fluorescence, spectrometry, X-rays investigations (including micro-CT), scanning electron microscopy, as well as mechanical testing.

The aim of this Special Issue is to bring together such optical and non-optical methods for in vitro and/or in vivo characterizations of biocompatible materials. Of special interest are hot topics such as OCT, as well as emerging techniques, but also the correlation of a range of methods (as mentioned above) to design, test, optimize, or assess after implementation biomaterials, as well as corresponding tissue. Development and testing of dedicated systems and probes, as well as image and data processing to optimize biomaterials assessments are also encouraged.

Prof. Dr.-habil. Virgil-Florin Duma
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • biomaterials
  • biocompatibility
  • optical methods
  • biophotonics
  • biomedical imaging
  • optical coherence tomography (OCT)
  • optical microscopy
  • confocal microscopy
  • X-rays investigations
  • data/image processing

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Novel Biocompatible Zr-Based Alloy with Low Young’s Modulus and Magnetic Susceptibility for Biomedical Implants
Materials 2020, 13(22), 5130; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13225130 - 13 Nov 2020
Abstract
The microstructure, mechanical properties, magnetic susceptibility, electrochemical corrosion performance, in vitro cell compatibility and blood consistency of Zr-16Nb-xTi (x = 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 wt.%) materials were investigated as potential materials for biomedical implants. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy [...] Read more.
The microstructure, mechanical properties, magnetic susceptibility, electrochemical corrosion performance, in vitro cell compatibility and blood consistency of Zr-16Nb-xTi (x = 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 wt.%) materials were investigated as potential materials for biomedical implants. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses revealed the secondary phase martensite α’ formed during the quenching process. The phase composition contained metastable β and martensite α’, resulting from Ti addition. These phase constitutions were the main causes of a low Young’s modulus and magnetic susceptibility. The in vitro cytocompatibility analysis illustrated that the MG63 cells maintained high activity (from 91% to 97%) after culturing in Zr-16Nb-xTi extraction media for 12 days due to the high internal biocompatibility of Zr, Nb and Ti elements, as well as the optimal corrosion resistance of Zr-16Nb-xTi. On the basis of Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) ion release studies, the concentration of Zr, Nb and Ti was noted to reach the equipment detective limit of 0.001 mg/L, which was much lower than pure Ti. With respect to the corrosion behavior in Hank’s solution, Zr-16Nb-16Ti displayed superior properties, possessing the lowest corrosion current density and widest passivation region, attributed to the addition of Ti. The blood compatibility test illustrated that the Zr-16Nb-xTi materials were nonhemolytic, and the platelets maintained a spherical shape, with no aggregation or activation on Zr-16Nb-xTi. Overall, Ti addition has obvious effects on the developed Zr-16Nb-xTi alloys, and Zr-16Nb-4Ti exhibited low magnetic susceptibility, low modulus, good biocompatibility and proper corrosion properties, demonstrating the potential of use as implant biomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatible Materials Investigated with Optical Methods)
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Open AccessArticle
Dental Diagnosis and Treatment Assessments: Between X-rays Radiography and Optical Coherence Tomography
Materials 2020, 13(21), 4825; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13214825 - 28 Oct 2020
Abstract
A correct diagnosis in dental medicine is typically provided only after clinical and radiological evaluations. They are also required for treatment assessments. The aim of this study is to establish the boundaries from which a modern, although established, imaging technique, Optical Coherence Tomography [...] Read more.
A correct diagnosis in dental medicine is typically provided only after clinical and radiological evaluations. They are also required for treatment assessments. The aim of this study is to establish the boundaries from which a modern, although established, imaging technique, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), is more suitable than the common X-ray radiography to assess dental issues and treatments. The most common methods for daily-basis clinical imaging are utilized in this study for extracted teeth (but also for other dental samples and materials), i.e., panoramic, intraoral radiography, and three-dimensional (3D) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The advantages of using OCT as an imaging method in dentistry are discussed, with a focus on its superior image resolution. Drawbacks related to its limited penetration depth and Field-of-View (FOV) are pointed out. High-quality radiological investigations are performed, measurements are done, and data collected. The same teeth and samples are also imaged (mostly) with an in-house developed Swept Source (SS)-OCT system, Master-Slave enhanced. Some of the OCT investigations employed two other in-house developed OCT systems, Spectral Domain (SD) and Time Domain (TD). Dedicated toolbars from Romexis software (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland) are used to perform measurements using both radiography and OCT. Clinical conclusions are drawn from the investigations. Upsides and downsides of the two medical imaging techniques are concluded for each type of considered diagnosis. For treatment assessments, it is concluded that OCT is more appropriate than radiography in all applications, except bone-related investigations and periodontitis that demand data from higher-penetration depths than possible with the current level of OCT technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatible Materials Investigated with Optical Methods)
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Open AccessArticle
Dental Adhesive Interfaces Reinforced with Magnetic Nanoparticles: Evaluation and Modeling with Micro-CT versus Optical Microscopy
Materials 2020, 13(18), 3908; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13183908 - 04 Sep 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Dental adhesives are used in a wide range of applications, including to place direct composite restorations in frontal or posterior teeth. One of the most frequent causes for the failure of composite resin restorations is microleakages. The first aim of this work is [...] Read more.
Dental adhesives are used in a wide range of applications, including to place direct composite restorations in frontal or posterior teeth. One of the most frequent causes for the failure of composite resin restorations is microleakages. The first aim of this work is to introduce a new type of self-etched dental adhesive doped with magnetic nanoparticles (MPs) synthetized in the laboratory. The scope is to produce adhesives with a minimized width/thickness to decrease the risk of microleakages. The second aim is to assess the width/thickness of the adhesive layer in all the characteristic areas of the teeth using both the less precise but most common optical microscopy and the more accurate and volumetric micro-Computed Tomography (CT) investigations. Twenty extracted teeth have been divided into four groups: Group 1 includes ‘blank’ samples with adhesives that are not doped with MPs; Group 2 includes samples with adhesives doped with MPs; Groups 3 and 4 include samples with adhesives doped with MPs that are subjected to an active magnetic field for 5 and 10 min, respectively. Microscopy investigations followed by micro-CT and EDAX are performed on the adhesive. While a rather good agreement is obtained between the microscopy and micro-CT results, the capability of the latter to offer a full volumetric reconstruction of the layer is exploited to analyze the adhesion of the four considered dental materials. Thus, from micro-CT results the graphs of the surface areas as functions of the adhesive layer width are modeled mathematically, as well as the volume of sealants, for each of the four groups. To our knowledge, it is the first time that such a methodology is used. Characteristic parameters are extracted and the ascertainment of the optimal parameter that should be utilized for such assessments is discussed. The study demonstrates the adhesion improvement produced for Groups 3 and 4, where MPs are used. It also concludes that the magnetic field should be applied to the adhesive material for the longest possible exposure time (with a trade-off with the clinical duration of the treatment). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatible Materials Investigated with Optical Methods)
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