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Advanced Materials for Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage -  Volume II

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 July 2023) | Viewed by 7823

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Center of Physics and Engineering of Advanced Materials (CeFEMA), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: low-temperature fuel cells; alkaline water electrolysis; electrochemical wastewater treatment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Laboratory for Physics of Materials and Emerging Technologies, Chemical Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: alloys; electrochemistry; fuel cells; electrocatalysis; electrode; materials chemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electrochemical energy conversion and storage is a promising solution to overcome the drawbacks and limitations of existing fossil-fuel-based technologies. The development of electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices has three directions: the development of batteries, the development of capacitors, and the development of fuel cells. Batteries are finding wide applications in portable devices, including laptops, phones, and cameras. Supercapacitors can accept and deliver charges at a much faster rate than batteries for many charge/discharge cycles. Fuel cells provide efficient and clean continuous power generation for both stationary and portable devices. Hydrogen is the most used fuel in fuel cells and might be produced using a clean electrochemical water splitting process. Though these technologies show potential to reduce climate change problems caused by fossil fuels, issues related to electrode efficiency, membrane costs, and electrolyte stability still limit their widespread commercialisation. The choice of electrode materials, as well as the electrolyte’s composition, determines the crucial electrochemical device parameters, such as specific energy and power, cycle life, and safety. Accordingly, it is essential to develop the existing procedures and introduce new ones for the synthesis of electrode materials in batteries, capacitors, fuel cells, and water electrolysers. The development of new, improved electrocatalytic materials for the electrode reactions in these devices is expected to have great impact on device performance and, consequently, their commercialisation.

This Special Issue is focused on the development of electrocatalytic material for energy storage and conversion devices, including, but not limited to, the following topics:

  • Theoretical screening of material properties for the tailoring of electrocatalysts;
  • Non-platinum-group metal electrodes for low-temperature fuel cells;
  • Non-metal cathode materials for low-temperature fuel cells;
  • Anode materials for alcohol fuel cells;
  • Anode materials for direct borohydride and ammonia fuel cells;
  • Electrode materials for sodium-ion rechargeable batteries of high efficiency;
  • Electrode materials for supercapacitors;
  • Supporting materials for metal electrocatalysts for energy conversion devices;
  • New trends in the synthesis procedures of materials for electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices;
  • Characterisation of materials for electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices;
  • Testing of novel electrode materials for lab-scale fuel cells;
  • New electrode materials for water electrolysers;
  • Development of novel electrolytes and membranes for electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices.

Dr. Diogo M.F. Santos
Dr. Biljana Šljukić
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • fuel cells
  • supercapacitors
  • batteries
  • electrolysers
  • electrodes
  • electrolytes
  • hydrogen
  • oxygen reduction
  • lithium-ion battery

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 19859 KiB  
Article
Chemical Structure Comparison via Scanning Electron Microscopy of Spent Commercial Nickel–Metal Hydride Batteries
by Thomas Walther
Materials 2023, 16(17), 5761; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16175761 - 23 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1249
Abstract
Back-scattered electron imaging and X-ray elemental mapping were combined in a tabletop scanning electron microscope (SEM) to investigate cross-sections of three AA-type (mignon) nickel–metal hydride (NiMH) batteries from different manufacturers. All batteries underwent 500–800 charge/discharge cycles and reached their end of lifetime after [...] Read more.
Back-scattered electron imaging and X-ray elemental mapping were combined in a tabletop scanning electron microscope (SEM) to investigate cross-sections of three AA-type (mignon) nickel–metal hydride (NiMH) batteries from different manufacturers. All batteries underwent 500–800 charge/discharge cycles and reached their end of lifetime after several years as they could no longer hold any significant electric charge (less than 20% of nominal charge capacity), but none showed any short-circuiting. The types of degradation observed in this field study included electrode swelling, metallic nickel formation and carbon incorporation into pores in the positive electrodes and, in the negative electrodes, metal alloy segregation of different elements such as nickel, lanthanum and, in one case, sodium, as well as grain break-up and pore formation. All these phenomena could readily be observed at rather small magnifications. This will be important for the improvement of NiMH batteries, for which new generations with nominally slightly increased charge capacities are being marketed all the time. Full article
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16 pages, 3756 KiB  
Article
Highly Efficient Oxygen Electrode Obtained by Sequential Deposition of Transition Metal-Platinum Alloys on Graphene Nanoplatelets
by Dušan Mladenović, Elif Daş, Diogo M. F. Santos, Ayşe Bayrakçeken Yurtcan and Biljana Šljukić
Materials 2023, 16(9), 3388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16093388 - 26 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1528
Abstract
A set of platinum (Pt) and earth-abundant transition metals (M = Ni, Fe, Cu) on graphene nanoplatelets (sqPtM/GNPs) was synthesised via sequential deposition to establish parallels between the synthesis method and the materials’ electrochemical properties. sqPtM/GNPs were assessed as bifunctional electrocatalysts for oxygen [...] Read more.
A set of platinum (Pt) and earth-abundant transition metals (M = Ni, Fe, Cu) on graphene nanoplatelets (sqPtM/GNPs) was synthesised via sequential deposition to establish parallels between the synthesis method and the materials’ electrochemical properties. sqPtM/GNPs were assessed as bifunctional electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution (OER) and reduction (ORR) reactions for application in unitised regenerative fuel cells and metal-air batteries. sqPtFe/GNPs showed the highest catalytic performance with a low potential difference of ORR half-wave potential and overpotential at 10 mA cm−2 during OER, a crucial parameter for bifunctional electrocatalysts benchmarking. A novel two-stage synthesis strategy led to higher electrocatalytic performance by facilitating the reactants’ access to the active sites and reducing the charge-transfer resistance. Full article
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28 pages, 4663 KiB  
Article
Carbonization of MOF-5/Polyaniline Composites to N,O-Doped Carbon/ZnO/ZnS and N,O-Doped Carbon/ZnO Composites with High Specific Capacitance, Specific Surface Area and Electrical Conductivity
by Marjetka Savić, Aleksandra Janošević Ležaić, Nemanja Gavrilov, Igor Pašti, Bojana Nedić Vasiljević, Jugoslav Krstić and Gordana Ćirić-Marjanović
Materials 2023, 16(3), 1018; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16031018 - 22 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2451
Abstract
Composites of carbons with metal oxides and metal sulfides have attracted a lot of interest as materials for energy conversion and storage applications. Herein, we report on novel N,O-doped carbon/ZnO/ZnS and N,O-doped carbon/ZnO composites (generally named C-(MOF-5/PANI)), synthesized by the carbonization of metal–organic [...] Read more.
Composites of carbons with metal oxides and metal sulfides have attracted a lot of interest as materials for energy conversion and storage applications. Herein, we report on novel N,O-doped carbon/ZnO/ZnS and N,O-doped carbon/ZnO composites (generally named C-(MOF-5/PANI)), synthesized by the carbonization of metal–organic framework MOF-5/polyaniline (PANI) composites. The produced C-(MOF-5/PANI)s are comprehensively characterized in terms of composition, molecular and crystalline structure, morphology, electrical conductivity, surface area, and electrochemical behavior. The composition and properties of C-(MOF-5/PANI) composites are dictated by the composition of MOF-5/PANI precursors and the form of PANI (conducting emeraldine salt (ES) or nonconducting emeraldine base). The ZnS phase is formed only with the PANI-ES form due to S-containing counter-ions. XRPD revealed that ZnO and ZnS existed as pure wurtzite crystalline phases. PANI and MOF-5 acted synergistically to produce C-(MOF-5/PANI)s with high SBET (up to 609 m2 g−1), electrical conductivity (up to 0.24 S cm−1), and specific capacitance, Cspec, (up to 238.2 F g−1 at 10 mV s−1). Values of Cspec commensurated with N content in C-(MOF-5/PANI) composites (1–10 wt.%) and overcame Cspec of carbonized individual components PANI and MOF-5. By acid etching treatment of C-(MOF-5/PANI), SBET and Cspec increased to 1148 m2 g−1 and 341 F g−1, respectively. The developed composites represent promising electrode materials for supercapacitors. Full article
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14 pages, 5110 KiB  
Article
Deep Eutectic Solvent for Facile Synthesis of Mn3O4@N-Doped Carbon for Aqueous Multivalent-Based Supercapacitors: New Concept for Increasing Capacitance and Operating Voltage
by Nikola Zdolšek, Ivana Perović, Snežana Brković, Gvozden Tasić, Miloš Milović and Milica Vujković
Materials 2022, 15(23), 8540; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15238540 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1867
Abstract
The capacitance and operating voltage of supercapacitors as well as their energy density have been increased by development of different materials and electrolytes. In this paper, two strategies, for the first time, were used to improve energy density: Mn3O4- [...] Read more.
The capacitance and operating voltage of supercapacitors as well as their energy density have been increased by development of different materials and electrolytes. In this paper, two strategies, for the first time, were used to improve energy density: Mn3O4- and N-dual doped carbon electrode and aqueous mixture of multivalent ions as electrolyte. Mn3O4- and N-dual doped carbon was prepared by a novel and cost-effective procedure using deep eutectic solvent. XRD, XPS, and FTIR confirmed presence of Mn3O4 and nitrogen, while SEM and EDS elemental mapping showed micrometer-sized nanosheets with uniform distribution of C, O, N, and Mn atoms. Charge storage behavior of carbon was tested in aqueous multivalent-based electrolytes and their mixture (Ca2+-Al3+). Regarding both specific capacitance and workable voltage, the Ca2+-Al3+ mixed electrolyte was found as the best optimal solution. The calcium addition to the Al-electrolyte allows the higher operating voltage than in the case of individual Al(NO3)3 electrolyte while the addition of Al3+ ion in the Ca(NO3)2 electrolyte improves the multivalent-ion charge storage ability of carbon. As a result, the specific energy density of two-electrode Mn3O4@N-doped carbon//Al(NO3)2+Ca(NO3)2//Mn3O4@N-doped carbon supercapacitor (34 Wh kg−1 at 0.1 A g−1) overpasses the reported values obtained for Mn-based carbon supercapacitors using conventional aqueous electrolytes. Full article
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