Dynamics and Diagnostics of Heavy-Duty Industrial Machines

A special issue of Machines (ISSN 2075-1702). This special issue belongs to the section "Industrial Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 27153

Special Issue Editors

Digital Mining Center, Faculty of Geoengineering, Mining and Geology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Na Grobli 13, 50-421 Wroclaw, Poland
Interests: mechanical engineering; mining machines; rolling mills; dynamic modeling; industrial engineering; automation; computer science; material science; vibration; condition monitoring; data analytics; interdisciplinary
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Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Industrial machines constitute the basis of any developed economy. At the design stage, heavy-duty machines are optimized to sustain a harsh working environment and severe external loads. However, during operation, different factors not accounted for at the design stage such as excessive wear of parts or improper maintenance play a dominant role in overall machine reliability. During variable operating conditions, machines are subjected to non-stationary loading and different kinds of unpredictable impacts. Many efforts have been undertaken in the dynamics analysis and condition monitoring of complicated large-scale industrial machines like tumbling mills, rotating kilns, rolling mills, underground longwall shearers, conveyors, vibrating screens, rotor excavators, and load-haul-dump vehicles. However, experimental study of their loading and failures including the mutual influence of treated material on machines taking into account specific technologies still needs more in-depth research.

The dynamics of industrial machines includes the analysis of numerous nonlinear phenomena, which may occur due to clearances in the drivelines or periodic stiffness changing in a gear meshing, the synchronization of coupled drives, the frequency capture and the jumping phenomenon of the amplitude, natural mode variation in the multi-body systems, and other effects. Choosing the appropriate analytical models or numerical methods has a significant effect on either active vibration control or passive damping, and ultimately the safe operation of machines. Even a small reduction in dynamics may have a great effect on the maintenance costs (via the strength capacity and durability of components), process stability, and product quality.

This Special Issue will provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to exchange their latest theoretical and engineering achievements and identify critical issues and challenges for future studies in the analysis of dynamical phenomena in industrial machines. Results of experimental research in field conditions are mostly encouraged for submission. The theoretical papers accepted into this Special Issue are expected to contain original ideas and potential solutions available for resolving real problems.

Topics include, but are not limited to, the following domains:

  • Torsional vibration modelling in the drivelines of rotating machines;
  • Self-excited and friction-induced vibrations (e.g., chatter in rolling mills);
  • Case studies of regular and parametric resonances in gear drivelines;
  • Shock and vibration in high-power hydraulic actuators;
  • Active vibration control and passive damping;
  • Modal analysis and design optimization of multi-body systems;
  • Influence of treated material on machine dynamics;
  • Diagnostics of clearances in bearings and powertrain couplings;
  • Instrumentation for condition monitoring in harsh environments;
  • Methods of signal processing and data mining for fault diagnostics;
  • Strength capacity under stochastic impulsive loading with non-Gaussian distribution;
  • Cyclic fatigue calculation and remaining useful life prediction;
  • Model-based computerized maintenance management systems (CMMSs).

Dr. Pavlo Krot
Dr. Radosław Zimroz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Machines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dynamics
  • multi-body models
  • heavy-duty machines
  • mining machines
  • rolling mills
  • drivelines
  • vibration diagnostics
  • chatter
  • condition monitoring
  • process control

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

27 pages, 14789 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulations and Experiments on Single-Tooth Rock-Breaking
by Heyuqiu Li, Jie Wang, Qi Mei, Kunlan Huang, Qingyi Luo and Jie Dong
Machines 2022, 10(6), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10060455 - 8 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1761
Abstract
The rock-breaking efficiency of a drilling tool directly affects the production costs and progress of foundation construction. It is essential to understand the mechanism of mechanical rock-breaking to improve rock-breaking efficiency. In this study, dynamic rock-breaking simulation research was carried out on a [...] Read more.
The rock-breaking efficiency of a drilling tool directly affects the production costs and progress of foundation construction. It is essential to understand the mechanism of mechanical rock-breaking to improve rock-breaking efficiency. In this study, dynamic rock-breaking simulation research was carried out on a drill bit and was based on the LS-DYNA simulation platform. Additionally, the influence of the rotational speed of the spindle and the feed rate on the force of the drill bit in the rock-breaking process was obtained. The influence of the rotational speed of the spindle and the feed rate on drill vibration was also analyzed. The content of the presented theoretical and simulation research was verified through experiments. The following conclusions were drawn: first, the reaction force that rock has on the drill bit presents a law according to different rock types and drilling process parameters. With the increase in rotational speed, the axial reaction force decreases. With the increase in the feed rate, the axial reaction force increases. The effect of rock type on axial reaction force is nonlinear. Second, the influence of the spindle rotational speed and feed rate on the vibration of the drill bit also presents a law during rock-breaking. When the feed amount is constant, the transverse vibration slows down, and the axial vibration intensifies as the rotational speed increases. When the rotational speed is constant, as the feed increases, the transverse vibration slows down and the axial vibration intensifies. The research results provide a theoretical basis for selecting drilling process parameters and for improving rock-breaking efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Diagnostics of Heavy-Duty Industrial Machines)
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21 pages, 9828 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of Effect of Drum Barrel on Coal-Loading Performance of Thin-Coal-Seam Shearer Machines
by Xiaodi Zhang, Kuidong Gao, Qingliang Zeng, Lisong Lin, Tianjiao Wu and Liqing Sun
Machines 2022, 10(4), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10040253 - 1 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1922
Abstract
Thin-coal-seam shearer mining efficiency is seriously restricted by the poor loading performance of the drum. The loading of the drum to the cracked coal lumps is based on a screw-conveying mechanism, and its loading performance is influenced by many structural parameters, including drum [...] Read more.
Thin-coal-seam shearer mining efficiency is seriously restricted by the poor loading performance of the drum. The loading of the drum to the cracked coal lumps is based on a screw-conveying mechanism, and its loading performance is influenced by many structural parameters, including drum width, helical angle, axial tilt angle, number of blades and form and diameter of the barrel. The barrel diameter directly influences the drum envelope zone’s capacity, and its influence on loading performance is not yet clear. Therefore, this work first compared the drum-loading results between experiments and numerical modeling, and the results proved that the application of the discrete element method (DEM) to the modeling drum loading process is feasible and the results are reliable. Secondly, the influence of barrel diameter on particles’ axial velocity, loading rate and web depth was studied using the ejection and pushing modes. The results showed that the particles’ axial velocity has a noticeable impact on loading rate under ejection loading conditions, and the loading rate first increases and then decreases with the increase in barrel diameter. When the diameter is less than 700 mm in drum-pushing modes, the particles’ axial velocity plays an important role on drum loading; the filling level has an obvious impact on loading performance when the barrel diameter is larger than 700 mm. The drum loading ejection rate is 25% higher than that of pushing mode, which is due to the loading rate of particles located in a web depth from 300 to 600 mm. The influence of barrel diameter on loading performance using drum ejection is more obvious than that in pushing mode. The results provide a reference for drum structural design to some extent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Diagnostics of Heavy-Duty Industrial Machines)
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17 pages, 9246 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Analysis of an Enhanced Multi-Frequency Inertial Exciter for Industrial Vibrating Machines
by Volodymyr Gursky, Pavlo Krot, Vitaliy Korendiy and Radosław Zimroz
Machines 2022, 10(2), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10020130 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2646
Abstract
Multi-frequency vibrators have advantages in bulk materials processing but their design is usually complicated. This article presents the synthesis of design parameters of a two-frequency inertial vibrator according to the specified power characteristics. Based on the developed mathematical model, the parameters of variable [...] Read more.
Multi-frequency vibrators have advantages in bulk materials processing but their design is usually complicated. This article presents the synthesis of design parameters of a two-frequency inertial vibrator according to the specified power characteristics. Based on the developed mathematical model, the parameters of variable periodic force is derived for two angular velocities 157, 314 rad/s and their ratios 0.5 and 2. In the case of the 0.5 ratio, the instant angular velocity of the resulting force vector is 2.0–3.5 times greater than for ratio 2. A dynamical model of vibrating screen with the synthesized inertial drive is considered. It was found that at the ratio of angular velocities 0.5, the second harmonic of acceleration prevails at 50 Hz, while at the ratio of 2, the first harmonic has a greater amplitude at 25 Hz. For the first variant, the power does not depend on the initial angle between unbalances, and at the second variant, it can vary. The angle of rotation of unbalances affects the trajectory of the centre of mass and the phases of the harmonics but does not affect their amplitude. Due to such dynamical features, the two-motor inertial drive allows the vibrating machines to operate at a wider range of frequencies and amplitudes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Diagnostics of Heavy-Duty Industrial Machines)
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16 pages, 5882 KiB  
Article
Fatigue Analysis of Dozer Push Arms under Tilt Bulldozing Conditions
by Longye Pan, Xianglong Guan, Xingwei Luan, Yajun Huang, Ruwei Zhang, Jin-Hwan Choi and Xiangqian Zhu
Machines 2022, 10(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10010038 - 4 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5157
Abstract
Tilt bulldozing generates unbalanced loads on two push arms, which leads to the service lives of the two push arms being different. Because the push arms rotate in triaxial directions during tilt bulldozing, it is difficult to accurately analyze the fatigue life of [...] Read more.
Tilt bulldozing generates unbalanced loads on two push arms, which leads to the service lives of the two push arms being different. Because the push arms rotate in triaxial directions during tilt bulldozing, it is difficult to accurately analyze the fatigue life of the push arm with one specific boundary condition and loading history. Therefore, a fatigue analysis of the push arms under tilt bulldozing conditions is proposed based on co-simulation of RecurDyn-EDEM-AMESim in this paper. The control of tilt bulldozing conditions is realized automatically according to the tilt angle and blade depth. The dynamic loads of the push arms are accurately calculated in this virtual model. Subsequently, the stress–time histories are obtained to investigate the fatigue lives of push arms. Both the overall damage and the initiation positions of the cracks are predicted herein. It is determined that the fatigue lives of the right and left push arms are 7,317.84 h and 39,381.89 h, respectively. Thus, the life of the push arm on the blade’s tilted side is reduced by 81.42% compared to the other side. Additionally, experimental tests are conducted to verify the accuracy of the virtual model. Analysis results indicate that the strains of the push arms according to the virtual simulation are close to those measured in the experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Diagnostics of Heavy-Duty Industrial Machines)
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30 pages, 16053 KiB  
Article
Nested Optimization of Oil-Circulating Hydro-Pneumatic Energy Storage System for Hybrid Mining Trucks
by Tong Yi, Chun Jin, Lulu Gao, Jichao Hong and Yanbo Liu
Machines 2022, 10(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10010022 - 27 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2551
Abstract
In order to recover and utilize the potential energy of mining trucks efficiently, this paper proposes a nested optimization method of a novel energy storage system. By analyzing the multi-objective optimization problem of the oil-circulating hydro-pneumatic energy storage system, a nested optimization method [...] Read more.
In order to recover and utilize the potential energy of mining trucks efficiently, this paper proposes a nested optimization method of a novel energy storage system. By analyzing the multi-objective optimization problem of the oil-circulating hydro-pneumatic energy storage system, a nested optimization method based on the advanced adaptive Metamodel-based global optimization algorithm is carried out. Research shows that this method only requires a short time to solve the complex nonlinear hybrid optimization problem and achieves better results. The optimized energy storage system has higher system efficiency, energy density, and volume utilization rate, thus obtaining a smaller system volume and weight. Verified by the bench experiment of its powertrain, the hydro-pneumatic hybrid mining truck with the optimized energy storage system significantly reduces its fuel consumption and CO2 emission. Thus, it lays the foundation for the practical application of hydro-pneumatic hybrid mining trucks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Diagnostics of Heavy-Duty Industrial Machines)
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18 pages, 9484 KiB  
Article
Research on Drilling Rate Optimization of a UCS Identification System While Drilling for Coal Mine Roadway Roofs
by Guangdong Yu, Qian Hu, Xuewen Feng, Guoying Meng and Yifan Nie
Machines 2021, 9(10), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9100242 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1946
Abstract
In this paper, to identify the roof unconfined compressive strength (UCS) in the process of coal mine roadway support in real-time and optimize the real-time drilling speed while drilling, this paper proposes and establishes a drilling test method for assessing the uniaxial compressive [...] Read more.
In this paper, to identify the roof unconfined compressive strength (UCS) in the process of coal mine roadway support in real-time and optimize the real-time drilling speed while drilling, this paper proposes and establishes a drilling test method for assessing the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of a roof. This method can be used to optimize the speed of drilling. Moreover, a mathematical model of the power output is developed for a roof-strata identification system with a drilling test system. The results were as follows: (1) the system was able to identify the uniaxial compressive strength of roof rock; (2) the pressure of the drill leg of the pneumatic bolt did not match the output power of the pneumatic motor, the pneumatic motor could not reach the maximum power point, and the insufficient thrust of the pneumatic leg led to failure of the maximum output power of the pneumatic motor; (3) to increase the output power of the air motor and thus improve the drilling speed, we applied a booster valve for the system. The experimental results show that the power of the air motor has a linear relationship with drilling speed. In this way, the speed of the drill can be increased by increasing the motor power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Diagnostics of Heavy-Duty Industrial Machines)
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13 pages, 2942 KiB  
Article
Research on Adaptive Control of Air-Borne Bolting Rigs Based on Genetic Algorithm Optimization
by Qingyun Liu, Yiwen Zha, Tao Liu and Chao Lu
Machines 2021, 9(10), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9100240 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2186
Abstract
Rotation speed and propulsive force are the two critical parameters in the work of the air-borne bolting rig. To address the problem that unreasonable rotation speed and propulsive force will induce the breakage of the drill pipe and the inability of the drill [...] Read more.
Rotation speed and propulsive force are the two critical parameters in the work of the air-borne bolting rig. To address the problem that unreasonable rotation speed and propulsive force will induce the breakage of the drill pipe and the inability of the drill bit to cut coal adequately this paper proposes an adaptive control strategy for the air-borne bolting rig based on genetic algorithm optimization. Firstly, we obtain the corresponding coal hardness by the real-time acquisition of the working torque of the drill pipe. Then we calculate the reasonable rotation speed of the hydraulic motor and the propulsive force of the hydraulic cylinder on the coal of different hardness. Secondly, the genetic algorithm is applied to optimize the parameters of the PID (proportion integration differentiation) controller so that the system may attain the target value fast and reliably and achieve adaptive control. Finally, a simulation model of the slewing system and the propulsion system of the air-borne bolting rig are established in the AMESim hydraulic software, and the simulation tests were carried out under two distinct working conditions: single coal hardness and coal hardness of sudden change. The results indicate that the PID control strategy based on genetic algorithm optimization has a shorter response time, a smaller overshoot, and a lower steady-state error than the traditional PID control strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Diagnostics of Heavy-Duty Industrial Machines)
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23 pages, 5402 KiB  
Article
Integral Modeling for Deviation Correction Trajectory of the Mechanical Vertical Drilling System
by Lin Chai, Kai Zhang, Dengwen Yang, Baolin Liu and Delong Zhang
Machines 2021, 9(8), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9080161 - 9 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2572
Abstract
The deviation correction trajectory of the mechanical vertical drilling system (MVDS) is very important because it is the final embodiment of performance. However, it is impossible to obtain it at the design stage, except when using simulation methods. In this paper, tool face [...] Read more.
The deviation correction trajectory of the mechanical vertical drilling system (MVDS) is very important because it is the final embodiment of performance. However, it is impossible to obtain it at the design stage, except when using simulation methods. In this paper, tool face angle model and other theoretical models were established, respectively, and the trajectory simulation method was created through model coupling. Next, the method was used to simulate the trajectory of MVDS under two typical working conditions. The results indicate that the critical deviation angle is the deviation control accuracy of the MVDS. The existence of critical deflection angle makes MVDS correct deviation and change azimuth at the same time, resulting in the trajectory being a three-dimensional curve, which has the tendency of drifting to the left. Furthermore, the deviation and azimuth change rate are constantly changing in the process of drilling. The results also show that the MVDS is unable to correct the horizontal displacement of the downhole. The proposed method and analysis results are helpful to find out and solve the problem of the current design as soon as possible, and to provide guidance for the subsequent structure optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Diagnostics of Heavy-Duty Industrial Machines)
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16 pages, 4225 KiB  
Article
A Hybrid Multi-Objective Optimization Method Based on NSGA-II Algorithm and Entropy Weighted TOPSIS for Lightweight Design of Dump Truck Carriage
by Rongchao Jiang, Shukun Ci, Dawei Liu, Xiaodong Cheng and Zhenkuan Pan
Machines 2021, 9(8), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9080156 - 7 Aug 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4032
Abstract
The lightweight design of vehicle components is regarded as a complex optimization problem, which usually needs to achieve two or more optimization objectives. It can be firstly solved by a multi-objective optimization algorithm for generating Pareto solutions, before then seeking the optimal design. [...] Read more.
The lightweight design of vehicle components is regarded as a complex optimization problem, which usually needs to achieve two or more optimization objectives. It can be firstly solved by a multi-objective optimization algorithm for generating Pareto solutions, before then seeking the optimal design. However, it is difficult to determine the optimal design for lack of engineering knowledge about ideal and nadir values. Therefore, this paper proposes a multi-objective optimization procedure combined with the NSGA-II algorithm with entropy weighted TOPSIS for the lightweight design of the dump truck carriage. The finite element model of the dump truck carriage was firstly developed for modal analysis under unconstrained free state and strength analysis under the full load and lifting conditions. On this basis, the multi-objective lightweight optimization of the dump truck carriage was carried out based on the Kriging surrogate model and the NSGA-II algorithm. Then, the entropy weight TOPSIS method was employed to select the optimal design of the dump truck from Pareto solutions. The results show that the optimized dump truck carriage achieves a remarkable mass reduction of 81 kg, as much as 3.7%, while its first-order natural frequency and strength performance are slightly improved compared with the original model. Accordingly, the proposed procedure provides an effective way for vehicle lightweight design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics and Diagnostics of Heavy-Duty Industrial Machines)
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