Tribological Characteristics of Bearing System, 2nd Edition

A special issue of Lubricants (ISSN 2075-4442).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2024 | Viewed by 6387

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. School of Mechanical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning, China
2. Director, New Energy Vehicle Research Center, Guangxi University, Nanning, China
Interests: research and development of new energy vehicle transmission system; composite modification and strengthening technology of gear bearing surface; research on NVH control of new energy vehicle electric drive system; research on energy management of hybrid electric vehicles and extended-range electric vehicles; research on performance of new energy vehicle wheel hub motor
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

After the successful publication of the first edition of the Special Issue "Tribological Characteristics of Bearing System", we are excited to announce that the second edition is now open for submissions.

Bearings are widely used in automobile transmission, rail transit, and aerospace and equipment manufacturing. They are the key mechanical components for bearing and transmitting motion. Under severe conditions, such as large load, high speeds, and wide temperature ranges, the study of bearing friction and wear characteristics and the fatigue damage mechanism is significant for promoting the high reliability, durability, and long life of bearings. With advanced intelligent manufacturing technologies, such as bearing material alloy optimization, heat treatment process optimization, deformation prediction, surface modification and intelligent simulation, new technical support and development ideas can be provided for bearing systems.

This Special Issue will present a collection of papers on bearing friction and wear, fatigue durability, and rotor dynamics, representing the latest research progress in this field. I am pleased to invite researchers in related fields to contribute to this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Yong Chen
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Lubricants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bearing
  • tribology
  • wear
  • fatigue characteristics
  • dynamic characteristics
  • fault diagnosis

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

28 pages, 18260 KiB  
Article
WLI, XPS and SEM/FIB/EDS Surface Characterization of an Electrically Fluted Bearing Raceway
by Omid Safdarzadeh, Alireza Farahi, Andreas Binder, Hikmet Sezen and Jan Philipp Hofmann
Lubricants 2024, 12(5), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants12050148 - 27 Apr 2024
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Electrical bearing currents may disturb the performance of the bearings via electro-corrosion if they surpass a limit of ca. 0.1 to 0.3 A/mm2. A continuous current flow, or, after a longer time span, an alternating current or a repeating impulse-like current, [...] Read more.
Electrical bearing currents may disturb the performance of the bearings via electro-corrosion if they surpass a limit of ca. 0.1 to 0.3 A/mm2. A continuous current flow, or, after a longer time span, an alternating current or a repeating impulse-like current, damages the raceway surface, leading in many cases to a fluting pattern on the raceway. Increased bearing vibration, audible noise, and decreased bearing lubrication as a result may demand a replacement of the bearings. Here, an electrically corroded axial ball bearing (type 51208) with fluting patterns is investigated. The bearing was lubricated with grease lubrication and was exposed to 4 A DC current flow. It is shown that the electric current flow causes higher concentrations of iron oxides and iron carbides on the bearing raceway surface together with increased surface roughness, leading to a mixed lubrication also at elevated bearing speeds up to 1500 rpm. The “electrically insulating” iron oxide layer and the “mechanically hard” iron carbide layer on the bearing steel are analysed by WLI, XPS, SEM, and EDS. White Light Interferometry (WLI) is used to provide an accurate measurement of the surface topography and roughness. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements are conducted to analyze the chemical surface composition and oxidation states. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is applied for high-resolution imaging of the surface morphology, while the Focused Ion Beam (FIB) is used to cut a trench into the bearing surface to inspect the surface layers. With the Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), the presence of composing elements is identified, determining their relative concentrations. The electrically-caused iron oxide and iron carbide may develop periodically along the raceway due to the perpendicular vibrations of the rolling ball on the raceway, leading gradually to the fluting pattern. Still, a simulation of this vibration-induced fluting-generation process from the start with the first surface craters—of the molten local contact spots—to the final fluting pattern is missing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Characteristics of Bearing System, 2nd Edition)
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17 pages, 7366 KiB  
Article
Simulation Analysis and Experimental Study on the Fluid–Solid–Thermal Coupling of Traction Motor Bearings
by Hengdi Wang, Han Li, Zheming Jin, Jiang Lin, Yongcun Cui, Chang Li, Heng Tian and Zhiwei Wang
Lubricants 2024, 12(5), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants12050144 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 453
Abstract
The traction motor is a crucial component of high-speed electric multiple units, and its operational reliability is directly impacted by the temperature increase in the bearings. To accurately predict and simulate the temperature change process of traction motor bearings during operation, a fluid–solid–thermal [...] Read more.
The traction motor is a crucial component of high-speed electric multiple units, and its operational reliability is directly impacted by the temperature increase in the bearings. To accurately predict and simulate the temperature change process of traction motor bearings during operation, a fluid–solid–thermal simulation analysis model of grease-lubricated deep groove ball bearings was constructed. This model aimed to simulate the temperature rise of the bearing and the grease flow process, which was validated through experiments. The results from the simulation analysis and tests indicate that the temperature in the contact zone between the bearing rolling element and the raceway, as well as the ring temperature, initially increases to a peak and then gradually decreases, eventually stabilizing once the bearing’s heat generation power and heat transfer power reach equilibrium. Furthermore, the established fluid–solid–thermal coupling simulation analysis model can accurately predict the amount of grease required for effective lubrication in the bearing cavity, which stabilizes along with the bearing temperature. The findings of this research can serve as a theoretical foundation and technical support for monitoring the health status of high-speed EMU traction motor bearings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Characteristics of Bearing System, 2nd Edition)
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21 pages, 6146 KiB  
Article
Calibration of Oil Film Thickness Acoustic Reflection Coefficient of Bearing under Multiple Temperature Conditions
by Fei Shang, Bo Sun, Shaofeng Wang, Yongquan Han, Wenjing Liu, Ning Kong, Yuwu Ba, Fengchun Miao and Zhendong Liu
Lubricants 2024, 12(4), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants12040125 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 795
Abstract
Rolling mill bearings are prone to wear, erosion, and other damage characteristics due to prolonged exposure to rolling forces. Therefore, regular inspection of rolling mill bearings is necessary. Ultrasonic technology, due to its non-destructive nature, allows for measuring the oil film thickness distribution [...] Read more.
Rolling mill bearings are prone to wear, erosion, and other damage characteristics due to prolonged exposure to rolling forces. Therefore, regular inspection of rolling mill bearings is necessary. Ultrasonic technology, due to its non-destructive nature, allows for measuring the oil film thickness distribution within the bearing during disassembly. However, during the process of using ultrasonic reflection coefficients to determine the oil film thickness and distribution state of rolling mill bearings, changes in bearing temperature due to prolonged operation can occur. Ultrasonic waves are susceptible to temperature variations, and different temperatures of the measured structure can lead to changes in measurement results, ultimately distorting the results. This paper proposes using density and sound speed compensation methods to address this issue. It simulates and analyzes the oil film reflection coefficients at different temperatures, ultimately confirming the feasibility and effectiveness of this approach. The paper establishes a functional relationship between bearing pressure and reflection coefficients, oil film thickness, and reflection coefficients. This allows for the compensation of reflection coefficients under any pressure conditions, enhancing the accuracy of oil film thickness detection. The proposed method provides technical support for the maintenance of plate rolling processes in the steel industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Characteristics of Bearing System, 2nd Edition)
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18 pages, 16375 KiB  
Article
Study on Cage Stability of Solid-Lubricated Angular Contact Ball Bearings in an Ultra-Low Temperature Environment
by Bing Su, Han Li, Guangtao Zhang, Fengbo Liu and Yongcun Cui
Lubricants 2024, 12(4), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants12040124 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 844
Abstract
In the ultra-low temperature environment, the material properties of the bearing change, which puts forward higher requirements for the dynamic performance of the bearing cage. The bearings operating in ultra-low temperature environments commonly use solid lubricants. This study first focused on measuring the [...] Read more.
In the ultra-low temperature environment, the material properties of the bearing change, which puts forward higher requirements for the dynamic performance of the bearing cage. The bearings operating in ultra-low temperature environments commonly use solid lubricants. This study first focused on measuring the traction coefficients of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) solid lubricant in a nitrogen atmosphere, and the Gupta fitting model is constructed to derive the traction equation. Subsequently, the dynamic differential equation of angular contact ball bearings was established, and the stability of the bearing cage in a nitrogen environment was simulated and analyzed based on the dynamic model. The accuracy of the simulation model was verified through comparison. The results show that less than 10% of errors exist between the experimental data and the traction curve fitted by the Gupta model, and the stability of the cage is closely related to operating parameters and bearing structure parameters. Cage stability increases with axial load but decreases with radial load. The cage stability is optimal when the radial internal clearance of the bearing is approximately 0.06 mm. When other conditions remain unchanged and the ratio of the cage pocket hole gap to the cage guide surface gap is 0.2, the cage stability is the best. The research results will provide a foundation for the design and application of solid-lubricated angular contact ball bearings in ultra-low temperature environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Characteristics of Bearing System, 2nd Edition)
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14 pages, 8936 KiB  
Article
Calculation and Analysis of Equilibrium Position of Aerostatic Bearings Based on Bivariate Interpolation Method
by Shuai Li, Yafu Huang, Hechun Yu, Wenbo Wang, Guoqing Zhang, Xinjun Kou, Suxiang Zhang and Youhua Li
Lubricants 2024, 12(3), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants12030085 - 7 Mar 2024
Viewed by 944
Abstract
The solution of equilibrium positions is a critical component in the calculation of the dynamic characteristic coefficients of aerostatic bearings. The movement of the rotor in one direction leads to bidirectional variations in the air film force, resulting in low efficiency when using [...] Read more.
The solution of equilibrium positions is a critical component in the calculation of the dynamic characteristic coefficients of aerostatic bearings. The movement of the rotor in one direction leads to bidirectional variations in the air film force, resulting in low efficiency when using conventional calculation methods. It can even lead to iterative divergence if the initial value is improperly selected. This study concentrates on the orifice throttling aerostatic bearings and proposes a novel method called the bivariate interpolation method (BIM) to calculate the equilibrium position. The equilibrium equation for the rotor under the combined influence of air film forces, gravity, and external loads is established. A calculation program based on the finite difference method is developed to determine the equilibrium position. The process of solving the equilibrium position and the convergence is compared with the secant method and the search method. Furthermore, the variation trend of the equilibrium position and stiffness when the external loads changes are studied based on the BIM. Finally, the correctness of the BIM to solve the equilibrium position is proved by comparing it with the experiment results. The calculation results indicate that the BIM successfully resolves the problem of initial value selection and exhibits superior computational efficiency and accuracy. The equilibrium position initially moves away from the direction of the external load as the load increases, and then this gradually approaches the load direction. The main stiffness increases with increases in the external load, while the variation in cross stiffness depends on the direction of the external load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Characteristics of Bearing System, 2nd Edition)
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16 pages, 11790 KiB  
Article
Simulation Analysis and Experimental Research on Electric Thermal Coupling of Current Bearing
by Zhiwei Wang, Shuanglong Mao, Heng Tian, Bing Su and Yongcun Cui
Lubricants 2024, 12(3), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants12030073 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1167
Abstract
With the advancement of industries such as high-speed railways, new energy vehicles, and wind power, bearings are frequently exposed to various electric field environments, leading to the need for lubricating oil films of bearings to withstand voltage. One of the major issues caused [...] Read more.
With the advancement of industries such as high-speed railways, new energy vehicles, and wind power, bearings are frequently exposed to various electric field environments, leading to the need for lubricating oil films of bearings to withstand voltage. One of the major issues caused by the breakdown discharge process of the lubricating oil film in bearings is the generation of local instantaneous high temperatures. This temperature rise is a key factor contributing to problems such as high operating temperature of bearings, surface damage in the contact area, and degradation of lubrication performance. This research article focuses on the comprehensive influence of bearing friction and electrical factors. It establishes a heat source calculation model and a temperature field simulation model specifically for current-carrying bearings. This study analyzes both the overall temperature rise of bearings and the local temperature rise resulting from breakdown discharge. Furthermore, the accuracy of the simulation analysis is verified through experiments. The temperature field simulation and experimental results consistently indicate that electrical environmental factors can cause an increase in the overall temperature rise of a bearing. Additionally, the breakdown and discharge of the lubricating oil film generate local instantaneous high temperatures in the contact area of the bearing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Characteristics of Bearing System, 2nd Edition)
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18 pages, 7265 KiB  
Article
Influence of Bearing Wear on the Stability and Modal Characteristics of a Flexible Rotor Supported on Powder-Lubricated Journal Bearings
by Faisal Rahmani, Emad Makki and Jayant Giri
Lubricants 2023, 11(9), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants11090355 - 22 Aug 2023
Viewed by 866
Abstract
This study has investigated the influence of journal bearing wear on the dynamic behaviour of a flexible rotor with a central disc. Rotors supported on journal bearings are susceptible to self-excited whirling, leading to unstable conditions. Prior knowledge of the stability limit speed [...] Read more.
This study has investigated the influence of journal bearing wear on the dynamic behaviour of a flexible rotor with a central disc. Rotors supported on journal bearings are susceptible to self-excited whirling, leading to unstable conditions. Prior knowledge of the stability limit speed is important to avoid the excessive vibration of rotating machines. For the study in this paper, journal bearings were lubricated with powder owing to high-temperature applications where conventional oil lubricants would fail to perform. The governing equations for lubrication were derived using a simplified grain theory based on the theory of dense gases. The rotor shaft was discretized considering Timoshenko beam elements. Modal analysis was conducted to obtain the system’s natural frequencies, mode shapes, damping factors, stability limit speed, and unbalance response. This study has also evaluated the influence of wear depth on the dynamic behaviour of the rotor shaft system and found that bearing wear significantly affects the stiffness and damping characteristics of lubricating film. Consequently, free and forced vibration behaviour is also affected. It has been found that increased wear depth improves stability limit speed but has little influence on the unbalance response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribological Characteristics of Bearing System, 2nd Edition)
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