Blue Revolution and Aquatic Life

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Diversity and Ecology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 27458

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Invertebrates Aquaculture Laboratory, Aquaculture Division, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF), Alexandria Branch, El-Anfoshy Quiet Bay, Alexandria 21556, Egypt
Interests: aquatic organisms; IMTA; aqua-feed additives; algae culture; algae biomass; phycology; aquatic physiology; water ecosystems; aquaculture water treatments
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Aquaculture and Animal Production, College of Agriculture and Food Sciences, King Faisal University, Al Hofuf, Saudi Arabia
Interests: aquaculture; fish physiology; immunology; physiology of stress; nutrition physiology; feed additives; reproduction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Norwegian College of Fishery Science, Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway
Interests: fish; microbial ecology; lipid nutrition; electron microscopy; gut microbiota
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recently, the aquaculture industry has grown rapidly with the realization that aquaculture products are renewable, sustainable, and beneficial to human nutrition and overall health status. Globally, aquaculture organisms are mainly divided into two large divisions, aquatic animals (finfish, crustaceans, and mollusks) and aquatic plants (microalgae and seaweed). The culture technologies of each division may be established separately, while some technologies have co-integration systems. Generally, algal cells are strongly utilized and may be applied during all stages of aquaculture activities of aquatic animals. Due to the global population explosion and climate change, the sustainable development of aquatic integration systems is a critical issue in achieving the blue revolution. The integration between aquatic animals and aquatic plants may be outright during early larvae rearing, on-growing, and/or mass production. This integration aims to achieve better direct and indirect nutrition, lower stress levels, improve environmental impact, and enhance anti-bacterial and antioxidant capacities. As a result, this integration can lead to lower production costs, high efficiency, and serve as a future for sustainable aquaculture industry projects. On the other hand, algal cells have significant application roles in several sustainable bio-industries.

In the perspective of the Blue Revolution, the current Special Issue concerns the integration of generations of aquatic plants and aquatic animals and the aquaculture products resulting from these generations. For this objective, we welcome the submission of high-quality research articles, review articles, and short communications that provide recent insights into the several aspects of the Blue Revolution, such as, but not limited to,  integration of generations of aquatic organisms, sustainable development of aquatic organisms, immunity of aquatic animals, IMTA, PBR, RAS, aquaponic systems, treatment of aquaculture effluent, seaweed/microalgae co-culture, fish/shrimp/mollusks/seaweed co-cultures, and algal cell extracts and products.       

Dr. Mohamed Ashour
Dr. Abdallah Tageldein Mansour
Prof. Dr. Einar Ringø
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • live feeds
  • green water technique
  • algae culture
  • algae biomass concentrates
  • Photobioreactors (PBR)
  • seaweeds culture Techniques
  • Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA)
  • aquaponic systems
  • aqua-feed additives
  • aquatic plants extracts/phytochemicals/products
  • aquaculture water conditioner
  • aquaculture water treatments

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 3426 KiB  
Article
Intestinal Microbiota Differences in Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp between Greenhouse and Aquaponic Rearing
by Yabin Dou, Mengying Wen, Hui Shen, Sheng Zhang, Ge Jiang, Yi Qiao, Jie Cheng, Xiaohui Cao, Xihe Wan and Xiaoman Sun
Life 2023, 13(2), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020525 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2026
Abstract
The sustainability of shrimp aquaculture can be achieved through the development of greenhouse and aquaponic rearing modes, which are classified as heterotrophic and autotrophic bacterial aquaculture systems. However, there have been few investigations into the discrepancies between the intestinal and water microbiota of [...] Read more.
The sustainability of shrimp aquaculture can be achieved through the development of greenhouse and aquaponic rearing modes, which are classified as heterotrophic and autotrophic bacterial aquaculture systems. However, there have been few investigations into the discrepancies between the intestinal and water microbiota of these two rearing methods. In this study, we collected shrimp samples from greenhouse-rearing (WG) and aquaponic-rearing (YG) ponds, and water samples (WE, YE), and investigated the intestinal and water microbiota between the two rearing modes. The results, through alpha and beta diversity analyses, reveal that there was basically no significant difference between shrimp intestine WG and YG (p > 0.05) or between rearing water WE and YE (p > 0.05). At the phylum and genus levels, the common bacteria between WE and WG differed significantly from those of YE and YG. The analysis of the top six phyla shows that Proteobacteria and Patescibacteria were significantly more abundant in the WG group than those in the YG group (p < 0.05). Conversely, Actinobacteriota, Firmicutes, and Verrucomicrobiota were significantly more abundant in the YG group than those in the WG group (p < 0.05). Venn analysis between WE and WG shows that Amaricoccus, Micrococcales, Flavobacteriaceae, and Paracoccus were the dominant bacteria genera, while Acinetobacter, Demequina, and Rheinheimera were the dominant bacteria genera between YE and YG. Pathways such as the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, microbial metabolism in different environments, and carbon metabolism were significantly more upregulated in WG than those in YG (p < 0.05). In addition, pathways such as sulfate, chloroplast, phototrophy, and the nitrogen metabolism were significantly different between the WE and YE samples. These findings suggest that the greenhouse mode, a typical heterotrophic bacterial model, contains bacterial flora consisting of Amaricoccus, Micrococcales, Flavobacteriaceae, and other bacteria, which is indicative of the biological sludge process. Conversely, the aquaponic mode, an autotrophic bacterial model, was characterized by Acinetobacter, Demequina, Rheinheimera, and other bacteria, signifying the autotrophic biological process. This research provides an extensive understanding of heterotrophic and autotrophic bacterial aquaculture systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blue Revolution and Aquatic Life)
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17 pages, 740 KiB  
Article
Impact of Dietary Administration of Seaweed Polysaccharide on Growth, Microbial Abundance, and Growth and Immune-Related Genes Expression of The Pacific Whiteleg Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)
by Eman M. Abbas, Ahmed Said Al-Souti, Zaki Z. Sharawy, Ehab El-Haroun and Mohamed Ashour
Life 2023, 13(2), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020344 - 27 Jan 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2907
Abstract
This work aims to determine the impact of dietary supplementation of polysaccharide, extracted from brown seaweeds Sargassum dentifolium on growth indices, feed utilization, biochemical compositions, microbial abundance, expressions of growth and immunity-related genes, and stress genes of the Pacific Whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei [...] Read more.
This work aims to determine the impact of dietary supplementation of polysaccharide, extracted from brown seaweeds Sargassum dentifolium on growth indices, feed utilization, biochemical compositions, microbial abundance, expressions of growth and immunity-related genes, and stress genes of the Pacific Whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. A total of 360 post-larvae of L. vannamei were randomly distributed into a 12-glass aquarium (40 L of each) at a stocking density of 30 shrimp with an initial weight of (0.0017 ± 0.001 g). During the 90-day experiment trial, all shrimp larvae were fed their respective diets at 10% of total body weight, three times a day. Three experimental diets were prepared with different seaweed polysaccharide (SWP) levels. The basal control diet had no polysaccharide level (SWP0), while SWP1, SWP2, and SWP3 contained polysaccharides at concentrations of 1, 2, and 3 g kg−1 diet, respectively. Diets supplemented with polysaccharide levels showed significant improvements in weight gain and survival rate, compared to the control diet. Whole-body biochemical composition and the microbial abundance (the total count of heterotrophic bacteria and Vibrio spp.) of L. vannamei showed significant differences among polysaccharide-treated diets compared to the control. At the end of the feeding experiment, the dietary supplementation of polysaccharide levels enhanced the expression of growth-related genes (Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I, IGF-II), immune-related genes (β -Glucan-binding protein (β-Bgp), Prophenoloxidase (ProPO), Lysozyme (Lys), and Crustin), and stress genes (Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the muscle tissue of L. vannamei. However, the current study concluded that the inclusion rate of 2 g kg–1 of polysaccharide as a dietary additive administration enhanced both weight gain and survival rate of L. vannamei, while the incorporation level of 3 g kg–1 reduces the abundance of pathogenic microbes and enhances the growth-, immunity- and stress-related gene expressions of L. vannamei. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blue Revolution and Aquatic Life)
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17 pages, 765 KiB  
Article
The Potential of Fermented Water Spinach Meal as a Fish Meal Replacement and the Impacts on Growth Performance, Reproduction, Blood Biochemistry and Gut Morphology of Female Stinging Catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis)
by Shishir Kumar Nandi, Afrina Yeasmin Suma, Aminur Rashid, Muhammad Anamul Kabir, Khang Wen Goh, Zulhisyam Abdul Kari, Hien Van Doan, Nik Nur Azwanida Zakaria, Martina Irwan Khoo and Lee Seong Wei
Life 2023, 13(1), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010176 - 6 Jan 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4070
Abstract
The identification and development of a new plant-based feed ingredient as an alternative protein source to FM have gained the interest of the aquafeed industrial players. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the physical, biochemical, and bacteriological properties of dietary FWM and the [...] Read more.
The identification and development of a new plant-based feed ingredient as an alternative protein source to FM have gained the interest of the aquafeed industrial players. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the physical, biochemical, and bacteriological properties of dietary FWM and the impacts on the growth and reproductive performances of farmed female stinging catfish, H. fossilis broodstock. Five experimental diets were formulated with different FWM inclusion (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%). Fatty acid profiles such as 4:0, 10:0, 20:0, 21:0, 22:0, 24:0, 20:1n9, 18:3n6, 20:3n6, 20:4n6, and 22:6n3 were found in higher levels in FWM compared to the water spinach meal (WM). Meanwhile, there were no significant differences in the physical properties of the FWM experimental diets (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the experimental feed with 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% FWM were more palatable to the broodstock than 100% FWM. The number of total bacteria (TB) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in catfish diets exhibited a rising trend with an increase in FWM, while 50% of FWM-fed fish intestines had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher TB and LAB than other treatment groups. The growth, feed utilization, and reproductive variables of H. fossilis were significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by FWM inclusion at various levels. Moreover, the significantly (p < 0.05) highest oocytes weight, fertilization, egg ripeness, and ovipositor diameter were observed in the treatment of 50% FWM diet treatment group. In addition, the spawning response was 100% in all treatments except for the control group (66.67%). Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the hematological and serum biochemical indices in most treatment groups. In addition, the histological analysis of H. fossilis midintestinal tissue indicated that the fish fed with a 50% FWM diet had an unbroken epithelial barrier with more goblet cell arrangements and a well-organized villi structure and tunica muscularis compared to other treatment groups. These outcomes suggested that FWM at 50% inclusion is an adequate protein supplement for fish feed, resulting in better growth, reproductive performance, and health of H. fossilis broodstock development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blue Revolution and Aquatic Life)
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15 pages, 1221 KiB  
Article
Commercial Seaweed Liquid Extract as Strawberry Biostimulants and Bioethanol Production
by Mohamed Ashour, Ahmed Said Al-Souti, Shimaa M. Hassan, Gamal A. G. Ammar, Ashraf M. A.-S. Goda, Rania El-Shenody, Abd El-Fatah Abomohra, Ehab El-Haroun and Mostafa E. Elshobary
Life 2023, 13(1), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010085 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4023
Abstract
Seaweeds are increasingly intriguing as a sustainable source of bioactive compounds. They have applications in agriculture, fuels, feed, and food products. To become a cost-competitive product with zero waste, a biorefinery approach is applied, where several products are valorized at the same time. [...] Read more.
Seaweeds are increasingly intriguing as a sustainable source of bioactive compounds. They have applications in agriculture, fuels, feed, and food products. To become a cost-competitive product with zero waste, a biorefinery approach is applied, where several products are valorized at the same time. True-Algae-Max (TAM®) has been investigated for its ability to improve the yield and nutritional facts of a strawberry plant. Three concentrations of TAM (0, 50, and 100%) were examined by foliar spray in 2017 with 50% NPK chemical fertilizer. Results indicated that growth, yield, chlorophyll, and potassium content were significantly improved by TAM treatments. TAM50 % resulted in maximum root length, leaf area, plant fresh weight, fruit weight, and yield with an increase ranging from 10 to 110% compared to control. Compared to the NPK control, strawberries grown with TAM50% improved total soluble solids (TSS) from 7.58 to 10.12% and anthocyanin from 23.08 to 29.42 mg CGE 100 g−1. Noteworthily, this reduced total sugar, and total phenolics were boosted by TAM applications, while non-reducing sugar was reduced compared to control. On the other hand, whole seaweed biomass and TAM residuals were used for bioethanol production by acid scarification. The maximum bioethanol yield was observed in residual biomass (0.34 g g−1 dw), while the whole seaweed biomass showed only 0.20 g g−1 dw. These results proved the biorefinery concept of using seaweed extract as a biostimulator and bioethanol production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blue Revolution and Aquatic Life)
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11 pages, 1239 KiB  
Article
Catch per Unit Effort, Density and Size Distribution of the Oysters Pinctada capensis and Saccostrea cucullata (Class Bivalvea) on Inhaca Island, Southern Mozambique
by Mizeque Julio Mafambissa, Celia Angelica Gimo, Carlos Pestana Andrade and Adriano Afonso Macia
Life 2023, 13(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010083 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2198
Abstract
Oysters are important resources for the daily diet, a source of economic income for many coastal communities and a delicacy for the tourism industry. In this study, the oysters (Pinctada capensis and Saccostrea cucullata) were investigated with the aim to assess [...] Read more.
Oysters are important resources for the daily diet, a source of economic income for many coastal communities and a delicacy for the tourism industry. In this study, the oysters (Pinctada capensis and Saccostrea cucullata) were investigated with the aim to assess the catch per unit effort, density and size composition. The study was conducted over a three-year period on Inhaca Island, Southern Mozambique. For both species, perception of fishery trends from collectors was carried out through habitat censuses and interviews. Transects, quadrats and daily fisheries catches approaches were used. Results show that P. capensis is the most exploited on the island. A total of 72.1% of respondents pointed that the oyster P. capensis is decreasing, due to excessive catching (75.4%) followed by natural death (24.6%), while 20.9% affirmed that the resource is stable and 7.0% are unaware about the resource trend. Oyster densities, sizes and catches per unit effort were higher in less accessible areas only for P. capensis. The present study provides valuable baseline information to recommend best practices to improve the exploitation, and access the need for introduction of aquaculture, towards the sustainable management and conservation of oysters, and ultimately to ameliorate people’s livelihoods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blue Revolution and Aquatic Life)
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29 pages, 7559 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Seaweed Nanopowder Particles Using Planetary Ball Milling and Their Effects on Some Secondary Metabolites in Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Seedlings
by Amal A. Mohamed, Manal Y. Sameeh and Hossam S. El-Beltagi
Life 2023, 13(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010039 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3018
Abstract
Due to their distinctive physicochemical characteristics, nanoparticles have recently emerged as pioneering materials in agricultural research. In this work, nanopowders (NP) of seaweed (Turbinaria triquetra) were prepared using the planetary ball milling procedure. The prepared nanopowders from marine seaweed were characterized [...] Read more.
Due to their distinctive physicochemical characteristics, nanoparticles have recently emerged as pioneering materials in agricultural research. In this work, nanopowders (NP) of seaweed (Turbinaria triquetra) were prepared using the planetary ball milling procedure. The prepared nanopowders from marine seaweed were characterized by particle size, zeta potential, UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). When the seaweed nanopowder of Turbinaria triquetra was subjected to FT-IR analysis, it revealed the presence of different functional groups, including alkane, carboxylic acids, alcohol, alkenes and aromatics. Moreover, the methanol extract was used to identify the polyphenolic components in seaweed (NP) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the extract revealed the presence of a number of important compounds such as daidzein and quercetin. Moreover, the pot experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of prepared seaweed (NP) as an enhancer for the growth of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.). The date palm seedlings received four NP doses, bi-distilled water was applied as the control and doses of 25, 50 or 100 mg L−1 of seaweed liquid NP were used (referred to as T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively). Foliar application of liquid NP was applied two times per week within a period of 30 days. Leaf area, number of branches, dry weight, chlorophylls, total soluble sugars and some other secondary metabolites were determined. Our results indicated that the foliar application of liquid NP at T3 enhanced the growth parameters of the date palm seedlings. Additionally, liquid NP at T3 and T4 significantly increased the photosynthetic pigments. The total phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidant activities were stimulated by NP foliar application. Moreover, the data showed that the T3 and T4 doses enhanced the activity of the antioxidant enzymes (CAT, POX or PPO) compared to other treatments. Therefore, the preparation of seaweed NP using the planetary ball milling method could produce an eco-friendly and cost- effective material for sustainable agriculture and could be an interesting way to create a nanofertilizer that mitigates plant growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blue Revolution and Aquatic Life)
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17 pages, 1033 KiB  
Article
Fermented Soybean Meal (FSBM) in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Diets: Effects on Growth Performance, Fish Gut Microbiota Analysis, Blood Haematology, and Liver Morphology
by Muhammad Khairulanam Zakaria, Zulhisyam Abdul Kari, Hien Van Doan, Muhammad Anamul Kabir, Hasnita Che Harun, Suniza Anis Mohamad Sukri, Khang Wen Goh, Wendy Wee, Martina Irwan Khoo and Lee Seong Wei
Life 2022, 12(11), 1851; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12111851 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3002
Abstract
The study revealed the potential of fermented soybean meal (FSBM) as a fish meal (FM) replacement in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) feed formulation. Five isonitrogenous diets (32% crude protein) were prepared with five different levels of FSBM as FM replacement, namely [...] Read more.
The study revealed the potential of fermented soybean meal (FSBM) as a fish meal (FM) replacement in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) feed formulation. Five isonitrogenous diets (32% crude protein) were prepared with five different levels of FSBM as FM replacement, namely 0% FSBM (T1), 40% FSBM (T2), 50% FSBM (T3), 60% FSBM (T4), and 70% (T5). The experimental fish was given the formulated diet for eight consecutive weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, the fish were subjected to growth performance, blood parameters, blood chemical, liver histology, and gut microbiota assessment. The study findings demonstrated that the experimental fish that received the T2 diet exhibited significantly higher (p < 0.05) growth performance. Experimental fish that received diet T2 had significantly higher (p < 0.05) white blood cell (WBC) and significantly lower (p < 0.05) in terms of cholesterol (CHOL), albumin (ALB), globulin (GLOB), and total protein (TP). The replacement of FSBM to FM significantly affected liver morphology on the sinusoid, vacuole, nucleus, and erythrocytes. Gut microbiota composition analysis showed a significantly high abundance (p < 0.05) of Akkermansia muciniphila in the experimental fish that received the T2 diet. The gut microbiota indicates that the experimental fish is in a healthy condition. In conclusion, replacing 40% FSBM with FM in aquafeed could enhance C. gariepinus growth performance and health conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blue Revolution and Aquatic Life)
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14 pages, 1029 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of DDGS as a Low-Cost Feed Ingredient for Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linneus) Cultivated in a Semi-Intensive System
by Cristian-Alin Barbacariu, Cristina Mihaela Rimbu, Lenuta Dirvariu, Marian Burducea, Razvan Stefan Boiangiu, Elena Todirascu-Ciornea and Gabriela Dumitru
Life 2022, 12(10), 1609; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12101609 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1812
Abstract
Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a coproduct from the ethanol production industry, is successfully used as an ingredient in feeding cattle and pigs due to its relatively high protein and nutrient content and low price compared to cereals. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a coproduct from the ethanol production industry, is successfully used as an ingredient in feeding cattle and pigs due to its relatively high protein and nutrient content and low price compared to cereals. The aim of this study was to establish the optimal DDGS concentration that can be included in the diet of common carp. A seven-week experiment was performed on common carp with an initial weight of 86 g feed with three experimental diets D0 (DDGS 0%), D1 (DDGS 25%) and D2 (DDGS 35%). The chemical composition of DDGS analyzed by Fourier Transform Near-Infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy showed a protein content of 27.56% and oil at 6.75%. Diets with DDGS did not produce significant changes in growth parameters, flesh quality, and blood biochemical profile. Regarding the oxidative status in the muscle tissue, D1 and D2 significantly reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, the specific activity of SOD and GSH, while CAT and GPX were left unaffected. In the liver tissue, CAT, GSH, MDA and carbonylated proteins were reduced in the DDGS diets. The microbiological analysis of the intestinal contents revealed a variation in microbial density depending on the diet used. The total number of aerobic germs was between 224.2 × 104 and 69.84 × 106 (D2 > D1 > D0) and the total number of anaerobic germs was between 15.2 × 102 and 28.2 × 102 (D2 > D0 > D1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blue Revolution and Aquatic Life)
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Review

Jump to: Research

43 pages, 37613 KiB  
Review
Carp Breeding in the Carpathian Basin with a Sustainable Utilization of Renewable Natural Resources
by Laszló Horváth, Éva Kovács, Balázs Csorbai, Árpád Hegyi, Kinga Lefler, Tamás Müller and Béla Urbányi
Life 2022, 12(10), 1661; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12101661 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2793
Abstract
In the Central European region, there is a long tradition of breeding fish in artificially constructed ponds. As the area belongs to the temperate zone, farmed fish need to survive cold winter periods. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), which is an omnivorous, [...] Read more.
In the Central European region, there is a long tradition of breeding fish in artificially constructed ponds. As the area belongs to the temperate zone, farmed fish need to survive cold winter periods. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), which is an omnivorous, bioturbating species, is well adapted to warm and cold periods and the alluvial water environment. Since the Middle Ages, a large scale, efficient carp farming methodology has been developed in the region, where production is based on natural resources (protein and fatty acid sources) of renewable water ecosystems. This summary aims to present this well-developed breedi:ng method through discussing aspects of hydrobiology and energy transfer through the food chain as well. Capabilities and effects of agro-technical treatments such as liming and organic manuring, zooplankton management and possible supplementary feedings are also reviewed. Analysing chemical processes of waters uncovers that biological production has no carbon footprint; no carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere. In contrast, gaseous carbon dioxide diffuses into pond water containing calcium and/or magnesium, then it accumulates in algae production and, through energy migration to upper trophic levels, increases carp production. Thus, it can be declared that pond-farmed carp provides an environmentally friendly, delicious meat among products of animal origin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blue Revolution and Aquatic Life)
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