Special Issue "Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: History, Current Status, Perspectives"

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Research".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2022 | Viewed by 2588

Special Issue Editors

Dr. David Slouka
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Head of ENT Department, Faculty Hospital in Pilsen, E. Beneše 1128, 301 00 Pilsen, Czech Republic
Interests: sleep medicine; obstructive sleep apnea; ear surgery
Dr. Milan Štengl
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Charles University, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Biomedical Center, alej Svobody 1655/76, 323 00 Plzeň – Severní Předměstí, Czech Republic
Interests: experimental cardiology; physiology; pathophysiology; experimental intensive care

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The dynamic development of all medical disciplines in recent years has not skipped the field of sleep apnea syndrome, which has seen the introduction of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Knowledge from the fields of epidemiology, etiology, and pathogenetic processes have enabled the improvement of existing treatments and helped the field to branch out into new directions. We are working on speeding up diagnostics by making them simpler and more accurate, as well as more accessible to patients. Thanks to the application of new findings, we can work on the efficiency and efficacy of new methods in clinical practice, all in order to improve the quality of the patient's life.

Sleep apnea syndrome is a disease that currently has a wide-reaching effect on the general public, especially due to the increasing incidence of obesity. Current lifestyle trends and eating habits often disregard the need for a balanced schedule of activities. It is this lack of balance that leads to an increase in civilization diseases, and those undoubtedly include sleep apnea syndrome. Despite the observations that attest to a relatively high incidence of this disease, a large number of patients remain unaware of their problem. Intensive research is thus important in this field.

In general, sleep apnea syndrome is a multidisciplinary area that favors nonsurgical treatment. Nevertheless, comprehensive therapy also includes surgical aspects. It has to be said that conservative and surgical modalities of therapy cannot be viewed as competitive, but as potentially complementary in a manner that should yield the best outcome for the patient.

This issue should include important topics that pertain to the entire field of sleep apnea. Authors are encouraged to publish innovative procedures and new or interesting findings in the field of sleep apnea syndrome or point out previously unpublished contexts. Sleep apnea syndrome should be taken seriously as a dynamic, highly variable disease, with many serious comorbidities and a significant impact on the quality of the affected patients’ lives.

The Special Issue is open for submissions. Authors submitting their work are asked to first send a short abstract to the Editorial Office. Should their work be found suitable for inclusion in the Special Issue, the authors will be encouraged to submit a full manuscript.

Dr. David Slouka
Dr. Milan Štengl
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Life is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sleep medicine
  • obstructive sleep apnea
  • positive airway pressure
  • pediatric sleep apnea syndrome
  • sleep monitoring
  • obesity and obstructive sleep apnea
  • central sleep apnea
  • apnea
  • hypopnea
  • sleep disorder breathing
  • surgical treatment
  • non-surgical treatment
  • cardiovascular risk

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Apnoeic Individuals: Role of Comorbid Insomnia Disorder
Life 2022, 12(7), 944; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12070944 - 23 Jun 2022
Viewed by 213
Abstract
Given the limited data available, the aim of this study was to examine the 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk associated with comorbid insomnia disorder and its specific subtypes in apnoeic individuals. Data from 1104 apnoeic individuals recruited from the database of the Erasme [...] Read more.
Given the limited data available, the aim of this study was to examine the 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk associated with comorbid insomnia disorder and its specific subtypes in apnoeic individuals. Data from 1104 apnoeic individuals recruited from the database of the Erasme Hospital Sleep Laboratory were analysed. Only apnoeic individuals with a Framingham Risk Score ≥10% were included in the group at moderate-to-high 10-year CVD risk. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the risk of 10-year CVD risk associated with comorbid insomnia disorder and its specific subtypes in apnoeic individuals. Moderate-to-high 10-year CVD risk was present in 59.6% of the apnoeic individuals in our sample. After adjustment for the main confounding factors, multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that comorbid insomnia disorder and, more particularly, its subtype with short sleep duration were significantly associated with moderate-to-high 10-year CVD risk in apnoeic individuals. In this study, we demonstrate that comorbid insomnia disorder and, more specifically, its subtype with short sleep duration appear to have a negative cumulative effect on 10-year CVD risk in apnoeic individuals, which justifies more systematic research and adequate therapeutic management of this disorder to allow for better cardiovascular disease prevention in this particular subpopulation. Full article
Article
Pharyngeal Airspace Alterations after Using the Mandibular Advancement Device in the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome
Life 2022, 12(6), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12060835 - 02 Jun 2022
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Background: Mandibular Advancement Devices (MADs), inserted in non-surgical treatments for obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), are used intra-orally during the sleep period, with the aim of promoting mandibular protrusion. The aim of the study is to analyze the changes in the [...] Read more.
Background: Mandibular Advancement Devices (MADs), inserted in non-surgical treatments for obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), are used intra-orally during the sleep period, with the aim of promoting mandibular protrusion. The aim of the study is to analyze the changes in the upper airway after the use of an MAD in the treatment of OSAHS. Methods: 60 patients diagnosed with OSAHS, as established by the Sleep Medicine Service, underwent treatment with the Silensor SL device at the Stomatology Service of the University Hospital Center of Coimbra, from January 2018 to January 2019. All patients completed two polysomnographies and two lateral teleradiographies: one before starting treatment (T0) and one after 1 year of treatment (T1). In the lateral teleradiography performed after one year of treatment, the patient had the MAD placed intra-orally. The linear measurements of the airspace proposed by the Arnett/Gunson FAB Surgery cephalometric analysis were measured at four craniometric points: A, MCI, B, Pog. Results: The results demonstrate an anteroposterior airway enlargement in two of the four points studied with the MAD placed intra-orally (B and Pog point). The greatest average increase is observed at point Pog (3 mm), followed by B (1 mm), and finally, point A (0.6 mm). Conclusions: This study proved that there is an improvement in anteroposterior measurements at various points in the upper airways after treatment with MAD. Full article
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Article
Nasal Symptoms in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea and Their Association with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Usage
Life 2022, 12(2), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12020305 - 17 Feb 2022
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Abstract
The role of nasal symptoms in continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) tolerance is not completely clear. This study aimed to investigate the association between CPAP usage and nasal symptoms, either prior to, or developing during, CPAP use in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea [...] Read more.
The role of nasal symptoms in continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) tolerance is not completely clear. This study aimed to investigate the association between CPAP usage and nasal symptoms, either prior to, or developing during, CPAP use in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Two hundred thirty patients were studied and divided into high-, low-, and non-CPAP users. Nasal symptoms and related quality of life parameters were evaluated prior to CPAP initiation and after three months. We also investigated predictive factors for CPAP usage. Non-CPAP users had significantly worse baseline scores for runny nose compared with high and low users (1.34 vs. 0.68 and 0.75, respectively, p = 0.006). There were no other significant differences between the groups. Runny nose was an independent predictive factor for lower CPAP usage (p = 0.036). An evaluation after three months showed worsening in runny nose score in high-CPAP users (p = 0.025) but not in low- and non-users. There were no significant changes in other nasal symptoms. Our study demonstrates that nasal symptoms were very common in this population but rhinorrhoea was the only symptom associated with poorer CPAP adherence. Moreover, rhinorrhoea worsened after a three-month trial of high-CPAP usage. Full article

Review

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Review
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approach to Children and Adolescents with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSA): Recommendations in Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy
Life 2022, 12(5), 739; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12050739 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 655
Abstract
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSA) in paediatrics is a rather frequent pathology caused by pathophysiological alterations leading to partial and prolonged obstruction (hypoventilation) and/or intermittent partial (hypopnoea) or complete (apnoea) obstruction of the upper airways. Paediatric OSA is characterised by daytime and night-time [...] Read more.
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSA) in paediatrics is a rather frequent pathology caused by pathophysiological alterations leading to partial and prolonged obstruction (hypoventilation) and/or intermittent partial (hypopnoea) or complete (apnoea) obstruction of the upper airways. Paediatric OSA is characterised by daytime and night-time symptoms. Unfortunately, there are few data on shared diagnostic-therapeutic pathways that address OSA with a multidisciplinary approach in paediatric age. This document summarizes recommendations from the Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy, developed in order to provide the most appropriate tools for a multidisciplinary approach in the diagnosis, treatment and care of paediatric patients with OSA. The multidisciplinary group of experts distinguished two different ‘step’ pathways, depending on the age group considered (i.e., under or over two years). In most cases, these pathways can be carried out by the primary care paediatrician, who represents the first filter for approaching the problem. For this reason, it is essential that the primary care paediatrician receives adequate training on how to formulate the diagnostic suspicion of OSA and on what criteria to use to select patients to be sent to the hospital centre. The relationship between the paediatrician of the patient and her/his parents must see a synergy of behaviour between the various players in order to avoid uncertainty about the diagnostic and therapeutic decisions as well as the follow-up phase. The definition and evaluation of the organizational process and outcome indicators of the developed flow-chart, and the impact of its implementation will remain fundamental. Full article
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