Landscapes at Risk. Social Capital Asset in the COVID-Scape Climate

A special issue of Land (ISSN 2073-445X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 29807

Special Issue Editors

Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, 95125 Catania, Italy
Interests: environmental economics; real estate economics; urban economics; urban and land management; urban and land sustainability; cultural resources valuation; multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA); datamining; GIS
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia, 54, Catania, Italy
Interests: project and planning valuation; cultural heritage valuation; urban equalization; environmental assessment; damage appraisal; real estate analysis and appraisal
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Up until the current pandemic, the terms “urban-scape” and “human-scape” have been assumed, described and practised as parallel dimensions of the territorial analysis, marginalising the knowledge and the evaluation of the landscape risk. This has always been associated, and often confused, with diverse forms of environmental risk, despite the fact that they represent some of the most important components of risk, but not its essence.

The relation between social capital and landscape deserves to be examined and represented in its entirety: as a matter of fact, while social capital has mainly been considered in the material, functional, economic and ethical dimensions, landscape has been examined in the perceptual, psychological, cultural and aesthetic dimensions.

Significant attempts to define a strong relation between capital and landscape have been conducted in the field of the “real estate-escape”—the real estate capital asset indeed shows the relationship between a monetary measurement (price) and an articulated and complex qualitative essence, which represents all of the attributes that market price is associated with.

Sudden and widespread environmental fluctuations, such as the one created by the arising and persisting current pandemic, significantly involve the relationship between the two main existential dimensions of the settled communities—social capital and landscape—and its possible representations by means of the economic–monetary dimension as well.

In view of a possible renewal of the relationship between people and the city–landscape system, very differentiated scenarios of the new territorial orders are prefigured; this renewal process territory, as its own institutional dimension, has the responsibility to solve its traditional contraposition to the environment, particularly through a renewed relationship between the attractors of the dense areas (cities) and the environmental hindrances (the plundered and neglected part of the rural and state-owned territory which is the main cause of environmental threat). 

This Special Issue intends to foster an in-depth reflection from researchers in converging disciplines, and at different levels (theoretical, methodological and operational), on the essence and the possible overcoming of the conflict between some specific functions of the economic sub-system and landscape quality, with specific reference to the main criticalities already existing before the pandemic and to the possibility—prefigured by the new restraints—to rebuild their connections in order to reduce the landscape risk. 

Research fields:

Environmental risk and landscape risk;

Internal areas: abandonment and repopulation;

Economy and territorial planning;

Economy and landscape planning;

People and the city: real estate-scape, urban-scape, human-scape;

New landscape economy: ecological, circular, civil economy.

Prof. Dr. Maria Rosa Trovato
Prof. Dr. Salvatore Giuffrida
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • real estate-scape
  • urban-scape
  • human-scape
  • natural-scape
  • cultural-scape
  • environmental risk
  • landscape risk
  • internal areas
  • landscape economy
  • circular economy
  • territorial and landscape planning

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

25 pages, 4944 KiB  
Article
Tactical Urbanism Interventions for the Urban Environment: Which Economic Impacts?
Land 2023, 12(7), 1457; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071457 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 2047
Abstract
In the last decades, the emergence of new social, environmental, and economic demands, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, has led urban planning to innovate its themes, methods, and approaches. In this context, temporary urbanism has emerged as a mainstream approach. How-ever, the impacts [...] Read more.
In the last decades, the emergence of new social, environmental, and economic demands, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, has led urban planning to innovate its themes, methods, and approaches. In this context, temporary urbanism has emerged as a mainstream approach. How-ever, the impacts of temporary approaches to urban planning are far from being fully understood. In this light, this study focuses on one of the mainstream approaches to temporary urbanism, tactical urbanism, and tries to understand its economic impacts on contemporary cities. Indeed, despite the growing interest in tactical urbanism interventions and their value as an urban regeneration tool, there are no specific reflections focused on investigating their economic effects. Based on these premises, this paper focuses on different tactical urbanism experiences in the Italian context and tries to assess the economic impacts of tactical urbanism interventions by adopting the lens of real estate values as a suitable proxy when dealing with urban environments. The first obtained results show that the experiences of tactical urbanism, partly because of their temporary nature and their tendency toward minimal intervention, fail to trigger regeneration processes or produce significant economic impacts on the territory. Instead, such experiences can play a role in accelerating or consolidating urban regeneration processes already underway, and, in this sense, they contribute to the generation of economic impact on the territory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes at Risk. Social Capital Asset in the COVID-Scape Climate)
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24 pages, 2378 KiB  
Article
Energy Communities in Urban Areas: Comparison of Energy Strategy and Economic Feasibility in Italy and Spain
Land 2023, 12(7), 1282; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071282 - 24 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1464
Abstract
Energy communities using renewable energy sources directly contributes to reduction of climate change gas emissions and energy consumption in the European Union. In addition, energy communities enable citizens to transform from (passive) consumers to prosumers (active consumers and producers) and to play a [...] Read more.
Energy communities using renewable energy sources directly contributes to reduction of climate change gas emissions and energy consumption in the European Union. In addition, energy communities enable citizens to transform from (passive) consumers to prosumers (active consumers and producers) and to play a proactive role in the deployment of energy transition in urban areas. As the transposition of European rules about energy communities into the national laws of EU Member States is very articulated and differentiated, this study proposes a framework to analyze and compare regulatory and financial instruments. This framework is applied to the analysis of the cases of Italy and Spain as representative of European states in which collective actions in the energy sector are not very common, with the aim of highlighting the main critical issues affecting the effectiveness of energy transition strategies and assessing the economic feasibility of energy communities. Based on analysis of regulations and procedures, including at the local level, it appears that municipalities play an important role as promoters of initiatives among citizen communities, while complex bureaucratic procedure is the most critical issue in both countries and can significantly hinder the spread of energy communities. With respect to the different financial incentives available for the formation of energy communities in Italy and Spain, a few cases studies are hypothesized, calculating the most relevant cost-effectiveness indicators, e.g., Net Present Value. It turns out that a project with the same characteristics achieves greater economic feasibility in Italy than in Spain, depending on the type and size of incentives set by national laws and, above all, that financial incentives are necessary to make the formation of energy communities cost-effective and thus to achieve direct citizen involvement in energy transition actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes at Risk. Social Capital Asset in the COVID-Scape Climate)
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27 pages, 6881 KiB  
Article
The Realms of Abandonment: Measures and Interpretations of Landscape Value/Risk in Northern Sardinia (Italy)
Land 2023, 12(7), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071274 - 22 Jun 2023
Viewed by 780
Abstract
This contribution is part of the context of studies on the prospects of eco-oriented territorial rebalancing involving the settlement networks of inland areas. These are characterised by the contrast between socio-territorial disadvantage issues and opportunities to reuse physical resources within the broader framework [...] Read more.
This contribution is part of the context of studies on the prospects of eco-oriented territorial rebalancing involving the settlement networks of inland areas. These are characterised by the contrast between socio-territorial disadvantage issues and opportunities to reuse physical resources within the broader framework of territorial regeneration and the revitalisation of local identities. In Italy, the region of Sardinia represents one of the most suitable operational contexts for the study of this relationship due to the presence of a natural context that dominates the urbanised areas and a deep, and in some ways still intact, cultural identity. Between nature and culture lies the issue of urban settlement structures, which are progressively being emptied due to depopulation and abandonment, and which require responses to revitalise territories integrated with the now inescapable ecological–environmental needs. This study proposes the formation of an initial platform of indicators to describe the effects of land abandonment through a multidimensional approach to highlight the potentials and weaknesses of the natural, urban, and socio-cultural heritage. The scale of observation and comparison concerns urban centres and small towns in the province of Sassari in the Region of Sardinia (Italy). The creation of an integrated set of maps highlighting deficiencies, vocations, and unexpressed potentials are the first results of the observation methodology adopted; these residual potentials can be used to design possible redevelopment and regeneration strategies based on the specific vocations of territories and urban settlements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes at Risk. Social Capital Asset in the COVID-Scape Climate)
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32 pages, 11762 KiB  
Article
Data and Values: Axiological Interpretations of Building Sprawl Landscape Risk in the Rural Territory of Noto (Italy)
Land 2023, 12(6), 1258; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12061258 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 722
Abstract
This research concerns the issue of landscape risk due to the progressive spread of construction in rural areas through the creation of a “site-specific” analysis and evaluation model and its application to the context of the municipal area of Noto (Italy). The phenomenon [...] Read more.
This research concerns the issue of landscape risk due to the progressive spread of construction in rural areas through the creation of a “site-specific” analysis and evaluation model and its application to the context of the municipal area of Noto (Italy). The phenomenon of construction in rural areas was facilitated by the regulatory evolution of the Sicilian Region, which supported the construction of artifacts in agricultural areas to boost cultivation and production, but which, for the most part, was intended for seasonal residential use. In particular, the municipal territory of Noto is characterized by remarkable landscape values, including very low building density, large portions of the territory remaining almost uncontaminated, and the widespread presence of cultural and ethno-anthropological assets. Consequently, the demand for localization in rural areas, now also driven by the tendency to decongest dense urban areas in order to contain the effects of the pandemic, is a phenomenon that must be countered, on the one hand, and addressed and regulated on the other. The objective of this study is to provide the local administration with a planning tool to determine permissible interventions in various areas of the landscape context. This has guided the process of representing the phenomenon in quantitative and spatial terms, and of evaluating the territory targeted. A large set of data, coordinated in a hierarchical set of indices by means of a multidimensional valuation approach, allows us to provide an orderly and robust representation of the resilience of the landscape at risk from building pressure while considering multiple perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes at Risk. Social Capital Asset in the COVID-Scape Climate)
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19 pages, 857 KiB  
Article
Evidence of Global Convergence: Perspectives for Economic and Territory Planning in Times of the COVID-19 Pandemic
Land 2023, 12(6), 1251; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12061251 - 19 Jun 2023
Viewed by 832
Abstract
Governments and international organizations have implemented efforts to promote the convergence of socioeconomic indicators between countries. The structural funds adopted by the European Union institutions are examples of policy instruments implemented to promote convergence in the GDP (gross domestic product) among the member [...] Read more.
Governments and international organizations have implemented efforts to promote the convergence of socioeconomic indicators between countries. The structural funds adopted by the European Union institutions are examples of policy instruments implemented to promote convergence in the GDP (gross domestic product) among the member states. Nonetheless, these policy measures are dependent on several internal and external factors, making these efforts vulnerable to exogenous shocks such as those associated with the global financial crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic. From this perspective, this research aims to analyze the convergence trends over the last few years and assess the respective implications of the pandemic on this framework. For that, statistical information from the World Bank for the GDP per capita was considered for the period 2006–2021 for all countries and organized for each group of levels of income and each world region. These data were analyzed through panel data approaches, considering the developments in convergence theory. The results show that the signs of convergence are different for each level of income and each region, highlighting the idea of clubs of convergence. On the other hand, the pandemic disturbed the trends of convergence verified worldwide, but nonetheless, it seems to be on a smaller scale than the global financial crisis. In any case, these findings should be confirmed in future research with more recent data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes at Risk. Social Capital Asset in the COVID-Scape Climate)
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23 pages, 2302 KiB  
Article
“Location, Location, Location”: Fluctuations in Real Estate Market Values after COVID-19 and the War in Ukraine Based on Econometric and Spatial Analysis, Random Forest, and Multivariate Regression
Land 2023, 12(6), 1248; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12061248 - 19 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1212
Abstract
In this research, the authors aim to detect the marginal appreciation of construction and neighbourhood characteristics of property prices at three different time points: before the COVID-19 pandemic, two years after the first COVID-19 alert but before the War in Ukraine, and one [...] Read more.
In this research, the authors aim to detect the marginal appreciation of construction and neighbourhood characteristics of property prices at three different time points: before the COVID-19 pandemic, two years after the first COVID-19 alert but before the War in Ukraine, and one year after the outbreak of the War. The marginal appreciations of the building’s features are analysed for a pilot case study in Northern Italy using a Random Forest feature importance analysis and a Multivariate Regression. Several techniques are integrated into this study, such as computer programming in Python language, multi-parametric value assessment techniques, feature selection procedures, and spatial analysis. The results may represent an interesting ongoing monitoring of how these anomalous events affect the buyer’s willingness to pay for specific characteristics of the buildings, with particular attention to the location features of the neighbourhood and accessibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes at Risk. Social Capital Asset in the COVID-Scape Climate)
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14 pages, 4211 KiB  
Article
Switching from Risks to Opportunities: The Application of a Superbonus Tax Incentive to Heritage Buildings from the 1960s in Fragile Mountain Contexts
Land 2023, 12(6), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12061130 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 861
Abstract
This paper introduces actual considerations for the progressive disuse of residential space in the Alpine territory, considering possible actions. Nowadays, the building complexes built around the 1960s and 1970s (a symbol of mass tourism) are suffering and searching for a new identity. The [...] Read more.
This paper introduces actual considerations for the progressive disuse of residential space in the Alpine territory, considering possible actions. Nowadays, the building complexes built around the 1960s and 1970s (a symbol of mass tourism) are suffering and searching for a new identity. The generation of owners who bought them has aged and the propensities of the new generations for holiday in those places has changed, which means fewer opportunities for leisure, particularly in the winter. Due to the great attention (and seeming opportunities) of current incentive policies toward improving the energy use of the existing stock, the authors investigate the private conveniences of transformations through the refurbishment of these buildings. Starting from a study of the territory and the dynamics of the local population, this research analyzes a possible set of energy works, based on a new (2020) incentive measure, the 110% Superbonus, which consists of a series of facilitation mechanisms, deductions, and reimbursements for building interventions. A large part of the insight is focused on a technical and economic feasibility study of the possible actions, following a process based on the evolution of the legislation. This work is based on a specific case study, located in a small municipality in the Piedmont mountain area, consisting of three apartment blocks of mostly second homes. The methodology adopted lends itself on the one hand, as a guide for preliminary economic energy assessments and, on the other hand, as a policy evaluation tool from the public and private perspectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes at Risk. Social Capital Asset in the COVID-Scape Climate)
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16 pages, 2016 KiB  
Article
Landscape Value in the Spanish Costa del Sol’s Real Estate Market: The Case of Marbella
Land 2023, 12(5), 987; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12050987 - 29 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1178
Abstract
Housing prices are influenced by extrinsic and intrinsic factors. This study aims to highlight the economic impact of the perceived landscape on single-family houses prices in a Spanish Mediterranean urban area (Marbella). Considering the landscape an important added value in real estate markets, [...] Read more.
Housing prices are influenced by extrinsic and intrinsic factors. This study aims to highlight the economic impact of the perceived landscape on single-family houses prices in a Spanish Mediterranean urban area (Marbella). Considering the landscape an important added value in real estate markets, this study also explores the landscape elements that contribute the most to the value of housing. A particularly positive influence of mixed views (urban elements and Mediterranean scrub) and sea views is detected in the analysis. Sea views are highly requested in the local housing market, but due to the graded topographical layout of Marbella, it is not very difficult to have sea views for houses. The low importance of views on natural land areas is worth noting when one of the attractions of this municipality is that of a highly valued Mediterranean natural environment. Views on the old town centre are somewhere in between: although the old town centre is highly regarded, with a generally good state of preservation, the sampled properties have poorer quality perspectives, with reduced visual basins and views centred on the foreground, usually the houses opposite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes at Risk. Social Capital Asset in the COVID-Scape Climate)
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20 pages, 1206 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Collaborative Strategies of Territorial Regeneration for the Cultural Enhancement of Unresolved Landscapes
Land 2023, 12(2), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12020497 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1375
Abstract
The experience of adaptation and instability to a plurality of threats that question the life of human beings on the planet, from the post-pandemic to political conflicts, up to the danger looming in the background—the upheavals expected from climate change—impose a reflection that [...] Read more.
The experience of adaptation and instability to a plurality of threats that question the life of human beings on the planet, from the post-pandemic to political conflicts, up to the danger looming in the background—the upheavals expected from climate change—impose a reflection that recognizes that landscape/cultural heritage plays a key role in preservation/enhancement as a specific resource for its “human-centered development”, based on values included. These threats are challenges in which phenomena that require solidarity and common actions are faced, which should lead humans to cooperate to face them. The European Landscape Convention of 2000 attributed an important role to the landscape, as an “essential component of the life context of peoples”. The phase of listening to the territory and participatory and co-design processes are necessary tools for understanding the expectations and perceptions of the communities, co-exploring possible new uses of the landscape, being capable of generating added value for all stakeholders, and adopting a “win-win” approach. From this perspective, this contribution poses the following research question: how to build collaborative processes capable of putting local institutions, businesses, and local communities in synergy, to identify enhancement strategies for the cultural landscape? This study explores the potential of an integrated, incremental, and adaptive decision-making approach, oriented toward the elaboration of shared choices aimed at the elaboration of territorial enhancement strategies attentive to the specificity of the multiple values and complex resources that characterize the cultural terraced landscapes of the Costa Viola (Italy). In particular, the interactions between different knowledge, approaches, and tools makes it possible to formulate scenarios, strategies, and actions, contributing to the creation of a richer and more complex context of knowledge of the territory and to the construction of bottom-up and situated transformation strategies, supported from a decision-making process attentive to the identification of values and an understanding of the needs of the local ‘landscape community’ who live and animate it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes at Risk. Social Capital Asset in the COVID-Scape Climate)
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21 pages, 1260 KiB  
Article
A Sensitivity Index to Perform the Territorial Sustainability in Uncertain Decision-Making Conditions
Land 2023, 12(2), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12020432 - 07 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1306
Abstract
The issue of sustainability is central to development strategies. Although this alignment is acknowledged and shared world-wide, territorial development in a sustainable light must also take the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic into consideration, specifically by evaluating the effects of COVID-19 on the global health, [...] Read more.
The issue of sustainability is central to development strategies. Although this alignment is acknowledged and shared world-wide, territorial development in a sustainable light must also take the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic into consideration, specifically by evaluating the effects of COVID-19 on the global health, social order, and economic-environmental system. The research suggests a sensitivity index to gauge the degree of territorial sustainability taking the COVID-19 pandemic’s impacts into account. A study set of countries, as identified by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), is used to test the developed index. The index evaluates a country’s performance in terms of economic, social, and environmental sustainability while also considering the relative risk of COVID-19. The proposed index measures territorial sustainability from a variety of angles by enabling comparisons between the circumstances before and after current shocks in the socioeconomic and environmental performance frames by pandemic emergency. The index was created using an integrated assessment method that was based on the Choquet Integral (CI) mathematical framework and Multi-Attributive Ideal-Real Comparative Analysis (MAIRCA). The study establishes a unique and up-scaling methodology for constructing the sensitivity index, significantly advancing the suggestions for sustainable accounting under uncertain circumstances at the territorial scale. Adopting indices that quantify territorial sustainability under uncertainty may help guide policy decisions from an investment programming viewpoint, particularly when it comes to allocating financial resources to the economic sectors most impacted by shock events such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes at Risk. Social Capital Asset in the COVID-Scape Climate)
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20 pages, 3955 KiB  
Article
Towards European Transitions: Indicators for the Development of Marginal Urban Regions
Land 2023, 12(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12010027 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1580
Abstract
Urban transitions and urban-scape have been heavily impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and will likely be affected by the current Ukrainian-Russian conflict. These two major events have affected European urban regions and especially marginal regions. Indeed, these regions are mostly struggling with inequality, [...] Read more.
Urban transitions and urban-scape have been heavily impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and will likely be affected by the current Ukrainian-Russian conflict. These two major events have affected European urban regions and especially marginal regions. Indeed, these regions are mostly struggling with inequality, lack of optionality, interoperability, and resilience due to their energy dependency and digital asymmetries. The continuous demand for a green and digital transition to strengthen social and economic resilience sought and targeted by the European Community has driven the policy of recent years to new European Guidelines. Nevertheless, the digital transition will require sustainability targets in the urban context, changing economic, social, and ecological relationships and balances. In this context, faced with these new transitions, marginal urban regions must plan, design, build, and manage future urban planning choices in a new digital-hybrid space. Therefore, it is crucial to support these transitions with a multi-dimensional sustainability concept through economic, environmental, social, and digital measurements. Urban sustainability indicators (USIs) play an essential role in supporting urban choices and planning. The current study analyzes recent literature and European standards to verify if and how they have changed in embracing the European Policy Pillar under a new and different sustainability profile, which needs to include digital sustainability. As a matter of fact, even if the concept of digitization has been recognized as a pillar of ongoing transitions, the literature and even European indicators struggle to recognize it as a tangible and measurable indicator of sustainability. Seeking to bridge the gap between European requirements and urban practice, the aim of this study is to identify and suggest new key indicators of digitalization to enable the digital sustainability of urban planning to be measured. These indicators can be used to implement a new valuation tool capable of supporting marginal regions by promoting sustainable urban investments in this new hybrid space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes at Risk. Social Capital Asset in the COVID-Scape Climate)
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52 pages, 11757 KiB  
Article
An Axiology of Weak Areas: The Estimation of an Index of Abandonment for the Definition of a Cognitive Tool to Support the Enhancement of Inland Areas in Sicily
Land 2022, 11(12), 2268; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11122268 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1134
Abstract
The marginalization of areas due to a progressive increase in social, material, economic, and infrastructural vulnerability is a phenomenon that afflicts many countries today, and it is growing rapidly. Agenda 2030, in highlighting the need to identify measures to counter this phenomenon, has [...] Read more.
The marginalization of areas due to a progressive increase in social, material, economic, and infrastructural vulnerability is a phenomenon that afflicts many countries today, and it is growing rapidly. Agenda 2030, in highlighting the need to identify measures to counter this phenomenon, has promoted the development of a growing awareness of addressing this issue that cannot be postponed. With this in mind, in Italy, a map of inland areas was produced by the Interministerial Committee for Economic Planning and Sustainable Development (ICEPSD), a publication aimed at measuring the extent of the phenomenon and support the development of specific strategies that collectively define the National Strategy for Inland Areas (NSIA). In this study, starting from a critical analysis of the classification of areas in the National Strategy for Inner Areas, we propose a new cognitive tool of the phenomenon of abandonment developed from the perspective of an axiological approach of marginal areas. This tool is based on the mapping of an abandonment index Ia on QGIS with reference to the clusters of municipalities identified based on the quartiles of its values. This index was estimated as an aggregate weighted sum of the components identified because of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) used to analyze the indicators of different forms of territorial capital of weak areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes at Risk. Social Capital Asset in the COVID-Scape Climate)
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21 pages, 3140 KiB  
Article
The Effective Use of National Recovery and Resilience Plan Funding: A Methodological Approach for the Optimal Assessment of the Initiative Costs
Land 2022, 11(10), 1812; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11101812 - 16 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1491
Abstract
With reference to the National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP), the financial budget provided for a specific project constitutes a fundamental constraint to be taken into account in the selection phase of the initiatives to be carried out. In the present research, a [...] Read more.
With reference to the National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP), the financial budget provided for a specific project constitutes a fundamental constraint to be taken into account in the selection phase of the initiatives to be carried out. In the present research, a methodological approach based on an optimization algorithm that allows one to minimize the differential between the assessed costs and the budget provided for the project, has been defined. The methodology is organized in three phases and, by borrowing the logic of the Operational Research, aims to minimize the gap between the costs assessed by the expert technician and the final costs, in order to fit the preliminary set budget. In this sense, the developed tool constitutes an effective support for Public Administrations and private investors for choosing the investments to be implemented, in order to identify the best initiatives in which to allocate the public funding, by preventing needless waste of limited financial resources that could be invested in alternative interventions, and to generate further benefits for the communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes at Risk. Social Capital Asset in the COVID-Scape Climate)
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14 pages, 1576 KiB  
Article
Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic and the Russia–Ukraine Conflict on Land Use across the World
Land 2022, 11(10), 1614; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11101614 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3326
Abstract
The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Russia–Ukraine crisis on the world economy are real. However, these implications do not appear to be symmetric across countries and different economic sectors. Indeed, the consequences of these two shocks are more severe for some [...] Read more.
The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Russia–Ukraine crisis on the world economy are real. However, these implications do not appear to be symmetric across countries and different economic sectors. Indeed, the consequences of these two shocks are more severe for some countries, regions and economic activities than for others. Considering the importance of the agricultural sector for global food security, it is important to understand the impacts of the pandemic and the conflict on the different dimensions of agriculture, namely land use. Given the scarcity of data for the last few years available from the various statistical databases, this research mainly considers the insights highlighted in the literature on the implications, in agricultural dimensions, of the most recent shocks. The study here presented shows that the Russia–Ukraine crisis has had more impact on land use changes than the pandemic, namely promoting adjustments in the decisions of farmers and policymakers to deal with constraints in agri-food chains. Nonetheless, the impacts of the conflict on land use were not totally explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes at Risk. Social Capital Asset in the COVID-Scape Climate)
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40 pages, 2864 KiB  
Article
Climate Adaptation Heuristic Planning Support System (HPSS): Green-Blue Strategies to Support the Ecological Transition of Historic Centres
Land 2022, 11(6), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11060773 - 24 May 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2040
Abstract
The issue of climate has posed major and urgent challenges for the global community. The European Green Deal sets out a new growth strategy aimed at turning the European Union into a just and prosperous society, with a modern, resource-efficient, and competitive economy, [...] Read more.
The issue of climate has posed major and urgent challenges for the global community. The European Green Deal sets out a new growth strategy aimed at turning the European Union into a just and prosperous society, with a modern, resource-efficient, and competitive economy, which will no longer generate net greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Cities in this context are committed on several fronts to rapid adaptation to improve their resilience capacity. The historic centre is the most vulnerable part of a city, with a reduced capacity for adaptation, but also the densest of values, which increase the complexity of the challenge. This study proposes an integrated tool, Heuristic Planning Support System (HPSS), aimed at exploring green-blue strategies for the historic centre. The tool is integrated with classic Planning Support System (PSS), a decision process conducted from the perspective of heuristic approach and Geographic Information System (GIS). It comprises modules for technical assessment, environmental assessment Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), economic assessment Life Cycle Cost (LCC), Life Cycle Revenues (LCR), and Discounted Cash Flow Analysis (DCFA) extended to the life cycle of specific interventions, the Multi-Attribute Value Theory (MAVT) for the assessment of energy, environmental, identity, landscape, and economic values. The development of a tool to support the ecological transition of historic centres stems from the initiative of researchers at the University of Catania, who developed it based on the preferences expressed by a group of decision makers, that is, a group of local administrators, scholars, and professionals. The proposed tool supports the exploration of green-blue strategies identified by decision makers and the development of the plan for the historic district of Borgata di Santa Lucia in Syracuse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes at Risk. Social Capital Asset in the COVID-Scape Climate)
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19 pages, 1932 KiB  
Article
Degentrification? Different Aspects of Gentrification before and after the COVID-19 Pandemic
Land 2021, 10(11), 1234; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111234 - 11 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3077
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to explore the aspects of “gentrification” and “degentrification” other than economic factors. To this end, this study focused on the gentrification situations occurring before and after the COVID-19 pandemic in the Itaewon area, South Korea, by using [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to explore the aspects of “gentrification” and “degentrification” other than economic factors. To this end, this study focused on the gentrification situations occurring before and after the COVID-19 pandemic in the Itaewon area, South Korea, by using semantic network analysis. We analyzed news articles on the gentrification phenomenon in the Itaewon area reported in South Korea. As a result, gentrification in the Itaewon area is divided into four stages. The first stage of gentrification (2010~2014) is initial stage of gentrification. Gentrification stage 2 (2015~2017) is the period of commercialization as a gentrification growth stage. The first stage of degentrification (2018~2019) is the maturation period of gentrification. The second stage of degentrification (2019~30 June 2020) is the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results confirm the existing theoretical frameworks while building a more nuanced definition through operationalizing gentrification and degentrification. As with the etymology of the term, the degentrification phenomenon can only be revealed when the gentrification phenomenon is prominently displayed. This study has an implication in that it tried to phenomenologically examine the specific phenomenon of the next stage of gentrification through the term “degentrification”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes at Risk. Social Capital Asset in the COVID-Scape Climate)
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Article
From Urban-Scape to Human-Scape: COVID-19 Trends That will Shape Future City Centres
Land 2021, 10(10), 1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10101038 - 02 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2926
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic did not only impact all spheres of life but came abruptly to redefine our understanding of the urban-scape. With changing user-values and user-needs, there is a renewed realisation of the importance of the human-scape and how human capital, social issues, [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic did not only impact all spheres of life but came abruptly to redefine our understanding of the urban-scape. With changing user-values and user-needs, there is a renewed realisation of the importance of the human-scape and how human capital, social issues, and liveability considerations will progressively lead urban development discussions. The urban-scape risk is far more complex and fragile than previously anticipated, with the future of the city centre dependent on our ability to successfully manage the transition from an urban-scape to a human-scape. This research employed a narrative review methodology to reflect on COVID-19 trends that will shape future city centres, based on expert contributions pertaining to (1) the community sector, (2) the public sector, and (3) the private sector within the Sydney Metropolitan area of Australia. The research highlighted the changing human-scape needs and associated impacts of (1) changing movement patterns, (2) changing social infrastructure, and (3) increasing multifunctionality, which will be crucial factors in shaping attractive (future) city centres. The research contributes to the notion that future city centres will embrace and prioritise the human-scape in a response to ‘build back better’, and accordingly, identified how the human-scape can be articulated in broader spatial planning approaches to create attractive future city centres. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscapes at Risk. Social Capital Asset in the COVID-Scape Climate)
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