Special Issue "Constructed Green Areas as a Challenge for Spatial Planning at the Local and Regional Levels"

A special issue of Land (ISSN 2073-445X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2022 | Viewed by 9665

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Andrzej Greinert
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Guest Editor
Dept. of Geoengineering and Reclamation, Institute of Environmental Engineering, University of Zielona Góra, 15 Prof. Z.Szafrana St., 65-516 Zielona Góra, Poland
Interests: reclamation of urban; industrial; and traffic areas; soil protection and reclamation; landscape architecture; landscape engineering; spatial planning for environmental engineers and landscape architects; land arrangement and maintenance; landscape protection; the spatial economy of cities
Prof. Dr. Anna Bazan-Krzywoszańska
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dept. of Construction Technology, Geotechnics and Geodesy, Institute of Civil Engineering, University of Zielona Góra, 1 Prof. Z.Szafrana St., 65-516 Zielona Góra, Poland
Interests: urban development; spatial planning; urban sustainability; spatial data infrastructure (SDI); spatial analysis; artificial intelligence; big data systems; 3D/4D city models; city GML; energy modeling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Katarzyna Tokarczyk-Dorociak
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Environmental Engineering and Geodesy, Institute of Landscape Architecture, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Norwida 25, 50-375 Wrocław, Poland
Interests: urban–rural linkages and sustainable land use; formal and legal aspects of landscape design; landscape engineering; land reclamation; spatial planning for environmental engineers and landscape architects; environmental education; environmental impact assessments
Dr. Sinan Tankut Gülhan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Sociology, Gaziantep University, 27410 Gaziantep, Turkey
Interests: urban theory; urban design and development; urban public spaces; urban studies; urban political economy; urban sociology
Dr. Eduarda Marques da Costa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centre for Geographical Studies, University of Lisbon, R. Branca Edmée Marques, 1600-276 Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: spatial planning; regional and urban planning; evaluation of public policies; data collection and monitoring systems; health cities
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nobody needs to be convinced of the need for rest and recreation areas with constructed greenery, especially in densely populated areas. Planning and design of constructed green areas are the subject of research and education, and some historical and contemporary creations have become works of art. However, the intensification of the phenomenon of urban sprawl and the dynamic increase in the population of cities indicate the need for further work on this problem. Some historical concepts seem to be difficult or even impossible to apply today.

The contemporary, extremely intense growth of built-up areas has a strong impact on the distribution of greenery constructed in a broadly defined space, and many mutual, rarely beneficial interactions with areas with different types of development. Another issue is the transition zone between built-up areas and their surroundings. It is especially important to determine whether forest parks and theme parks could be established in those areas.

The epidemic situation of 2020 also forces us to rethink the concept of green areas as places where people can stay safely. For this reason, the primary planning dilemma has returned: a concentration of leisure and recreation in large spatial forms (the idea of central parks) or the dispersion of relatively smaller individual areas (estate and inter-estate parks, rural parks)?

For this Special Issue, we invite you to submit a paper that focuses on one or more of the following topics:

  • spatial planning at local and regional levels in the context of sustainable development and spatial order;
  • location and construction of municipal green areas according to spatial planning procedures;
  • parks and urban forests as valuable constructed forms of greenery;
  • parks in reclaimed post-industrial areas;
  • functions of constructed green areas; and
  • green areas as a necessary element of land in times of natural disasters.

Prof. Dr. Andrzej Greinert
Prof. Dr. Anna Bazan-Krzywoszańska
Dr. Katarzyna Tokarczyk-Dorociak
Dr. Sinan Tankut Gülhan
Dr. Eduarda Marques da Costa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Land is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • constructed green areas
  • parks and gardens
  • spatial planning
  • spatial order
  • urban forest
  • safety of green areas

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
A Conceptual Model for Planning and Management of Areas of Public Space and Meeting in Colombia
Land 2022, 11(11), 1922; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11111922 - 28 Oct 2022
Viewed by 459
Abstract
A refined investigation of new trends in urban analysis assuming a sustainable design of Areas of Public Space and Meeting (APSM) is a fundamental response to the challenges of inclusive and efficient cities. Even though the APSM are districts regarded as urban structuring [...] Read more.
A refined investigation of new trends in urban analysis assuming a sustainable design of Areas of Public Space and Meeting (APSM) is a fundamental response to the challenges of inclusive and efficient cities. Even though the APSM are districts regarded as urban structuring systems, there is a lack of territorial planning instruments and conceptual models aimed at explaining their long-term dynamics. Based on these premises, we developed a conceptual model that articulates relevant variables of interest for the planning and management of APSM. The construction of the model includes the review and analysis of the literature and the validation process based on a consultation with a panel of experts on the subject. Our findings demonstrate that the existing research does not address the APSM issue adequately, and the methodologies proposed so far do not lead to accurate and comprehensive analyses of urban complexity in light of sustainability targets. There are only isolated, disjointed, and partial approaches to variables of interest, making it difficult to carry out holistic studies. Our technical and scientific proposal offers a framework for an exhaustive evaluation of these areas. The model has been structured according to the assumptions of urban sustainability and can be applied to diverse urban environments in South America. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Leisure Involvement on Place Attachment: Flow Experience as Mediating Role
Land 2022, 11(2), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11020151 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1146
Abstract
Leisure is an important way for residents to achieve well-being. As urbanization continues to accelerate and residents’ spiritual and cultural needs gradually increase, urban park leisure is becoming increasingly prominent in daily recreation, and recreational activities that meet residents’ short-term and frequent needs [...] Read more.
Leisure is an important way for residents to achieve well-being. As urbanization continues to accelerate and residents’ spiritual and cultural needs gradually increase, urban park leisure is becoming increasingly prominent in daily recreation, and recreational activities that meet residents’ short-term and frequent needs for leisure are becoming preferred. In this article, based on structural equation models, four representative urban parks in Beijing were selected as study areas to explore the relationships among three variables: leisure involvement, flow experience, and place attachment. The results showed that (1) leisure involvement had a significant positive effect on flow experience, (2) flow experience had a significant positive effect on place attachment, and (3) leisure involvement had both a significant direct effect on place attachment and an indirect effect mediated by flow experience. In addition, according to the empirical analysis of the influence of leisure behavior characteristics on leisure benefits, it was found that 1–3 h of leisure time in the park had the best leisure benefits. Therefore, a higher level of leisure involvement and a stronger flow experience can help to enhance residents’ place attachment; foster self-expression, identity, and self-actualization; and boost the benefits of leisure, which will eventually improve personal well-being and quality of life, construct and strengthen a sense of urban community, and fulfill people’s aspirations for a better life. Full article
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Article
Preliminary Model-Based Evaluation of Water Conservation Strategies in a Semi-Arid Urban Zone
Land 2022, 11(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11010101 - 08 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 703
Abstract
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency stormwater management model was applied to a semi-arid urban micro watershed. The sub-catchment’s current features were modeled as scenario A, while the insertion of a set of LID technologies (rain barrels, bioretention cells, permeable pavement, and infiltration trenches) [...] Read more.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency stormwater management model was applied to a semi-arid urban micro watershed. The sub-catchment’s current features were modeled as scenario A, while the insertion of a set of LID technologies (rain barrels, bioretention cells, permeable pavement, and infiltration trenches) was represented as scenario B. A third scenario (C), considering only the most feasible LID technologies, was also modeled. All the scenarios were evaluated under two representative storm events (30 and 9 mm in two consecutive days, and 39 mm of rainfall in one day) occurred during the sampling performed in this study. Water quality was also simulated for a 30-mm storm event and compared against field assessment results after a real 30-mm storm event. Through the model, the inefficiency of current evacuation methods after 30- and 39-mm storm events was demonstrated. Simulation of scenario B showed that LID technologies could satisfactorily diminish peak flows generated by the selected storm events as well as runoff-conveyed pollution, while the realistic scenario allowed a lower but satisfactory hydrological performance and almost the same runoff quality than scenario B. This preliminary study could contribute to spread awareness about the benefits of LID technologies in semi-arid urban areas of the developing world. Full article
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Article
Runoff Volume Reduction Using Green Infrastructure
Land 2021, 10(3), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030297 - 14 Mar 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1551
Abstract
Uncontrolled urbanization is a frequent cause behind the local flooding of catchment areas. This also results in a degradation of water quality in receivers, as well as causing a disruption of the natural water cycle in the catchment. Classical solutions, such as retention, [...] Read more.
Uncontrolled urbanization is a frequent cause behind the local flooding of catchment areas. This also results in a degradation of water quality in receivers, as well as causing a disruption of the natural water cycle in the catchment. Classical solutions, such as retention, do not prove to be sufficient under all conditions. An alternative solution is the application of low impact development (LID), which, in the analysed case, takes the form of rain gardens, infiltration trenches and controlled unsealing of catchment components. The work presents the influence of a few variants of solutions on a selected urbanized catchment located in Gorzów Wielkopolski. The assessment was developed using a simulation model, making use of EPA’s Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) software. The nalysed design variants are compared with the described existing state before the implementation of modernization works. Previous results showing that LID may be ineffective as the only solution in systems overloaded with runoff generated by rainfall of relatively low intensities were confirmed. In the case of existing systems, LID should be applied in combination with classical retention systems or in a treatment train and every opportunity to implement LID whether on a property or urban site must be taken. Such solutions in the analysed cases will allow for a reduction of the maximum outflow intensity from the analysed subcatchment by 9 to 17% depending on the analysed rainfall. The results are similar to those obtained in other implementations. However, the interpretation of the results is not as simple and obvious for overloaded systems. In addition to flow rate reduction, reduction of surcharge in the sewer network and reduction of the volume of local flooding must be considered. LID solutions should also, whenever possible, be looked into as early as the stage of planning the land development of the infrastructure. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Soundscapes in Urban Parks in Olsztyn (Poland) for Improvement of Landscape Design and Management
Land 2021, 10(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10010066 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2700
Abstract
Soundscape analyses and noise measurements should be a part of pre-design works involved in planning green areas in city centers. The aim of the study was to conduct a multi-criteria analysis of the soundscape of three parks in Olsztyn (Poland) as a part [...] Read more.
Soundscape analyses and noise measurements should be a part of pre-design works involved in planning green areas in city centers. The aim of the study was to conduct a multi-criteria analysis of the soundscape of three parks in Olsztyn (Poland) as a part of the landscape planning process to determine the directions of re-design of places most exposed to noise. The research included: 1. functional and spatial analysis of the park surroundings in reference to the city environment, 2. analysis of the acoustic map, 3. measurements of sound pressure levels (SPL) at selected points in two periods (leafless and leafy), 4. analysis of characteristic sounds, 5. interview with park users and preparation of a mental map. The results of research regarding the perception of the soundscape of all three parks by respondents differ slightly from the results of both the acoustic map and SPL measurements. The results also confirm the difference between SPL in the leafless and leafy period. Places most exposed to noise are located at the park boundaries along the main access roads, and at park entrances. Recommendations and sample solutions are proposed, based on two suggested design activities, namely the reduction of undesirable sounds, and introduction of desirable sounds to the parks. Full article
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Article
Changes in the Function of Allotment Gardens in an Attractive Location Based on the Example of Tri-City in Poland
Land 2020, 9(11), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9110464 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1689
Abstract
Allotment gardens are quite common in many European countries. In particular, they are an important part of the urban space in Central and Eastern Europe. They served to improve the inhabitants’ physical and mental well-being during the communist period and relieved the family [...] Read more.
Allotment gardens are quite common in many European countries. In particular, they are an important part of the urban space in Central and Eastern Europe. They served to improve the inhabitants’ physical and mental well-being during the communist period and relieved the family budget thanks to their own crops. The article analyzes the functioning of allotment gardens in Poland based on the example of the Tri-City, with particular emphasis on allotment gardens in a prestigious, attractive location. Several research questions were asked regarding the change of the traditional function related to growing fruit and vegetables towards the modern function related to recreation and relaxation. A thesis was put forward that the attractive, seaside location of one of the allotment gardens on the border of Gdańsk and Sopot favors the dynamics of the changes in the function. New garden houses often resemble residential apartments in terms of comfort and function and are used for commercial rent during the summer, even though this is prohibited. In the study, the methods of a field query as well as a questionnaire survey and an in-depth interview were applied to check the state of the allotment holders’ knowledge on the applicable regulations regarding the functions of allotment gardens and their development, the size of garden houses and the rules of staying in the gardens, in particular living there. The questionnaire research and in-depth interviews were conducted at the beginning of 2020. The questionnaire research was conducted in February and March, and the in-depth interviews in May. The most pressing issues concerned the changing functions of allotment gardens and the perception of these changes by allotment owners who have gardens in a traditional form of cultivation. This study also allowed looking at possible neighborhood conflicts that may arise from a change in the function, in particular from the construction of houses with residential facilities, which encourages permanent residence in them, and sometimes subletting to tourists due to their attractive coastal location. The study helped to deepen the knowledge on the functioning of allotment gardens and transforming their functions into residential ones during the summer season. The obtained results show that nearly 60% of the surveyed respondents believe that seasonal occupation of allotment gardens should be allowed if their owners wish to do so. Most of the respondents encountered the problem of abnormal buildings and believe that the regulations in this respect should be followed. At the same time, they do not think that it is causing any problems for them. Conducting in-depth interviews, the information was obtained that the change of functions does not affect the existing, traditional users, and they mostly accept the changes taking place. Full article
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