Sporothrix and Sporotrichosis

A special issue of Journal of Fungi (ISSN 2309-608X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018) | Viewed by 76440

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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sporotrichosis is a deep-seated fungal infection that is caused by members of the Sporothrix schenckii complex, a group of organisms capable of growing on vegetal, animal and human tissues. Although it has been more than a century since the first report of the disease and the causative agent, it has been regarded as a neglected disease and both the clinical and molecular fields have received little attention, until recently. Fostered by the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology, a working group on Sporothrix and sporotrichosis was established by Profs. Leila Lópes-Bezerra (Brazil) and Héctor Mora-Montes (México), with the goal to attract more researchers to this field and to build up collaborations between groups. These goals were consolidated in 2013 with the First International Meeting on Sporothrix and sporotrichosis, and a special issue, gathering the most outstanding contributions of this event was published by the journal Medical Mycology in 2015. This year, we had the second edition of this event, and we do consider that a special issue on this organism and the caused disease could be of great interest for the readers of Journal of Fungi. Since the meeting covered basic and clinical aspects of Sporothrix, we can collect different papers dealing with subjects of interest for both clinicians and basic researchers.

Prof. Dr. Hector M. Mora-Montes
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • virulence factors
  • epidemiology
  • host-fungus interaction
  • feline disease
  • human infection
  • antifungal drugs

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 215 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue “Sporothrix and Sporotrichosis”
by Héctor M. Mora-Montes
J. Fungi 2018, 4(4), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4040116 - 12 Oct 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3639
Abstract
Sporotrichosis is a neglected, deep-seated fungal infection traditionally associated with Sporothrix
schenckii, a dimorphic organism that was first described more than a century ago in human and
rat specimens [1].[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sporothrix and Sporotrichosis)

Research

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10 pages, 661 KiB  
Article
Sporothrix schenckii Cell Wall Proteins-Stimulated BMDCs Are Able to Induce a Th1-Prone Cytokine Profile In Vitro
by Camila Quinello, Lucas Souza Ferreira, Isabella Picolli, Maria Luiza Loesch, Deivys Leandro Portuondo, Alexander Batista-Duharte and Iracilda Zeppone Carlos
J. Fungi 2018, 4(3), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4030106 - 2 Sep 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3648
Abstract
Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis affecting humans and other animals. The disease can be acquired by accidental inoculation of the fungus through the skin or through the respiratory system. Sporotrichosis can also be transmitted through bites or scratches by infected cats and more [...] Read more.
Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis affecting humans and other animals. The disease can be acquired by accidental inoculation of the fungus through the skin or through the respiratory system. Sporotrichosis can also be transmitted through bites or scratches by infected cats and more rarely by other animals (zoonotic transmission). Conventional antifungal therapy is especially inefficient in immunocompromised patients, who tend to develop the most severe forms of the disease, thus prompting the search for alternative therapies. Given their antigen-presenting properties, dendritic cells (DCs) have been used in both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination strategies. Hence, this study aims to assess the use of DCs as a prophylactic tool in sporotrichosis by evaluating the immune profile induced by Sporothrix schenckii cell wall proteins (SsCWP)-stimulated, bone-marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs). Mouse BMDCs were stimulated with SsCWP for 24 h and analyzed for the surface expression of costimulatory molecules and TLR-4, as well as for the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and IL-10. Following that, activated BMDCs were cocultured with splenocytes for 72 h and had the same cytokines measured in the supernatant. SsCWP-stimulated BMDCs showed higher expression of CD80, CD86, and CD40, but not TLR-4, and higher secretion of IL-6, IL-17A, and TNF. On the other hand, higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-2 were found in the supernatants of the coculture as compared with the BMDCs alone; TNF secretion was almost completely abrogated, whereas IL-6 was only partially inhibited and IL-17A was unaffected. Our results thus suggest that SsCWP-stimulated BMDCs are able to induce a Th1-prone cytokine profile which is known to be protective against other fungal diseases. This result could lead to studies which evaluate the development of prophylactic and/or therapeutic DC-based tools against sporotrichosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sporothrix and Sporotrichosis)
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11 pages, 731 KiB  
Article
Ecological Determinants of Sporotrichosis Etiological Agents
by Max C. Ramírez-Soto, Elsa G. Aguilar-Ancori, Andrés Tirado-Sánchez and Alexandro Bonifaz
J. Fungi 2018, 4(3), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4030095 - 12 Aug 2018
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 5599
Abstract
Ecological determinants of sporotrichosis etiological agents remain poorly understood. For this reason, we performed explorations using local climate estimates to determine the temperature and humidity ranges of the environment where clinically relevant Sporothrix species occur and to identify what plant species are associated [...] Read more.
Ecological determinants of sporotrichosis etiological agents remain poorly understood. For this reason, we performed explorations using local climate estimates to determine the temperature and humidity ranges of the environment where clinically relevant Sporothrix species occur and to identify what plant species are associated with them, using data collected from the published literature. We performed a literature search to identify all publications on environmental isolations of medically relevant species of Sporothrix in the PubMed, SCOPUS, and EMBASE databases. All those studies were included in the analysis where medically relevant species of Sporothrix have been isolated from soil samples, and described a specific geographical location that could be precisely georeferenced. We approximated temperature and humidity from local climate estimates, integrating geospatial data, temperature, and water vapor pressure from regions or provinces where medically relevant species of Sporothrix have been isolated from soil. Sporothrix spp. were more commonly isolated from soil of different regions or provinces of 16 countries. Most environmental isolates were identified as S. schenckii, whereas S. pallida, S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, and S. mexicana were rare. We estimate that medically relevant Sporothrix spp. grow in the soil at temperatures of 6.6 °C to 28.84 °C and 37.5% to 99.06% relative humidity. These findings indicate that sporotrichosis etiological agents grow in soil in ecological niches from soil with wide ranges of temperature and humidity, but they are also associated with a variety of plants, flowers, woody debris, reed leaves, corn stalks, leaves, and wood crumbs, potentially facilitating its establishment and proliferation in the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sporothrix and Sporotrichosis)
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11 pages, 263 KiB  
Article
Monitoring Fungal Burden and Viability of Sporothrix spp. in Skin Lesions of Cats for Predicting Antifungal Treatment Response
by Luisa Helena Monteiro De Miranda, Jéssica Nunes Silva, Isabella Dib Ferreira Gremião, Rodrigo Caldas Menezes, Rodrigo Almeida-Paes, Érica Guerino Dos Reis, Raquel De Vasconcellos Carvalhaes De Oliveira, Danuza Salles do Amaral De Araujo, Laerte Ferreiro and Sandro Antonio Pereira
J. Fungi 2018, 4(3), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4030092 - 7 Aug 2018
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 4257
Abstract
Skin lesions in feline sporotrichosis usually present a high fungal burden, making cats an important source of infection. This study evaluated the fungal burden and isolation in skin lesions of feline sporotrichosis during treatment with itraconazole (ITZ), combined with or without potassium iodide [...] Read more.
Skin lesions in feline sporotrichosis usually present a high fungal burden, making cats an important source of infection. This study evaluated the fungal burden and isolation in skin lesions of feline sporotrichosis during treatment with itraconazole (ITZ), combined with or without potassium iodide (KI). Treatment-naïve cats with culture-confirmed sporotrichosis and presenting skin ulcers were treated for up to 40 weeks with oral ITZ alone (n = 74) or combined with KI (n = 56). These cats were submitted to monthly sampling of the same lesion for mycological culture and cytopathology until healing of lesion or up to twelve weeks. The fungal burden was expressed as the mean yeast cell count in three microscopic fields from imprint smears. The fungal burden before treatment was significantly higher in cats in which the lesion persisted and in cases of treatment failure when using ITZ alone. After twelve weeks, the median fungal burden decreased to zero in both treatment protocols, suggesting a potential decrease in the risk of transmission of Sporothrix spp. from cats. These findings encourage the early treatment of feline sporotrichosis as a control measure. Moreover, the fungal burden in feline sporotrichosis lesions can be a prognostic indicator and a parameter for choosing appropriate therapeutic regimen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sporothrix and Sporotrichosis)
9 pages, 1314 KiB  
Article
Molecular Identification, Antifungal Susceptibility, and Geographic Origin of Clinical Strains of Sporothrix schenckii Complex in Mexico
by Olga C. Rojas, Alexandro Bonifaz, Christian Campos, Rogelio De J. Treviño-Rangel, Rafael González-Álvarez and Gloria M. González
J. Fungi 2018, 4(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4030086 - 20 Jul 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5982
Abstract
Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by Sporothrix schenckii complex. The disease has been reported worldwide. However, the incidence of the etiological agent varies in its geographic distribution. We studied 39 clinical isolates of Sporothrix schenckii from diverse regions in Mexico, collected from [...] Read more.
Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by Sporothrix schenckii complex. The disease has been reported worldwide. However, the incidence of the etiological agent varies in its geographic distribution. We studied 39 clinical isolates of Sporothrix schenckii from diverse regions in Mexico, collected from 1998 to 2016. Molecular identification was performed by sequence analysis of the partial calmodulin gene. In vitro antifungal susceptibility to amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VRC), posaconazole (PSC), fluconazole (FLC), terbinafine (TRB), caspofungin (CSF), anidulafungin (ANF), and micafungin (MCF) was evaluated. Thirty-eight isolates of S. schenckii complex were divided into five supported clades in a phylogenetic tree. The predominant clinical form was lymphocutaneous (92.3%), fixed cutaneous (5.1%), and disseminated (2.5%). Terbinafine exhibited the best in vitro antifungal activity, while fluconazole was ineffective against Sporothrix schenckii complex. Our results showed diverse geographic distribution of clinical isolates in eight states; definitive identification was done by CAL gen PCR-sequencing. In Mexico, S. schenckii is considered to be an etiological agent of human sporotrichosis cases, and lymphocutaneous is the most prevalent form of the disease. This study revealed four clades of S. schenckiisensu stricto by phylogenetic analysis. Furthermore, we report one case of S. globosa isolated from human origin from the North of Mexico. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sporothrix and Sporotrichosis)
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12 pages, 2275 KiB  
Article
Repeated Exposition to Mercury (II) Chloride Enhances Susceptibility to S. schenckii sensu stricto Infection in Mice
by Alexander Batista-Duharte, Damiana Téllez-Martínez, Juliana Aparecida Jellmayer, Deivys Leandro Portuondo Fuentes, Marisa Campos Polesi, Amanda Martins Baviera and Iracilda Zeppone Carlos
J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020064 - 25 May 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3877
Abstract
Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis that has re-emerged in several tropical and subtropical regions over the last decades. Growing findings suggest that the interplay of host, pathogen, and environment has a determinant effect on the diversity, local distribution, and virulence of Sporothrix schenckii [...] Read more.
Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis that has re-emerged in several tropical and subtropical regions over the last decades. Growing findings suggest that the interplay of host, pathogen, and environment has a determinant effect on the diversity, local distribution, and virulence of Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato, the etiologic agent. Among the environmental factors, we have studied the potential role of repeated exposures to mercury (Hg), a known immunotoxic xenobiotic that is widely used in gold mining regions where sporotrichosis outbreaks are frequently reported. In this study, male Swiss mice received subcutaneous injections of either 300 or 1200 µg/kg of mercury (II) chloride (HgCl2) for 14 days, three times a week. A control group was injected with the vehicle Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS). Treatment with HgCl2 impaired several immunologic parameters that are involved in host response to Sporothrix infection, such as the production of TNFα, IL-1, and nitric oxide by macrophages, and Th1/Th2/Th17 populations and their respective cytokines. The consequences of these effects on the host resistance to S. schenckii infection were subsequently evaluated. Hg-exposed mice exhibited a higher fungal load in the fungal inoculation site associated to systemic dissemination to spleen and liver on 14 days post-infection and a higher production of specific IgG1 and mild reduction of IgG2a. These findings suggest that repeated exposition to Hg enhances susceptibility to S. schenckii infection in mice and can be a factor associated to sporotrichosis outbreaks in endemic and highly Hg-polluted areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sporothrix and Sporotrichosis)
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7 pages, 1777 KiB  
Article
Sporotrichin Skin Test for the Diagnosis of Sporotrichosis
by Alexandro Bonifaz, Conchita Toriello, Javier Araiza, Max C. Ramírez-Soto and Andrés Tirado-Sánchez
J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020055 - 9 May 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 7713
Abstract
Sporotrichosis is the most common implantation mycosis caused by several species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The gold standard for diagnosis is concerned with the isolation of the fungus; although, fresh examinations, staining, and biopsies are also helpful for this purpose. The sporotrichin [...] Read more.
Sporotrichosis is the most common implantation mycosis caused by several species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The gold standard for diagnosis is concerned with the isolation of the fungus; although, fresh examinations, staining, and biopsies are also helpful for this purpose. The sporotrichin is an antigenic complex comprised of a peptide-rhamnomannan, which is relevant with respect to pathogenic fungi; it is primarily used for serological and skin testing. We present a study regarding the use of sporotrichin as a diagnostic aid for cutaneous sporotrichosis. Furthermore, 138 cases with suspicion of sporotrichosis were included, 55 of which were proven through cultures. Moreover, out of these 55 cases, 52 (94.5%) tested positive for sporotrichin, while the negative cases corresponded to the disseminated cutaneous forms. We observed a sensitivity of 94.5% and a specificity of 95.2%. We consider that the use of sporotrichin as a skin test helps us as an auxiliary diagnosis before a positive sample culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sporothrix and Sporotrichosis)
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Review

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14 pages, 3755 KiB  
Review
Immunity and Treatment of Sporotrichosis
by Laura Cristina García Carnero, Nancy Edith Lozoya Pérez, Sandra Elizabeth González Hernández and José Ascención Martínez Álvarez
J. Fungi 2018, 4(3), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4030100 - 20 Aug 2018
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 6333
Abstract
Species of the Sporothrix complex are the etiological agents of sporotrichosis, an important subcutaneous mycosis with several clinical forms and an increasing incidence around the world that affects humans and other mammals. The immunological mechanisms involved in the prevention and control of this [...] Read more.
Species of the Sporothrix complex are the etiological agents of sporotrichosis, an important subcutaneous mycosis with several clinical forms and an increasing incidence around the world that affects humans and other mammals. The immunological mechanisms involved in the prevention and control of this mycosis are not entirely understood. Many reports have suggested that cell-mediated immunity has an essential role in the development of the disease, being the primary response controlling it, while only recent data supports that the humoral response is essential for the appropriate control. This mycosis is a challenge for diagnosis since the culture and isolation of the organism are time-consuming and complicated; reasons that have led to the study of fungus antigenic molecules capable of generating a detectable humoral response. The treatment for this disease includes the use of several antifungal drugs like itraconazole, amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole, and the combination between them among others such as the extract of Vismia guianensis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sporothrix and Sporotrichosis)
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16 pages, 647 KiB  
Review
Immunopathogenesis of Human Sporotrichosis: What We Already Know
by Fatima Conceição-Silva and Fernanda Nazaré Morgado
J. Fungi 2018, 4(3), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4030089 - 31 Jul 2018
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 15186
Abstract
Sporotrichosis is a subacute/chronic mycosis caused by dimorphic fungus of the genus Sporothrix. This mycosis may affect both human and domestic animals and in the last few years, the geographic dispersion and increase of sporotrichosis worldwide has been observed. The occurrence of cases [...] Read more.
Sporotrichosis is a subacute/chronic mycosis caused by dimorphic fungus of the genus Sporothrix. This mycosis may affect both human and domestic animals and in the last few years, the geographic dispersion and increase of sporotrichosis worldwide has been observed. The occurrence of cases related to scratching/bites of domestic felines have increased, characterizing the disease as predominantly a zoonosis. In humans, sporotrichosis mainly involves the cutaneous tegument of infected patients, but other tissues may also present the infection. The main forms of clinical presentation are lymphocutanous sporotrichosis (LC) and fixed sporotrichosis (F). Although less common, mucosal, cutaneous disseminated, and extracutaneous forms have also been described. Multiple factors from the fungus and host can play a role in driving the clinical evolution of sporotrichosis to benign or severe disease. In this review, we discuss the immunopathological aspects involved in human sporotrichosis. Putting together the two branches of knowledge—host immune response and fungal evading mechanisms—we may perceive new possibilities in understanding the fungus–host interaction in order to be in a position to go further in the control of sporotrichosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sporothrix and Sporotrichosis)
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10 pages, 2291 KiB  
Review
Sporotrichosis: From KOH to Molecular Biology
by Roberto Arenas, Carlos D. Sánchez-Cardenas, Lourdes Ramirez-Hobak, Leon Felipe Ruíz Arriaga and Ma. Elisa Vega Memije
J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020062 - 23 May 2018
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 8761
Abstract
Sporotrichosis is a cosmopolitan, chronic granulomatous mycosis, acquired by traumatic inoculation and caused by Sporothrix schenckii complex. Several methods of diagnostic are available, from KOH to molecular biology. In this review, we describe from the simplest (clinical diagnosis) to the most advanced [...] Read more.
Sporotrichosis is a cosmopolitan, chronic granulomatous mycosis, acquired by traumatic inoculation and caused by Sporothrix schenckii complex. Several methods of diagnostic are available, from KOH to molecular biology. In this review, we describe from the simplest (clinical diagnosis) to the most advanced diagnostic techniques (molecular biology). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sporothrix and Sporotrichosis)
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12 pages, 1497 KiB  
Review
Nodular Lymphangitis (Sporotrichoid Lymphocutaneous Infections). Clues to Differential Diagnosis
by Andrés Tirado-Sánchez and Alexandro Bonifaz
J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020056 - 9 May 2018
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 9447
Abstract
Nodular lymphangitis, also known as sporotrichoid lymphocutaneous infections, is characterized by suppurative inflammatory nodules along the lymphatic vessels. This manifestation is classic of sporotrichosis, however, other infections such as nocardiosis, atypical mycobacteriosis, leishmaniasis, among others, can also express this clinical pattern. Sporotrichosis, which [...] Read more.
Nodular lymphangitis, also known as sporotrichoid lymphocutaneous infections, is characterized by suppurative inflammatory nodules along the lymphatic vessels. This manifestation is classic of sporotrichosis, however, other infections such as nocardiosis, atypical mycobacteriosis, leishmaniasis, among others, can also express this clinical pattern. Sporotrichosis, which often occurs in gardeners, remains the most recognized cause of nodular lymphangitis. The histopathological studies, as well as the culture are diagnostic standards of lesions that do not respond to empirical treatment. In this article, we will review the main causes of nodular lymphangitis or lymphocutaneous sporotrichoid infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sporothrix and Sporotrichosis)
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