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J. Fungi 2018, 4(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4030086

Molecular Identification, Antifungal Susceptibility, and Geographic Origin of Clinical Strains of Sporothrix schenckii Complex in Mexico

1
Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Vicerrectoría de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Monterrey, San Pedro Garza García, Monterrey 66238, Mexico
2
Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey 64460, Mexico
3
Departamento de Micología & Servicio de Dermatología, Hospital General de México, México City 06726, Mexico
4
Departamento de Genética y Medicina Genómica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara, Zapopan 45129, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sporothrix and Sporotrichosis)
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Abstract

Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by Sporothrix schenckii complex. The disease has been reported worldwide. However, the incidence of the etiological agent varies in its geographic distribution. We studied 39 clinical isolates of Sporothrix schenckii from diverse regions in Mexico, collected from 1998 to 2016. Molecular identification was performed by sequence analysis of the partial calmodulin gene. In vitro antifungal susceptibility to amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VRC), posaconazole (PSC), fluconazole (FLC), terbinafine (TRB), caspofungin (CSF), anidulafungin (ANF), and micafungin (MCF) was evaluated. Thirty-eight isolates of S. schenckii complex were divided into five supported clades in a phylogenetic tree. The predominant clinical form was lymphocutaneous (92.3%), fixed cutaneous (5.1%), and disseminated (2.5%). Terbinafine exhibited the best in vitro antifungal activity, while fluconazole was ineffective against Sporothrix schenckii complex. Our results showed diverse geographic distribution of clinical isolates in eight states; definitive identification was done by CAL gen PCR-sequencing. In Mexico, S. schenckii is considered to be an etiological agent of human sporotrichosis cases, and lymphocutaneous is the most prevalent form of the disease. This study revealed four clades of S. schenckiisensu stricto by phylogenetic analysis. Furthermore, we report one case of S. globosa isolated from human origin from the North of Mexico. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sporothrix schenckii; Sporothrix globosa; CAL gen; clinical; origin; Mexico Sporothrix schenckii; Sporothrix globosa; CAL gen; clinical; origin; Mexico
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Rojas, O.C.; Bonifaz, A.; Campos, C.; Treviño-Rangel, R.D.J.; González-Álvarez, R.; González, G.M. Molecular Identification, Antifungal Susceptibility, and Geographic Origin of Clinical Strains of Sporothrix schenckii Complex in Mexico. J. Fungi 2018, 4, 86.

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