Sporotrichosis is a subacute/chronic mycosis caused by dimorphic fungus of the genus Sporothrix.
This mycosis may affect both human and domestic animals and in the last few years, the geographic dispersion and increase of sporotrichosis worldwide has been observed. The occurrence of cases related to scratching/bites of domestic felines have increased, characterizing the disease as predominantly a zoonosis. In humans, sporotrichosis mainly involves the cutaneous tegument of infected patients, but other tissues may also present the infection. The main forms of clinical presentation are lymphocutanous sporotrichosis (LC) and fixed sporotrichosis (F). Although less common, mucosal, cutaneous disseminated, and extracutaneous forms have also been described. Multiple factors from the fungus and host can play a role in driving the clinical evolution of sporotrichosis to benign or severe disease. In this review, we discuss the immunopathological aspects involved in human sporotrichosis. Putting together the two branches of knowledge—host immune response and fungal evading mechanisms—we may perceive new possibilities in understanding the fungus–host interaction in order to be in a position to go further in the control of sporotrichosis.
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