Special Issue "Plant Pathogenic Fungi and Oomycetes"

A special issue of Journal of Fungi (ISSN 2309-608X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. José Díaz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruña, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruña, Spain
Interests: plant resistance to fungi and oomycetes; Verticillium dahliae; Botrytis cinerea; Fusarium oxysporum; Phytophthora capsica; plant signalling in resistance; induced resistance; plant phenolics; plant-microbe interactions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fungi and oomycetes are heterotrophic organisms belonging to different phyla, but sharing a typical filamentous growth as a mycelium. Moreover, many fungi and oomycetes are pathogenic, causing diseases in other organisms such as animals and plants. They are important threats, causing economic losses in agriculture, which crop growers try to manage with fungicides. However, there are other strategies for plant disease management, including resistance based on genotype and induced resistance. The first includes both classical breeding and genetic engineering. The second involves the application of small amounts of chemicals or microorganisms to prime and/or trigger a plant’s immune system. The aim of this Special Issue is to focus on plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes from the basic and applied points of view. Topics include, but are not limited to, gene-for-gene resistance, plant breeding, transgenic plants, plant physiology, signaling and crosstalk, induced resistance and disease management both in the laboratory and in the field, as well as fungal and oomycete physiology and genetics. Manuscripts summarizing recent advances in the topic or introducing novel experimental approaches are particularly welcome.

Dr. José Díaz
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Fungi is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Disease management
  • Effectors
  • Elicitor
  • Fungal physiology
  • Fungal genetics
  • Fungicides
  • Inducers
  • ISR
  • PAMPs
  • Phytoalexins
  • Plant breeding 
  • Plant pathogens
  • Plant–pathogen interaction
  • Plant hormones
  • PR proteins
  • Priming
  • R genes
  • SAR
  • Signaling
  • Transgenic plants

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Caryopsis of Red-Grained Rice Has Enhanced Resistance to Fungal Attack
J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020071 - 14 Jun 2018
Abstract
Seed persistence in the soil is threatened by microorganisms, but the seed coat helps protect the seed from them. Although modern rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars have a whitish caryopsis, some varieties have a red caryopsis coat, a trait typical of wild [...] Read more.
Seed persistence in the soil is threatened by microorganisms, but the seed coat helps protect the seed from them. Although modern rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars have a whitish caryopsis, some varieties have a red caryopsis coat, a trait typical of wild Oryza species. The red colour is due to the oxidation of proanthocyanidins, a class of flavonoids that is found in the outer layers of the seed in many species. We aimed to assess whether these natural compounds (proanthocyanidins and proanthocyanidin-derived pigment) have some protective effect against microbial attacks. Dehulled caryopses of white-grained and red-grained rice genotypes were employed to assay fungal infection. Specifically, three white-grained rice cultivars (Perla, Augusto, and Koral) and three red-grained rice varieties (Perla Rosso, Augusto Rosso, and Koral Rosso) were used. In a first test, the caryopses were infected with Epicoccum nigrum at 10 °C, and seedling growth was then assessed at 30 °C. In a second test, the degree of infection by the mycotoxigenic fungus Fusarium sporotrichioides was assayed by measuring the accumulation of T-2/HT-2 toxins in the caryopses. Infection was performed at 10 °C to prevent rice germination while allowing fungal growth. In both the tests, red caryopses showed reduced, or delayed, infection with respect to white ones. One black-grained cultivar (Venere) was assayed for the accumulation of T-2/HT-2 toxins as well, with results corresponding to those of the red-grained rice varieties. We argue that the red pigment accumulating in the caryopsis coat, and/or the proanthocyanidins associated with it, provides a protective barrier against challenging microorganisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Pathogenic Fungi and Oomycetes)
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Open AccessArticle
Alternaria and Fusarium Fungi: Differences in Distribution and Spore Deposition in a Topographically Heterogeneous Wheat Field
J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020063 - 24 May 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Fusarium spp. and Alternaria spp., two genera of filamentous fungi, are common colonizers of the wheat phyllosphere. Both can be pathogenic and produce mycotoxins that are harmful to consumers. Their in-field infection dynamics have been a focus for the development of new control [...] Read more.
Fusarium spp. and Alternaria spp., two genera of filamentous fungi, are common colonizers of the wheat phyllosphere. Both can be pathogenic and produce mycotoxins that are harmful to consumers. Their in-field infection dynamics have been a focus for the development of new control strategies. We analysed the abundance on plant ears and spore deposition patterns of Fusarium spp. and Alternaria spp. in a topographically heterogeneous field. Abundances were assessed genetically, using qPCR-based techniques, and passive spore traps were installed for quantifying the spore deposition at different plant heights. Data loggers were placed to measure the differences in microclimate across the field. Results indicate different distribution and spore deposition patterns for the two fungi. Fusarium spp. spore and genetic abundances were higher in spots with a more humid and colder under-canopy microclimate. Alternaria spp. showed the opposite trend for genetic abundance, while its spore deposition was not correlated to any of the microclimatic conditions and was more uniform across the field. Our study extends the knowledge on the dispersal and in-field infection dynamics of Fusarium spp. and Alternaria spp., important for a better understanding of the epidemiology of these wheat pathogens. It also illustrates that topographically heterogeneous fields are a suitable environment for studying the ecology of phyllosphere-colonizing fungi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Pathogenic Fungi and Oomycetes)
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Open AccessArticle
Botanicals and Phosphonate Show Potential to Replace Copper for Control of Potato Late Blight
J. Fungi 2017, 3(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof3040065 - 24 Nov 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
Potato late blight (PLB) caused by Phytophthora infestans (Pi) is the most harmful disease in potato production worldwide. In organic farming, copper is used despite its persistence in soil and toxicity to soil organisms. To replace copper, suspensions of powders from three promising [...] Read more.
Potato late blight (PLB) caused by Phytophthora infestans (Pi) is the most harmful disease in potato production worldwide. In organic farming, copper is used despite its persistence in soil and toxicity to soil organisms. To replace copper, suspensions of powders from three promising botanicals, including bark of buckthorn (Frangula alnus, FA), roots of medicinal rhubarb (Rheum palmatum) and galls of the nutgall tree (Galla chinensis), were tested in multi-year field experiments. The current study shows for the first time that botanicals could replace copper under field conditions and best PLB reduction on leaves was achieved with FA, reaching a level close to that of 2 to 3 kg copper per hectare and year. Better results than with copper were achieved with Phosfik® (Ph), a phosphonate-based product. For both FA and Ph, the mode of action is based on induced resistance, for Ph also on direct fungicidal effects. A disadvantage of Ph is the accumulation of residues in potato tubers. Nevertheless, two to three applications with 2 to 3 L/ha of Ph would be feasible to not exceed a minimal risk level (MLR) of 20 mg/kg of phosphorous acid as proposed by the European Food Safety Authority. Due to an excellent environmental profile and a complex mode of action counteracting Pi resistance, phosphonate-based products would be most suitable for sustainable PLB management in integrated pest management (IPM) programmes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Pathogenic Fungi and Oomycetes)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Assessment of Grapevine Wood Colonization by the Dieback Fungus Eutypa lata
J. Fungi 2017, 3(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof3020021 - 06 May 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Eutypa lata is a fungal pathogen causing severe dieback in vineyards worldwide. This fungus colonizes vines through pruning wounds, eventually causing a brown sectorial necrosis in wood as well as stunted vegetative growth. Several years may pass between infection and the expression of [...] Read more.
Eutypa lata is a fungal pathogen causing severe dieback in vineyards worldwide. This fungus colonizes vines through pruning wounds, eventually causing a brown sectorial necrosis in wood as well as stunted vegetative growth. Several years may pass between infection and the expression of external symptoms, hindering the rapid evaluation of both grapevine cultivars susceptibility and E. lata variation in aggressiveness. We aimed to develop a rapid quantitative method for the assessment of wood colonization after inoculation of cuttings in controlled conditions. We used several grape cultivars varying in susceptibility in the vineyard and fungal isolates with different levels of aggressiveness to monitor wood colonization during a maximum period of 2 months. Re-isolation allowed demonstration of the effects of both cultivars and fungal isolates on the rate of wood colonization. We also developed a real-time PCR method that was efficient in measuring fungal biomass, which was found to be correlated with isolate aggressiveness based on foliar symptom severity. The real-time PCR approach appears to be a useful technology to evaluate grapevine susceptibility to E. lata, and could be adapted to other pathogens associated with grapevine trunk diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Pathogenic Fungi and Oomycetes)
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