Special Issue "Candida and Candidiasis"

A special issue of Journal of Fungi (ISSN 2309-608X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Jeniel E. Nett
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1 Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America
2 Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America
Interests: Candida; biofilm; matrix; host; neutrophil; antifungal

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Despite advancements in medicine and pharmaceuticals, Candida remains the leading nosocomial fungal pathogen. Frequently existing as a commensal fungus colonizing the gastrointestinal tract, it can easily convert to an invasive pathogen, causing disseminated disease with high mortality. As many of the diagnostic tests for invasive candidiasis lack sensitivity, diagnosis may be delayed, contributing to increased morbidity and mortality. The emergence of drug resistant species and strains poses an additional obstacle to treatment. Candida spp. possess a multitude of virulence factors, which permit attachment, facilitate tissue invasion, and promote the formation of resilient biofilm communities on medical devices and host surfaces. Further understanding of Candida pathogenicity will aid in the development of improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. The aim of this Special Issue is to shed light on emerging topics related to Candida and candidiasis. Topics include, but are not limited to: Virulence factors, colonization, biofilm formation, epidemiology, drug resistance, therapeutics, and diagnostics. Investigators in these fields are invited to submit manuscripts describing novel research findings. Manuscripts summarizing recent advances in the understanding of Candida pathogenicity or candidiasis are also welcome.

Jeniel E. Nett
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Fungi is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Candida
  • candidiasis
  • virulence
  • resistance
  • biofilm
  • diagnosis
  • antifungal
  • colonization

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue: Candida and Candidiasis
J. Fungi 2018, 4(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4030074 - 21 Jun 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
This special issue highlights emerging topics related to Candida, the most prevalent fungal pathogen in the hospital setting. The advantages and limitations of new, non-culture based diagnostic techniques are discussed. The issue reviews mammalian and non-mammalian infection models. The manuscripts present updates [...] Read more.
This special issue highlights emerging topics related to Candida, the most prevalent fungal pathogen in the hospital setting. The advantages and limitations of new, non-culture based diagnostic techniques are discussed. The issue reviews mammalian and non-mammalian infection models. The manuscripts present updates on several molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity, including filamentation, biofilm formation, and phospholipid production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Candida and Candidiasis)

Review

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Open AccessReview
Conserved and Divergent Functions of the cAMP/PKA Signaling Pathway in Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis
J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020068 - 08 Jun 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Fungal species undergo many morphological transitions to adapt to changing environments, an important quality especially in fungal pathogens. For decades, Candida albicans has been one of the most prevalent human fungal pathogens, and recently, the prevalence of Candida tropicalis as a causative agent [...] Read more.
Fungal species undergo many morphological transitions to adapt to changing environments, an important quality especially in fungal pathogens. For decades, Candida albicans has been one of the most prevalent human fungal pathogens, and recently, the prevalence of Candida tropicalis as a causative agent of candidiasis has increased. In C. albicans, the ability to switch between yeast and hyphal forms is thought to be a key virulence factor and is regulated by multiple signaling cascades—including the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA), calcineurin, high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways—upon receiving environmental cues. The cAMP/PKA signaling pathway also triggers white-opaque switching in C. albicans. However, studies on C. tropicalis morphogenesis are limited. In this minireview, we discuss the regulation of the yeast-hypha transition, virulence, and white-opaque switching through the cAMP/PKA pathway in the closely related species C. albicans and C. tropicalis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Candida and Candidiasis)
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Open AccessReview
PS, It’s Complicated: The Roles of Phosphatidylserine and Phosphatidylethanolamine in the Pathogenesis of Candida albicans and Other Microbial Pathogens
J. Fungi 2018, 4(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4010028 - 20 Feb 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
The phospholipids phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) play important roles in the virulence of Candida albicans and loss of PS synthesis or synthesis of PE from PS (PS decarboxylase) severely compromises virulence in C. albicans in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis. This [...] Read more.
The phospholipids phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) play important roles in the virulence of Candida albicans and loss of PS synthesis or synthesis of PE from PS (PS decarboxylase) severely compromises virulence in C. albicans in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis. This review discusses synthesis of PE and PS in C. albicans and mechanisms by which these lipids impact virulence in this fungus. This is further compared to how PS and PE synthesis impact virulence in other fungi, parasites and bacteria. Furthermore, the impact of PS asymmetry on virulence and extracellular vesicle formation in several microbes is reviewed. Finally, the potential for PS and PE synthases as drug targets in these various kingdoms is also examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Candida and Candidiasis)
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Open AccessReview
Non-Culture Diagnostics for Invasive Candidiasis: Promise and Unintended Consequences
J. Fungi 2018, 4(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4010027 - 19 Feb 2018
Cited by 14
Abstract
Blood cultures are positive for Candida species in < 50% and < 20% of hematogenously disseminated and intra-abdominal candidiasis, respectively. Non-culture tests such as mannan, anti-mannan antibody, Candida albicans germ tube antibody (CAGTA), 1,3-β-d-glucan (BDG), the T2Candida nanodiagnostic panel, and polymerase [...] Read more.
Blood cultures are positive for Candida species in < 50% and < 20% of hematogenously disseminated and intra-abdominal candidiasis, respectively. Non-culture tests such as mannan, anti-mannan antibody, Candida albicans germ tube antibody (CAGTA), 1,3-β-d-glucan (BDG), the T2Candida nanodiagnostic panel, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are available for clinical use, but their roles in patient care are uncertain. Sensitivity/specificity of combined mannan/anti-mannan, BDG, T2Candida and PCR for candidemia are ~80%/80%, ~80%/80%, ~90%/98%, and ~90%/90%, respectively. Limited data for intra-abdominal candidiasis suggest CAGTA, BDG sensitivity/specificity of ~65%/75% and PCR sensitivity of ~85–90%. PCR specificity has varied widely for intra-abdominal candidiasis (33–97%), and T2Candida data are lacking. Tests will be useful if restricted to cases in which positive and negative predictive values (PPVs, NPVs) differ in a clinically meaningful way from the pre-test likelihood of invasive candidiasis. In some patients, PPVs are sufficient to justify antifungal treatment, even if blood cultures are negative. In most patients, NPVs of each test are excellent, which may support decisions to withhold antifungal therapy. If test results are not interpreted judiciously, non-culture diagnostics may have unintended consequences for stewardship and infection prevention programs. In particular, discrepant non-culture test-positive/culture-negative results may promote inappropriate antifungal treatment of patients who are unlikely to have candidiasis, and lead to spurious reporting of hospital-acquired infections. In conclusion, non-culture Candida diagnostics have potential to advance patient care, but this promise will be realized only if users understand tests’ strengths and limitations, and plan proactively for how best to employ them at their hospitals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Candida and Candidiasis)
Open AccessReview
Experimental In Vivo Models of Candidiasis
J. Fungi 2018, 4(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4010021 - 06 Feb 2018
Cited by 12
Abstract
Candidiasis is a multifaceted fungal disease including mucosal-cutaneous, visceral, and disseminated infections caused by yeast species of the genus Candida. Candida infections are among the most common human mycoses. Candida species are the third to fourth most common isolates from bloodstream infections [...] Read more.
Candidiasis is a multifaceted fungal disease including mucosal-cutaneous, visceral, and disseminated infections caused by yeast species of the genus Candida. Candida infections are among the most common human mycoses. Candida species are the third to fourth most common isolates from bloodstream infections in neutropenic or immunocompromised hospitalized patients. The mucosal-cutaneous forms—particularly vaginal infections—have a high prevalence. Vaginitis caused by Candida species is the second most common vaginal infection. Hence, candidiasis is a major subject for research, including experimental in vivo models to study pathogenesis, prevention, or therapy of the disease. The following review article will focus on various experimental in vivo models in different laboratory animals, such as mammals (mice, rats, rabbits), the fruit fly–Drosophila melanogaster, the larvae of the moth Galleria mellonella, or the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The review will describe the induction of the different clinical forms of candidiasis in the various models and the validity of such models in mimicking the human clinical situations. The use of such models for the assessment of antifungal drugs, evaluation of potential vaccines to protect before candidiasis, exploration of Candida virulence factors, and comparison of pathogenicity of different Candida species will be included in the review. All of the above will be reported as based on published studies of numerous investigators as well as on the research of the author and his group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Candida and Candidiasis)
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Open AccessReview
Gaining Insights from Candida Biofilm Heterogeneity: One Size Does Not Fit All
J. Fungi 2018, 4(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4010012 - 15 Jan 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
Despite their clinical significance and substantial human health burden, fungal infections remain relatively under-appreciated. The widespread overuse of antibiotics and the increasing requirement for indwelling medical devices provides an opportunistic potential for the overgrowth and colonization of pathogenic Candida species on both biological [...] Read more.
Despite their clinical significance and substantial human health burden, fungal infections remain relatively under-appreciated. The widespread overuse of antibiotics and the increasing requirement for indwelling medical devices provides an opportunistic potential for the overgrowth and colonization of pathogenic Candida species on both biological and inert substrates. Indeed, it is now widely recognized that biofilms are a highly important part of their virulence repertoire. Candida albicans is regarded as the primary fungal biofilm forming species, yet there is also increasing interest and growing body of evidence for non-Candida albicans species (NCAS) biofilms, and interkingdom biofilm interactions. C. albicans biofilms are heterogeneous structures by definition, existing as three-dimensional populations of yeast, pseudo-hyphae, and hyphae, embedded within a self-produced extracellular matrix. Classical molecular approaches, driven by extensive studies of laboratory strains and mutants, have enhanced our knowledge and understanding of how these complex communities develop, thrive, and cause host-mediated damage. Yet our clinical observations tell a different story, with differential patient responses potentially due to inherent biological heterogeneity from specific clinical isolates associated with their infections. This review explores some of the recent advances made in an attempt to explore the importance of working with clinical isolates, and what this has taught us. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Candida and Candidiasis)
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Open AccessReview
Candida albicans Hyphae: From Growth Initiation to Invasion
J. Fungi 2018, 4(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4010010 - 11 Jan 2018
Cited by 11
Abstract
Candida albicans is a commensal resident of the human gastrointestinal and genital tracts. Under conditions such as dysbiosis, host immune perturbances, or the presence of catheters/implanted medical devices, the fungus may cause debilitating mucosal or fatal systemic infections. The ability of C. albicans [...] Read more.
Candida albicans is a commensal resident of the human gastrointestinal and genital tracts. Under conditions such as dysbiosis, host immune perturbances, or the presence of catheters/implanted medical devices, the fungus may cause debilitating mucosal or fatal systemic infections. The ability of C. albicans to grow as long filamentous hyphae is critical for its pathogenic potential as it allows the fungus to invade the underlying substratum. In this brief review, I will outline the current understanding regarding the mechanistic regulation of hyphal growth and invasion in C. albicans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Candida and Candidiasis)
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