Special Issue "Advances in Navigability and Mooring"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Ocean Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Marko Perkovic
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Interests: navigation; shiphandling; safety at sea; marine enginering; remote sensing; marine pollution

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Most of the need for research into the navigability of waterways, approach channels, harbour basins, docks, mooring, rivers, and related matters, arises from the enlargement of scale that is being rather unyieldingly impressed upon commercial maritime ports. Articles providing analytical, computational (FEM, etc.), modeling and experimental methods are most welcome. We are particularly interested in papers addressing challenges such as ship handling when vessels are exiting ports, when sailing at reduced under keel clearance, sailing and approaching through narrow channels, port approach planning, manoeuvring vessels exposed to strong crosswinds, ship to ship interactions, advanced towing arrangements, new dredging methods, and port extension engineering. Alternative manoeuvres to minimize prop-wash and bed disturbance are acceptable. In addition, we are open to propositioins regarding any new risks, difficulties, and challenges that arise from this general state of maritime affairs.

We are looking for papers dealing with technical solutions (and best practices) enhancing effective and safe navigation through restricted waters, like integrated navigation systems, position integrity solutions, maritime adaptive GNSS concepts, pilot navigation units, enhanced ECDIS, VDES and e-navigation solutions, laser docking systems, the automatic collision avoidance function of VTS, radiolocation and other methods, communication and navigation systems for integration, and the exchange of marine information needed for safe approaches and berthing.

A safe berth is a continual challenge for ever-increasing big ships. Fendering and vessel mooring layout analysis are of particular consideration, as well as a computational method for mooring forces and the behaviour of the moored ship; dynamic mooring analysis; vessel motion control strategies based on mechanical arms, hydraulic auto-tension, and fasting systems; vacuum pads; and Bollard loads calculation, especially when more than one mooring line is made fast. New findings are especially welcome.

Beyond the scientific interest of various studies, and beyond the technical task of providing new measures to enhance the safety of shipping in the face of challenges uninvited by ports, we would like this Issue to have some bearing on contemporary issues in general—this includes, primarily, the challenges of a world heading for environmental disaster. The following political considerations must also be welcomed: pure science is not a meaningful concept in a complicated commercial world, as we have seen over recent years, not just in regard to obvious issues such as pollution, but also piracy, which involves political matters between nations. At this monent, it is not yet known what effects the covid-19 virus will have on maritime business and sciences, but it is fair to assume that the pressures of human migration will remain an urgent issue, likely exacerbated in the near future. We welcome research that cohabits maritime science with the humanities, in ways that address the very real problems of our global construct.

Dr. Marko Perkovic
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • waterway
  • harbour approach
  • navigation
  • maneuvering
  • scale enlargement
  • berthing and mooring
  • pilotage and towage

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Assessing Cyber Challenges of Maritime Navigation
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(10), 776; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8100776 - 03 Oct 2020
Abstract
This paper provides a close investigation into the landscape of both cyber threats and actual incidents in the maritime sector, identifying the cyber trends and challenges as they relate to safe navigation and marine shipping. As an important subset of cyber threats that [...] Read more.
This paper provides a close investigation into the landscape of both cyber threats and actual incidents in the maritime sector, identifying the cyber trends and challenges as they relate to safe navigation and marine shipping. As an important subset of cyber threats that impact many maritime systems, the vulnerabilities of satellite navigation systems, in particular the Global Positioning System (GPS), receive special attention. For this article, a systematic literature review was conducted, complemented by the research and analysis of a specific spoofing event. Analyzing available resources, we might summarize that a shift in mind-set is essential to direct more attention and resources toward cybersecurity as well as the necessity for manufacturers to improve the cybersecurity of their products, as shipping systems currently remain vulnerable to cybercriminals. There is a need for multiple positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) systems onboard maritime vessels to complement GPS-only navigation. The use of multiple satellite navigation constellations, public as well as private, in combination with the terrestrial components of an enhanced LOng-RAnge Navigation (eLoran) system and ports’ laser-based aid system for berthing and docking should provide the shipping industry with the direly needed increased protection from cyber-attackers for the foreseeable future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Navigability and Mooring)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Human Factor in Navigation: Overview of Cognitive Load Measurement during Simulated Navigational Tasks
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(10), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8100775 - 03 Oct 2020
Abstract
This paper is intended to give an overview of the experiments to evaluate the cognitive load of the officer on watch (OOW) during a collision avoidance maneuver in a full-mission simulator. The main goal is to investigate the possibilities of recording the biometric [...] Read more.
This paper is intended to give an overview of the experiments to evaluate the cognitive load of the officer on watch (OOW) during a collision avoidance maneuver in a full-mission simulator. The main goal is to investigate the possibilities of recording the biometric parameters of an OOW during a simulated collision avoidance maneuver. Potentially dangerous navigation errors known as human erroneous action (HEA) are induced by excessive cognitive load. Despite modern navigational aids on the ship’s bridge, investigators of maritime incidents typically link the reason for incidents at sea with human factors, including high cognitive load. During the experimental tasks on the bridge, the biometric parameters of the OOW are recorded. Statistical tools are used to visualize the data and evaluate the cognitive load of the OOW. Biometric peaks of the OOW typically occur either during the collision avoidance maneuver or when the OOW has been exposed to disturbing factors that increase reaction time and cause potentially dangerous navigation. Assessing the cognitive load of OOWs in the simulator is challenging for several reasons: e.g., the environmental conditions of the simulator, the type of task to be simulated, and even the type of sensor used. After careful study of the available literature, an original experimental design using non-invasive biometric sensors is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Navigability and Mooring)
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Open AccessArticle
Accuracy Assessment of Satellite-Based Correction Service and Virtual GNSS Reference Station for Hydrographic Surveying
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(7), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8070542 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to assess the performance of satellite-based correction service, Trimble PP-RTX, and Virtual Reference Stations (VRS) for bathymetry determination, and check how far these techniques meet the minimum standards of the International Hydrography Organization (IHO) for hydrographic surveys. [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to assess the performance of satellite-based correction service, Trimble PP-RTX, and Virtual Reference Stations (VRS) for bathymetry determination, and check how far these techniques meet the minimum standards of the International Hydrography Organization (IHO) for hydrographic surveys. To this end, a three-hour duration session was conducted at Sharm Obhur using KAU-Hydrography 1 vessel. This session includes Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data at the base station using Trimble SPS855 GNSS receiver, multibeam records using Kongsberg EM 712 multibeam echo sounder, sound velocity profile using Valeport’s sound velocity profiler, Applanix POS MV measurements, and real-time PP-RTX corrections. Moreover, the VRS GNSS data was generated using Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Continuous Operation Reference Station network (KSA-CORS). It is shown that the Total Horizontal Uncertainty (THU) and Total Vertical Uncertainty (TVU) of the PP-RTX technique are 5.50 cm and 5.90 cm, respectively, which meets the IHO minimum standards for all survey orders at 95% confidence level. The THU and TVU of the VRS technique, on the other hand, are 5.75 cm and 7.05 cm at 95% confidence level, respectively. These values meet the IHO standards for all survey orders as well. Statistical analysis of the seabed surface differences showed a −0.07 cm average difference between the PP-RTX seabed surface and the reference seabed surface with a standard deviation of 3.60 cm. However, the average difference between the VRS-based seabed surface and the reference seabed surface is −0.03 cm and a standard deviation of 3.61 cm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Navigability and Mooring)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Laser-Based Aid Systems for Berthing and Docking
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(5), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8050346 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The berthing of an ultra large ship is always a difficult issue and becomes yet more complex when vessels must be handled in restricted manoeuvring areas of limited depth, exposed to a forceful crosswind, or manoeuvring in a strong current, or all three. [...] Read more.
The berthing of an ultra large ship is always a difficult issue and becomes yet more complex when vessels must be handled in restricted manoeuvring areas of limited depth, exposed to a forceful crosswind, or manoeuvring in a strong current, or all three. The final approaching manoeuvre and precise positioning is particularly demanding at container terminals where many STS cranes are located along the quay, seriously limiting margin for error in the process of mooring a ship, especially when the cranes are located nearby a bridge wing or at the very edge of the pier. In order to avoid collisions, the final manoeuvre (side-push) must be fully controlled; the ship’s orientation must be parallel with the quay while maintaining the minimum lateral approaching velocity without significantly shifting the vessel longitudinally. The mooring of a Ro-Ro vessel is occasionally even more challenging: a precise docking manoeuvre is normally executed without any towing assistance. In this paper low cost laser-based berthing and docking systems developed for the ports of Koper and Swinousce are presented and several berthing manoeuvres are analysed and compared with the most commonly used GNSS-based navigational aid system portable pilot units (PPU). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Navigability and Mooring)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Zone of Confidence Impact on Cross Track Limit Determination in ECDIS Passage Planning
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(8), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8080566 - 27 Jul 2020
Abstract
The technology breakthrough that Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) has brought to modern navigation has the capability to improve the safety of navigation. This could be achieved only when the capabilities of the system are known by an end-user. Cross Track [...] Read more.
The technology breakthrough that Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) has brought to modern navigation has the capability to improve the safety of navigation. This could be achieved only when the capabilities of the system are known by an end-user. Cross Track Limit (XTL) is an ECDIS safety parameter, set by the navigator, which enhances the navigational task automation in the function of workload reduction. Determination of factors affecting the value of XTL safety parameter, with special consideration to chart data reliability, is elaborated in this paper. Chart data reliability depends on the quality of chart survey data, which in many cases are outdated and unreliable. Analysis of past research on this subject is used to define the factors affecting XTL. Practices of different shipping companies with regards to XTL are analyzed and compared in order to confirm if there is a uniform practice between them. Nevertheless, shipping companies have a different or no practice of obtaining XTL, which allows the navigator to define safety parameters by a subjective opinion. In this paper, method of XTL determination for a specific vessel is suggested, considering previously defined factors. Finally, crucial influence of survey data to the safety of navigation is presented in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Navigability and Mooring)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Laser-Based Aid Systems for Berthing and Docking

Marko Perkovič1,*, Lucjan Gucma2, Mateusz Bilewski2, Bartosz Muczynski2 and

Franc Dimc1, Blaž Luin1, Peter Vidmar1, Vivien Lorenčič1 and Milan Batista1

Abstract: The berthing of an ultra large ship is always a difficult issue and becomes yet more complex when vessels must be handled through restricted manoeuvring areas of limited depth, exposed to a high crosswind, or manoeuvring in strong current – or all three. The final approaching manoeuvre and precise positioning is particularly demanding at container terminals where many STS cranes are located along the quay, seriously limiting margin for error in the process of mooring a ship, especially when the cranes are located nearby a bridge wing or at the very edge of the pier. In order to avoid collisions, the final manoeuvre (side-push) must be fully controlled; the ship’s orientation must be parallel with the quay while maintaining the minimum lateral approaching velocity - without significantly shifting the vessel longitudinally. The mooring of a ro-ro vessel is occasionally even more challenging: a precise docking manoeuvre is normally executed without any towing assistance. In this paper low cost laser-based berthing and docking systems developed for the ports of Koper and Swinousce are presented and several berthing manoeuvres are analysed and compared with the most commonly used GNSS-based navigational aid system - portable pilot units (PPU).

2. Zone of Confidence impact on Cross Track Limit determination in ECDIS passage planning

Miho Kristić 1*, Srđan Žuškin2*, David Brčić2, Sanjin Valčić2

Abstract: Technology breakthrough that Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) has brought to modern navigation has the capability to improve the safety of navigation. This could be achieved only when the capabilities of the system are known by an end-user. Cross Track Limit (XTL) is an ECDIS safety parameter, set by the navigator, which enhances the navigational task automation in the function of workload reduction. Determination of factors affecting the value of XTL safety parameter, with special consideration to chart data reliability, is elaborated in this paper. Chart data reliability depends on the quality of chart survey data, which in many cases are outdated and unreliable. Analysis of past research on this subject is used in order to define the factors affecting XTL. Practices of different shipping companies with regards to XTL are analyzed and compared in order to confirm if there is a uniform practice between them. Nevertheless, shipping companies have different or no practice of obtaining XTL, which allows the navigator to define safety parameters by a subjective opinion. In this paper, method of XTL determination for a specific vessel is suggested considering previously defined factors. Finally, crucial influence of survey data to the safety of navigation is presented in this study.

3. Human Factor in Navigation: An Overview of the Cognitive Load Measurements During Simulated Navigational Task

Dejan Žagar 1, *, Franc Dimc 2, Matija Svetina 3 and Andrej Košir 4

Abstract: This paper aims to give an overview of the experiments to evaluate the cognitive load during the collision avoidance manoeuvre in the full-mission simulator. Potentially dangerous navigation error causing the Human Erroneous Action (HEA) is concerned with excessive cognitive load. Investigators often link cognitive increase with accidents in the merchant navy, despite the possibilities of modern navigation aids on the ship's bridge. During the tasks on the bridge, the biometric parameters of the personnel are recorded. With the help of machine learning (ML), the data is post-processed and the cognitive load of the Officer on Watch (OOW) is evaluated. Cognitive load peaks of the OOW typically occur either during the collision avoidance manoeuvre or after the OOW has been exposed to disturbing factors that increase reaction time and cause unsafe navigation. Evaluating the cognitive load of the OOW in a simulator is challenging for several reasons, e.g. the environmental conditions in the simulator, the type of task to be simulated, even the type of sensor used, etc. After consulting the available literature, the original experimental design is proposed.

Keywords: Cognitive load, human factor, human erroneous action, marine simulator, disturbing factor, stress

4. Assessing Cyber Challenges of Maritime Navigation  

Andrej Androjna1*, Tanja Brcko Satler2, Jure Srše3   

Abstract: The vulnerabilities to cyber-attacks of today's marine transportation system and the importance of cybersecurity issues have been recognized to a certain extent in recent years. The dependence of many maritime navigation and shipping industry systems on the Global Positioning System (GPS), and the relative ease with which these systems can be jammed or spoofed is of particular concern. Market forces and advances in technology are integrating these systems with other systems, increasing both vulnerabilities and the potential consequences in the event of system failure. The last few years have seen many events that have given the shipping industry cause for concern about its increased exposure. Based on their analyses and analysis of scientific articles, this paper focuses on the cyberspace risks related to the maritime navigation, the shipping industry and cyber preparedness in the current global context. It presents the cyber trends and challenges focused on safe navigation and marine shipping; and provides conclusions and recommendations, highlighting the necessity for its stakeholders in to be aware of the current cybersecurity situations, and develop appropriate strategies to address cybersecurity issues using modern systems.

Keywords: cybersecurity, the safety of navigation, shipboard systems, GPS jamming and spoofing

5. Vessel Multi-Parametric Collision Avoidance Decision Model: Fuzzy Approach

Tanja Brcko Satler1*, Andrej Androjna1, Jure Srse1, Lucjan Gucma2

Abstract: The use of fuzzy logic is an effective approach for a variety of circumstances, including for the solution of certain maritime problems. The article presents an upgrade of the radar navigation system, in particular its collision avoidance planning tool, using a decision model that combines dynamic parameters into one decision - the collision avoidance course. The proposed multi-parametric decision model, which is based on fuzzy logic, calculates a suitable avoidance manoeuvre that complies with COLREG rules and keeps the ship's safety domain free of objects. The results of the test cases have shown that the avoidance process can be automated when choosing the parameters and the composition of the rules governing the algorithm, which is particularly welcome in areas with a large number of ships.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic, Decison model, COLREG, Collision avoidance

6. Full-Mission Simulation-Based Study of Ship-to-Ship Interaction in a Restricted, Narrow Waterway with Frequent Crosswinds

Marko Perkovič1* and Milan Batista1

Abstract: One of the big challenges for captains and pilots is the scale enlargement in the size of container ships and car carriers. As the size increases and the infrastructure in the fairways remains the same, the margins for safe navigation become smaller. A study of the hydrodynamic ship-to-ship interaction and the dynamic assessment of mooring was carried out by a series of full mission real-time simulations, investigating how the strong crosswind forces contribute to the risk of safe ship handling entering a narrow and shallow passage limited further by moored ships. An exposed ship tends to drift in principle, an increase in engine power is normally required to keep the course, but on the other hand a higher passing speed increases the ship-to-ship interaction. As a result of this study, an interaction diagram was developed for different passing vessels experiencing various crosswinds, indicating proposed speeds and passing distances between the moored ultra large container ship and the breakwater, determining safe navigation parameters.

Keywords: Interaction, ship-to-ship, crosswind, mooring, full-mission simulation, restricted waterway, manoeuvring

7. Cost-Effective Design of Port Approaches Using Simulation Methods on the Example of a Modernised Port in the Ustka

Lucjan Gucma1 and Kinga Łazuga1*

Abstract: Port design and analyses of approaches are usually carried out using real-time computer simulation methods for vessel traffic. Vessel traffic simulation methods are not cheap, especially in terms of survey time. A number of real-time simulation scenarios carried out by masters and pilots are performed, with several simulation attempts for each scenario. Each such attempt can last up to one hour, which, with a large number of scenarios, prolongs the research and increases its cost. Particularly time-consuming is the repetition of many scenarios with alternative solutions for infrastructure development and in various hydrometeorological conditions. In order to reduce the time of the tests, a new two-stage method was used to design the target approach to the modernized Port of Ustka, where in the first stage the simulations were carried out with significantly reduced floating navigation marking, and in the second stage with the target marking. Moreover, the so-called "Soft-Bank" method was introduced; i.e., the effects of collision with the seabed and infrastructure were excluded. Such a solution leads to significant time benefits in conducting research and at the same time does not reduce confidence in the results obtained.

Keywords: simulation, ship manoeuvring process, design, port approaches

8. Risk of LNG Spillage Modeling from a Berthed Tanker within a Basin

Maciej Gucma1 and Peter Vidmar2*

Abstract: The paper presents the methods, data and results of risk assessment that include hazard identification, related major accident scenarios, modeling of their consequences, assessment of the likelihood of consequences, and a final explanation of the acceptability of the risks against the to be applied in a port area. The paper presents the factors influencing safety criteria for an LNG jetty. Assessment of the gas dispersion using CFD simulation tests and thermal radiation effects has been presented. Evaluation of a consequences model has been adapted to the LNG spillage affecting the neighboring area of the terminal. The spill near an LNG jetty is assumed to be an accidental scenario occurring due to navigational error on a moored or passing ship resulting in unexpected loading arm disconnection or breakdown.

The identification of hazards in the LNG industry involves the use of formalized methods such as HAZOP (Hazard and Operability Study). These includes mechanical/technical deviations, human error, or a combination of a number of factors. The scope of the work includes risk analysis related to thermal radiation as a consequence of an accident at a ship's stand in the external port, including CFD simulation tests, exposure analysis using risk assessment methods, and the determination of the worst case scenario for the design infrastructure applying analytical methods.

Keywords: LNG terminal, risk assessment, CFD, moored ship, collision

9. Intellectual collision avoidance and track predictor for Vessel Traffic Services

Andrey Belov1, Alina Iablokova1, Alexander Ozersky1,* and Dmitry Rostopshin1

Abstract: Collision avoidance systems are used to detect the threat of collision, inform the user of such a threat, and provide decision support to minimize the collision risk. They are widely used throughout the maritime industry, including by Vessel Traffic Services (VTS), but unfortunately frequently provide false positive collision alerts and deliver insufficient information for appropriate and timely decision making. The suggested approach in this paper considers local traffic specifics, navigational habits, and interpretations of COLREGs in the VTS area. This allows the number of false positive collision alerts to be decreased compared to conventional CPA/TCPA and dead reckoning techniques, reduces the time needed for decision making by the VTS operator, and in general helps to improve navigational safety.

Keywords: VTS; navigation safety; COLREGs; collision avoidance; safety domain

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