Advances in Navigability and Mooring

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Ocean Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 February 2022) | Viewed by 61779

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Maritime Studies and Transport, University of Ljubljana, 6320 Portorož, Slovenia
Interests: safety of navigation; marine engineering; VTS; remote sensing of oil pollution; simulator-based maritime training
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Most of the need for research into the navigability of waterways, approach channels, harbour basins, docks, mooring, rivers, and related matters, arises from the enlargement of scale that is being rather unyieldingly impressed upon commercial maritime ports. Articles providing analytical, computational (FEM, etc.), modeling and experimental methods are most welcome. We are particularly interested in papers addressing challenges such as ship handling when vessels are exiting ports, when sailing at reduced under keel clearance, sailing and approaching through narrow channels, port approach planning, manoeuvring vessels exposed to strong crosswinds, ship to ship interactions, advanced towing arrangements, new dredging methods, and port extension engineering. Alternative manoeuvres to minimize prop-wash and bed disturbance are acceptable. In addition, we are open to propositioins regarding any new risks, difficulties, and challenges that arise from this general state of maritime affairs.

We are looking for papers dealing with technical solutions (and best practices) enhancing effective and safe navigation through restricted waters, like integrated navigation systems, position integrity solutions, maritime adaptive GNSS concepts, pilot navigation units, enhanced ECDIS, VDES and e-navigation solutions, laser docking systems, the automatic collision avoidance function of VTS, radiolocation and other methods, communication and navigation systems for integration, and the exchange of marine information needed for safe approaches and berthing.

A safe berth is a continual challenge for ever-increasing big ships. Fendering and vessel mooring layout analysis are of particular consideration, as well as a computational method for mooring forces and the behaviour of the moored ship; dynamic mooring analysis; vessel motion control strategies based on mechanical arms, hydraulic auto-tension, and fasting systems; vacuum pads; and Bollard loads calculation, especially when more than one mooring line is made fast. New findings are especially welcome.

Beyond the scientific interest of various studies, and beyond the technical task of providing new measures to enhance the safety of shipping in the face of challenges uninvited by ports, we would like this Issue to have some bearing on contemporary issues in general—this includes, primarily, the challenges of a world heading for environmental disaster. The following political considerations must also be welcomed: pure science is not a meaningful concept in a complicated commercial world, as we have seen over recent years, not just in regard to obvious issues such as pollution, but also piracy, which involves political matters between nations. At this monent, it is not yet known what effects the covid-19 virus will have on maritime business and sciences, but it is fair to assume that the pressures of human migration will remain an urgent issue, likely exacerbated in the near future. We welcome research that cohabits maritime science with the humanities, in ways that address the very real problems of our global construct.

Dr. Marko Perkovic
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • waterway
  • harbour approach
  • navigation
  • maneuvering
  • scale enlargement
  • berthing and mooring
  • pilotage and towage

Published Papers (14 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

27 pages, 4938 KiB  
Article
Berthing Assistant System Using Reference Points
by Jan Mentjes, Hilko Wiards and Sebastian Feuerstack
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(3), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10030385 - 8 Mar 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3227
Abstract
With more goods to be transported oversea, traffic and vessels’ dimensions increase while berthing areas merely remain constant and thus challenge ship masters and pilots to maneuver in small basins with dense traffic even in bad weather situations. Too fast approaches or steep [...] Read more.
With more goods to be transported oversea, traffic and vessels’ dimensions increase while berthing areas merely remain constant and thus challenge ship masters and pilots to maneuver in small basins with dense traffic even in bad weather situations. Too fast approaches or steep angles of attack result in damages to fenders, quay walls, or even impact the hull structure. We propose a shore-based, vessel-independent berthing assistant system to support sailors by Reference Points that are aligned to a quay’s meter markings and identify the precise berthing location by measuring distance and approach speed. For this purpose, we define the concept of a Berthing Support Area (BSA), which specifies an area in which, subject to constraints, safe berthing is provided. Within this area there are Reference Points, perpendicular distance measurements at arbitrary positions, which are implemented with a set of LiDAR sensors that have been integrated into the quay wall. In a test campaign with a vessel equipped with DGPS sensors, we sailed seven different maneuvers and evaluated the precision and the accuracy of the Reference Points for speed and distance measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Navigability and Mooring)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3639 KiB  
Article
Reconstructing Maritime Incidents and Accidents Using Causal Models for Safety Improvement: Based on a Case Study
by Lucjan Gucma, Andrej Androjna, Kinga Łazuga, Peter Vidmar and Marko Perkovič
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(12), 1414; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9121414 - 11 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2443
Abstract
No advance in navigation has yet to prevent the occurrence of accidents (incidents are always implied when we discuss accidents) at sea. At the same time, advances in accident models are possible, and may provide the basis for investigations and analyses to help [...] Read more.
No advance in navigation has yet to prevent the occurrence of accidents (incidents are always implied when we discuss accidents) at sea. At the same time, advances in accident models are possible, and may provide the basis for investigations and analyses to help prevent future adverse events and improve the safety of marine transport systems. In such complex socio-technical systems models that treat accidents as the result of a chain or sequence of events are used most commonly. Such models are well suited to damage caused by failure of physical components in relatively simple systems. Although these often include methods for modeling human error, they do not cover broader aspects related to the management of the organization using the means of transport itself (shipowners) nor errors that may occur in the design phase. In particular, they do not cover changes in the systems over time. The paper presents accident investigation approaches and uses a modified causal model to analyze an incident that occurred in January 2019 on the city ferry in Świnoujście. The results of the analysis were used to provide guidelines for increasing safety at the crossing and to evaluate the accident analysis model used. Additionally, incidentally, through the study of this case we uncovered a problem in communication among stakeholders that unnecessarily complicates the models for the models for the improvement of safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Navigability and Mooring)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 1030 KiB  
Communication
The Simulation of Sloped Bank Effect Influence on Container Ship Trajectory
by Mate Baric, Robert Mohovic, Djani Mohovic and Vinko Pavic
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(11), 1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9111283 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2419
Abstract
The latest container vessel grounding in the Suez Canal, which occurred on 23 March 2021 (the Ever Given), raised many questions regarding the safety of navigation. The sudden concern about safety is due to fears that traffic flow through the Suez Canal could [...] Read more.
The latest container vessel grounding in the Suez Canal, which occurred on 23 March 2021 (the Ever Given), raised many questions regarding the safety of navigation. The sudden concern about safety is due to fears that traffic flow through the Suez Canal could be blocked for longer periods of time. Besides external forces imposed by wind, in this case bank effect had a significant influence on the ship’s grounding. Bank effect occurs due to restricted water flow caused by narrow waterways. Many fairway design standards consider sloped banks such as those of the Suez Canal as unsubstantial in bank-effect forces. This paper analyses the impact of sloped banks on container ship trajectory and proposes minimal distances that may decrease bank-effect forces in order to reduce the risk of vessel grounding and increase the safety of navigation. However, this type of accident has happened before and may occur again due to a small sailing distance from the bank in cases where vessel speed is increased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Navigability and Mooring)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 3825 KiB  
Article
Cost-Effective Design of Port Approaches Using Simulation Methods Based on the Example of a Modernized Port in the Ustka
by Kinga Łazuga, Nguyễn Minh Quý and Lucjan Gucma
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(2), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020211 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2764
Abstract
Port design and approaches are usually carried out using real-time computer simulation methods for ship manoeuvring. So-called ship real-time simulation methods are relatively expensive, especially in terms of survey time. Several real-time simulation scenarios carried out by masters and pilots are usually performed, [...] Read more.
Port design and approaches are usually carried out using real-time computer simulation methods for ship manoeuvring. So-called ship real-time simulation methods are relatively expensive, especially in terms of survey time. Several real-time simulation scenarios carried out by masters and pilots are usually performed, with several simulation attempts in each scenario. Each such attempt can last up to one hour, which, with a large number of scenarios, prolongs the research and increases its cost. Particularly time-consuming is the repetition of many scenarios with alternative solutions for infrastructure development and in various hydrometeorological conditions. To reduce the time-consuming of the tests, a new two-stage method was used to design the target approach on the modernized Port of Ustka. In the first stage, the simulations were carried out with significantly reduced floating navigation marking, and in the second stage with the target marking. Moreover, the so-called “Soft-Bank” method was introduced, i.e., the effects of a collision with the seabed and infrastructure were excluded. Such a solution leads to significant time benefits in conducting research and at the same time does not reduce confidence in the results obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Navigability and Mooring)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1973 KiB  
Article
Determining Residual Deviation and Analysis of the Current Use of the Magnetic Compass
by Andrej Androjna, Blagovest Belev, Ivica Pavic and Marko Perkovič
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(2), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020204 - 16 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3247
Abstract
The use of electronic compasses and satellite systems has led to the magnetic compass becoming a secondary means of navigation. Yet this means of navigating is not only not obsolete, it is a necessary backup device: the construction simplicity of the magnetic compass, [...] Read more.
The use of electronic compasses and satellite systems has led to the magnetic compass becoming a secondary means of navigation. Yet this means of navigating is not only not obsolete, it is a necessary backup device: the construction simplicity of the magnetic compass, without electrical windings, rotating elements, and control units, remains resistant to power losses, hardware malfunction, and thus is reliable under the harshest conditions. This durability, however, comes at some cost; the magnetic compass is influenced by ships’ permanent and transient magnetism, cargo gears. For the proper use of a magnetic compass, it is necessary to perform an adjustment to determine the residual deviation at regular intervals. The paper analyses selected methods to manage this, and to identify the main features of classical methods. The research was supplemented by a study carried out during the practical compensations of the magnetic compass at sea and by a survey among navigation officers on its basic requirements for proper use. The results indicate insufficient inspection of the magnetic compass. Further, an investigation into the causes of deviation delivers information regarding the causes under varying conditions including type of ship and latitudinal circumstances. This paper presents findings and recommendations to improve the compensation and use of the ships magnetic compasses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Navigability and Mooring)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1471 KiB  
Article
A Fuzzy Optimization Model for the Berth Allocation Problem and Quay Crane Allocation Problem (BAP + QCAP) with n Quays
by Edwar Lujan, Edmundo Vergara, Jose Rodriguez-Melquiades, Miguel Jiménez-Carrión, Carlos Sabino-Escobar and Flabio Gutierrez
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(2), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020152 - 2 Feb 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2919
Abstract
This work introduces a fuzzy optimization model, which solves in an integrated way the berth allocation problem (BAP) and the quay crane allocation problem (QCAP). The problem is solved for multiple quays, considering vessels’ imprecise arrival times. The model optimizes the use of [...] Read more.
This work introduces a fuzzy optimization model, which solves in an integrated way the berth allocation problem (BAP) and the quay crane allocation problem (QCAP). The problem is solved for multiple quays, considering vessels’ imprecise arrival times. The model optimizes the use of the quays. The BAP + QCAP, is a NP-hard (Non-deterministic polynomial-time hardness) combinatorial optimization problem, where the decision to assign available quays for each vessel adds more complexity. The imprecise vessel arrival times and the decision variables—berth and departure times—are represented by triangular fuzzy numbers. The model obtains a robust berthing plan that supports early and late arrivals and also assigns cranes to each berth vessel. The model was implemented in the CPLEX solver (IBM ILOG CPLEX Optimization Studio); obtaining in a short time an optimal solution for very small instances. For medium instances, an undefined behavior was found, where a solution (optimal or not) may be found. For large instances, no solutions were found during the assigned processing time (60 min). Although the model was applied for n = 2 quays, it can be adapted to “n” quays. For medium and large instances, the model must be solved with metaheuristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Navigability and Mooring)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 4904 KiB  
Article
Ships Added Mass Effect on a Flexible Mooring Dolphin in Berthing Manoeuvre
by Aleksander Grm
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(2), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020108 - 21 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 6608
Abstract
This paper deals with the hydrodynamic effect of the ship on a flexible dolphin during a mooring manoeuvre. The hydrodynamic effect refers to the change in momentum of the surrounding fluid, which is defined by the concept of added mass. The main reason [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the hydrodynamic effect of the ship on a flexible dolphin during a mooring manoeuvre. The hydrodynamic effect refers to the change in momentum of the surrounding fluid, which is defined by the concept of added mass. The main reason for the present study is to answer the question, “What is the effect of the added mass compared to the mass of the ship during the mooring procedure for a particular type of ship?” Measured angular frequencies of dolphin oscillations showed that the mathematical model can be approximated by the zero frequency limit. This simplifies the problem to some extent. The mooring is a pure rocking motion, and the 3D study is approximated by the strip theory approach. Moreover, the calculations were performed with conformal mapping using conformal Lewis mapping for the hull geometry. The fluid flow is assumed to be non-viscous, non-rotating and incompressible. The results showed that the additional mass effect must be taken into account when calculating the flexible dolphin loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Navigability and Mooring)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 4839 KiB  
Article
Vessel Multi-Parametric Collision Avoidance Decision Model: Fuzzy Approach
by Tanja Brcko, Andrej Androjna, Jure Srše and Renata Boć
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9010049 - 5 Jan 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3232
Abstract
The application of fuzzy logic is an effective approach to a variety of circumstances, including solutions to maritime anti-collision problems. The article presents an upgrade of the radar navigation system, in particular, its collision avoidance planning tool, using a decision model that combines [...] Read more.
The application of fuzzy logic is an effective approach to a variety of circumstances, including solutions to maritime anti-collision problems. The article presents an upgrade of the radar navigation system, in particular, its collision avoidance planning tool, using a decision model that combines dynamic parameters into one decision—the collision avoidance course. In this paper, a multi-parametric decision model based on fuzzy logic is proposed. The model calculates course alteration in a collision avoidance situation. First, the model collects input data of the target vessel and assesses the collision risk. Using time delay, four parameters are calculated for further processing as input variables for a fuzzy inference system. Then, the fuzzy logic method is used to calculate the course alteration, which considers the vessel’s safety domain and International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGs). The special feature of the decision model is its tuning with the results of the database of correct solutions obtained with the manual radar plotting method. The validation was carried out with six selected cases simulating encounters with the target vessel in the open sea from different angles and at any visibility. The results of the case studies have shown that the decision model computes well in situations where the own vessel is in a give-way position. In addition, the model provides good results in situations when the target vessel violates COLREG rules. The collision avoidance planning tool can be automated and serve as a basis for further implementation of a model that considers the manoeuvrability of the vessels, weather conditions, and multi-vessel encounter situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Navigability and Mooring)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3473 KiB  
Article
The Navigator’s Aspect of PNC before and after ECDIS Implementation: Facts and Potential Implications towards Navigation Safety Improvement
by Maro Car, David Brčić, Srđan Žuškin and Boris Svilicic
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(11), 842; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8110842 - 26 Oct 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2902
Abstract
The global maritime digitalization reflects on navigation and paperless vessels with Paper Navigational Charts (PNC) nowadays superseded by Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS). Considering the system implementation and its acceptance as a sole navigational means, opinions of navigators differ. Although the [...] Read more.
The global maritime digitalization reflects on navigation and paperless vessels with Paper Navigational Charts (PNC) nowadays superseded by Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS). Considering the system implementation and its acceptance as a sole navigational means, opinions of navigators differ. Although the ECDIS mandatory implementation ended in 2018, some navigators have been still favouring PNCs, pointing out their advantages over ECDIS navigation. These standpoints may have an impact on the safety of navigation in terms of acceptance, interpretation, and understanding of the system as well as on conflict of standpoints of decisive navigational ranks, the latter reason being found as one of the real problems. The presented study has focused on a specific period, soon after the transitional period completion, aiming to determine the views of traditional navigation advocates, their arguments in the present maritime navigation paperless era and to identify potential problems emerging from the conflict of two navigational means. The research has induced two independent, internationally distributed questionnaires, dedicated to navigational ranks. The first survey has referred to the period from 2012 to 2018, marking the transition to ECDIS navigation. The second survey was conducted after the implementation period completion date. The answers were analysed and discussed from the navigational ranks’ perspective, considering their competitiveness and the level of ECDIS education. The research results have indicated and confirmed that PNCs could not entirely be ruled out, at least at this stage. Besides definitive questionnaire answers, the findings have been supported with categorised comments as interpreted from the first survey questionnaire results. The paper aims to present the future of the PNCs, including possibilities of fusion with modern means. The proposed suggestions have been directed towards the benefits of maritime navigation safety, referring especially to disagreement between navigational ranks in terms of particular means acceptance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Navigability and Mooring)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 1212 KiB  
Article
Assessing Cyber Challenges of Maritime Navigation
by Andrej Androjna, Tanja Brcko, Ivica Pavic and Harm Greidanus
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(10), 776; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8100776 - 3 Oct 2020
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 10213
Abstract
This paper provides a close investigation into the landscape of both cyber threats and actual incidents in the maritime sector, identifying the cyber trends and challenges as they relate to safe navigation and marine shipping. As an important subset of cyber threats that [...] Read more.
This paper provides a close investigation into the landscape of both cyber threats and actual incidents in the maritime sector, identifying the cyber trends and challenges as they relate to safe navigation and marine shipping. As an important subset of cyber threats that impact many maritime systems, the vulnerabilities of satellite navigation systems, in particular the Global Positioning System (GPS), receive special attention. For this article, a systematic literature review was conducted, complemented by the research and analysis of a specific spoofing event. Analyzing available resources, we might summarize that a shift in mind-set is essential to direct more attention and resources toward cybersecurity as well as the necessity for manufacturers to improve the cybersecurity of their products, as shipping systems currently remain vulnerable to cybercriminals. There is a need for multiple positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) systems onboard maritime vessels to complement GPS-only navigation. The use of multiple satellite navigation constellations, public as well as private, in combination with the terrestrial components of an enhanced LOng-RAnge Navigation (eLoran) system and ports’ laser-based aid system for berthing and docking should provide the shipping industry with the direly needed increased protection from cyber-attackers for the foreseeable future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Navigability and Mooring)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1351 KiB  
Article
Human Factor in Navigation: Overview of Cognitive Load Measurement during Simulated Navigational Tasks
by Dejan Žagar, Matija Svetina, Andrej Košir and Franc Dimc
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(10), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8100775 - 3 Oct 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3400
Abstract
This paper is intended to give an overview of the experiments to evaluate the cognitive load of the officer on watch (OOW) during a collision avoidance maneuver in a full-mission simulator. The main goal is to investigate the possibilities of recording the biometric [...] Read more.
This paper is intended to give an overview of the experiments to evaluate the cognitive load of the officer on watch (OOW) during a collision avoidance maneuver in a full-mission simulator. The main goal is to investigate the possibilities of recording the biometric parameters of an OOW during a simulated collision avoidance maneuver. Potentially dangerous navigation errors known as human erroneous action (HEA) are induced by excessive cognitive load. Despite modern navigational aids on the ship’s bridge, investigators of maritime incidents typically link the reason for incidents at sea with human factors, including high cognitive load. During the experimental tasks on the bridge, the biometric parameters of the OOW are recorded. Statistical tools are used to visualize the data and evaluate the cognitive load of the OOW. Biometric peaks of the OOW typically occur either during the collision avoidance maneuver or when the OOW has been exposed to disturbing factors that increase reaction time and cause potentially dangerous navigation. Assessing the cognitive load of OOWs in the simulator is challenging for several reasons: e.g., the environmental conditions of the simulator, the type of task to be simulated, and even the type of sensor used. After careful study of the available literature, an original experimental design using non-invasive biometric sensors is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Navigability and Mooring)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 5645 KiB  
Article
Accuracy Assessment of Satellite-Based Correction Service and Virtual GNSS Reference Station for Hydrographic Surveying
by Mohamed Elsayed Elsobeiey
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(7), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8070542 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2906
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to assess the performance of satellite-based correction service, Trimble PP-RTX, and Virtual Reference Stations (VRS) for bathymetry determination, and check how far these techniques meet the minimum standards of the International Hydrography Organization (IHO) for hydrographic surveys. [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to assess the performance of satellite-based correction service, Trimble PP-RTX, and Virtual Reference Stations (VRS) for bathymetry determination, and check how far these techniques meet the minimum standards of the International Hydrography Organization (IHO) for hydrographic surveys. To this end, a three-hour duration session was conducted at Sharm Obhur using KAU-Hydrography 1 vessel. This session includes Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data at the base station using Trimble SPS855 GNSS receiver, multibeam records using Kongsberg EM 712 multibeam echo sounder, sound velocity profile using Valeport’s sound velocity profiler, Applanix POS MV measurements, and real-time PP-RTX corrections. Moreover, the VRS GNSS data was generated using Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Continuous Operation Reference Station network (KSA-CORS). It is shown that the Total Horizontal Uncertainty (THU) and Total Vertical Uncertainty (TVU) of the PP-RTX technique are 5.50 cm and 5.90 cm, respectively, which meets the IHO minimum standards for all survey orders at 95% confidence level. The THU and TVU of the VRS technique, on the other hand, are 5.75 cm and 7.05 cm at 95% confidence level, respectively. These values meet the IHO standards for all survey orders as well. Statistical analysis of the seabed surface differences showed a −0.07 cm average difference between the PP-RTX seabed surface and the reference seabed surface with a standard deviation of 3.60 cm. However, the average difference between the VRS-based seabed surface and the reference seabed surface is −0.03 cm and a standard deviation of 3.61 cm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Navigability and Mooring)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 5875 KiB  
Article
Laser-Based Aid Systems for Berthing and Docking
by Marko Perkovič, Lucjan Gucma, Mateusz Bilewski, Bartosz Muczynski, Franc Dimc, Blaž Luin, Peter Vidmar, Vivien Lorenčič and Milan Batista
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(5), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8050346 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4811
Abstract
The berthing of an ultra large ship is always a difficult issue and becomes yet more complex when vessels must be handled in restricted manoeuvring areas of limited depth, exposed to a forceful crosswind, or manoeuvring in a strong current, or all three. [...] Read more.
The berthing of an ultra large ship is always a difficult issue and becomes yet more complex when vessels must be handled in restricted manoeuvring areas of limited depth, exposed to a forceful crosswind, or manoeuvring in a strong current, or all three. The final approaching manoeuvre and precise positioning is particularly demanding at container terminals where many STS cranes are located along the quay, seriously limiting margin for error in the process of mooring a ship, especially when the cranes are located nearby a bridge wing or at the very edge of the pier. In order to avoid collisions, the final manoeuvre (side-push) must be fully controlled; the ship’s orientation must be parallel with the quay while maintaining the minimum lateral approaching velocity without significantly shifting the vessel longitudinally. The mooring of a Ro-Ro vessel is occasionally even more challenging: a precise docking manoeuvre is normally executed without any towing assistance. In this paper low cost laser-based berthing and docking systems developed for the ports of Koper and Swinousce are presented and several berthing manoeuvres are analysed and compared with the most commonly used GNSS-based navigational aid system portable pilot units (PPU). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Navigability and Mooring)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

12 pages, 2395 KiB  
Review
Zone of Confidence Impact on Cross Track Limit Determination in ECDIS Passage Planning
by Miho Kristić, Srđan Žuškin, David Brčić and Sanjin Valčić
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(8), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8080566 - 27 Jul 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 8841
Abstract
The technology breakthrough that Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) has brought to modern navigation has the capability to improve the safety of navigation. This could be achieved only when the capabilities of the system are known by an end-user. Cross Track [...] Read more.
The technology breakthrough that Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) has brought to modern navigation has the capability to improve the safety of navigation. This could be achieved only when the capabilities of the system are known by an end-user. Cross Track Limit (XTL) is an ECDIS safety parameter, set by the navigator, which enhances the navigational task automation in the function of workload reduction. Determination of factors affecting the value of XTL safety parameter, with special consideration to chart data reliability, is elaborated in this paper. Chart data reliability depends on the quality of chart survey data, which in many cases are outdated and unreliable. Analysis of past research on this subject is used to define the factors affecting XTL. Practices of different shipping companies with regards to XTL are analyzed and compared in order to confirm if there is a uniform practice between them. Nevertheless, shipping companies have a different or no practice of obtaining XTL, which allows the navigator to define safety parameters by a subjective opinion. In this paper, method of XTL determination for a specific vessel is suggested, considering previously defined factors. Finally, crucial influence of survey data to the safety of navigation is presented in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Navigability and Mooring)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop