Water Waves: Field and Experimental Observations

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Ocean Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 January 2022) | Viewed by 17737

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, Australia
Interests: ocean waves; water waves; wave–structure interaction; waves in polar regions; wave measurements
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia
Interests: ocean waves; wave–structure interaction; CFD; waves in polar regions; ship hydrodynamics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water waves interact with the natural and built environment; however, understanding these complex phenomena can often be difficult. Despite recent significant advances in mathematical and numerical modelling, field and experimental observations still provide us with much-needed insight into wave phenomena and are useful to applications in many fields of physics and engineering. This Special Issue of the Journal of Marine Science and Engineering aims to collate reviews and original research articles on water waves from an experimental (field or laboratory) perspective. We particularly welcome studies on the development and/or use of measuring techniques to explore wave-related phenomena and applications, including, but not limited to: coastal and offshore engineering; wave energy; climate science; ship hydrodynamics; wave–structure interactions; wave breaking; and wave–current interactions.

Dr. Alberto Alberello
Dr. Filippo Nelli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • ocean waves
  • water waves
  • wave measurements
  • wave observations
  • wave–structure interaction

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 30946 KiB  
Article
A Novel Visual-Range Sea Image Dataset for Sea Horizon Line Detection in Changing Maritime Scenes
by Manzoor Ahmed Hashmani and Muhammad Umair
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(2), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10020193 - 31 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3336
Abstract
Sea horizon line (SHL) detection plays a pivotal role in the computational performance improvement of computer applications for the maritime environment by dividing the image into sea and sky regions. This division isolates the region of interest and reduces the computational cost of [...] Read more.
Sea horizon line (SHL) detection plays a pivotal role in the computational performance improvement of computer applications for the maritime environment by dividing the image into sea and sky regions. This division isolates the region of interest and reduces the computational cost of further processing. Testing and performance evaluation of SHL detection methods require a robust image dataset covering the maritime environment’s features at different geographical, seasonal, and maritime conditions. However, publicly available maritime image datasets are developed under a limited environment with slight-to-moderate variations in maritime features. This article proposes a novel sea image dataset that fills this gap by incorporating various geographical, seasonal, and maritime features. Across West Malaysia, one offshore and four geographically separated onshore locations were selected. On ten different occasions, field observations were recorded using a visual-range optical sensor and weather station. The data collection experiments were conducted between February 2020 until April 2021. The collected data were preprocessed and SHL images were selected based on their high feature diversity. Manual SHL annotation was applied on images, and a ground truth matrix was generated, which serves as a performance benchmark for SHL detection methods. As a result, the dataset presents 2673 high-definition (1920 × 1080 pixels) RGB images having a combination of 36 different geographical, seasonal, and maritime features to test and evaluate computer vision-based SHL detection methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Waves: Field and Experimental Observations)
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17 pages, 4462 KiB  
Article
Simple Breaker Index Formula Using Linear Model
by Kwang-Ho Lee and Yong-Hwan Cho
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070731 - 1 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3654
Abstract
Breaking waves generated by wave shoaling in coastal areas have a close relationship with various physical phenomena in coastal regions. Therefore, it is crucial to accurately predict breaker indexes such as breaking wave height and breaking depth when designing coastal structures. Many studies [...] Read more.
Breaking waves generated by wave shoaling in coastal areas have a close relationship with various physical phenomena in coastal regions. Therefore, it is crucial to accurately predict breaker indexes such as breaking wave height and breaking depth when designing coastal structures. Many studies on wave breaking have been carried out, and many experimental data have been documented. Representative studies on wave breaking provide many empirical formulas for the prediction of breaking index, mainly through hydraulic model experiments. However, the existing empirical formulas for breaking index determine the coefficients of the assumed equation through statistical analysis of data under the assumption of a specific equation. This study presents an alternative method to estimate breaker index using representative linear-based supervised machine learning algorithms that show high predictive performance in various research fields related to regression or classification problems. Based on the used machine learning methods, a new simple linear equation for the prediction of breaker index is presented. The newly proposed breaker index formula showed similar predictive performance compared to the existing empirical formula, although it was a simple linear equation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Waves: Field and Experimental Observations)
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8 pages, 12534 KiB  
Article
Frazil Ice in the Antarctic Marginal Ice Zone
by Felix Paul, Tommy Mielke, Carina Schwarz, Jörg Schröder, Tokoloho Rampai, Sebastian Skatulla, Riesna R. Audh, Ehlke Hepworth, Marcello Vichi and Doru C. Lupascu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(6), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9060647 - 10 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3234
Abstract
Frazil ice, consisting of loose disc-shaped ice crystals, is the first ice that forms in the annual cycle in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) of the Antarctic. A sufficient number of frazil ice crystals form the surface “grease ice” layer, playing a fundamental [...] Read more.
Frazil ice, consisting of loose disc-shaped ice crystals, is the first ice that forms in the annual cycle in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) of the Antarctic. A sufficient number of frazil ice crystals form the surface “grease ice” layer, playing a fundamental role in the freezing processes in the MIZ. As soon as the ocean waves are sufficiently damped by a frazil ice cover, a closed ice cover can form. In this article, we investigate the rheological properties of frazil ice, which has a crucial influence on the growth of sea ice in the MIZ. An in situ test setup for measuring temperature and rheological properties was developed. Frazil ice shows shear thinning flow behavior. The presented measurements enable real-data-founded modelling of the annual ice cycle in the MIZ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Waves: Field and Experimental Observations)
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19 pages, 16010 KiB  
Article
The Accelerations of a Wave Measurement Buoy Impacted by Breaking Waves in the Surf Zone
by Adam C. Brown and Robert K. Paasch
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(2), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020214 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3274
Abstract
A spherical wave measurement buoy capable of detecting breaking waves has been designed and built. The buoy is 16 inches in diameter and houses a 9 degree of freedom inertial measurement unit (IMU). The orientation and acceleration of the buoy is continuously logged [...] Read more.
A spherical wave measurement buoy capable of detecting breaking waves has been designed and built. The buoy is 16 inches in diameter and houses a 9 degree of freedom inertial measurement unit (IMU). The orientation and acceleration of the buoy is continuously logged at frequencies up to 200 Hz providing a high fidelity description of the motion of the buoy as it is impacted by breaking waves. The buoy was deployed several times throughout the winter of 2013–2014. Both moored and free-drifting data were acquired in near-shore shoaling waves off the coast of Newport, OR. Almost 200 breaking waves of varying type and intensity were measured over the course of multiple deployments. The characteristic signature of spilling and plunging breakers was identified in the IMU data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Waves: Field and Experimental Observations)
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20 pages, 4434 KiB  
Article
Breaking-Wave Induced Transient Pore Pressure in a Sandy Seabed: Flume Modeling and Observations
by Changfei Li, Fuping Gao and Lijing Yang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(2), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020160 - 5 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2911
Abstract
Previous studies on wave-induced pore pressure in a porous seabed mainly focused on non-breaking regular waves, e.g., Airy linear waves or Stokes non-linear waves. In this study, breaking-wave induced pore pressure response in a sandy seabed was physically simulated with a large wave [...] Read more.
Previous studies on wave-induced pore pressure in a porous seabed mainly focused on non-breaking regular waves, e.g., Airy linear waves or Stokes non-linear waves. In this study, breaking-wave induced pore pressure response in a sandy seabed was physically simulated with a large wave flume. The breaking-wave was generated by superimposing a series of longer waves onto the foregoing shorter waves at a specified location. Water surface elevations and the corresponding pore pressure in the process of wave breaking were measured simultaneously at three typical locations, i.e., at the rear, just at, and in front of the wave breaking location. Based on test results, characterization parameters are proposed for the wave surface elevations and the corresponding pore-pressures. Flume observations indicate that the wave height was greatly diminished during wave breaking, which further affected the pore-pressure responses. Moreover, the measured values of the characteristic time parameters for the breaking-wave induced pore-pressure are larger than those for the free surface elevation of breaking-waves. Under the action of incipient-breaking or broken waves, the measured values of the amplitude of transient pore-pressures are generally smaller than the predicted results with the analytical solution by Yamamoto et al. (1978) for non-breaking regular waves with equivalent values of characteristic wave height and wave period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Waves: Field and Experimental Observations)
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