Special Issue "Sea Surface Temperature: From Observation to Applications"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Oceanography".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 August 2021) | Viewed by 14882

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Special Issue Editor

Dr. Francisco Pastor Guzman
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Meteorology and Pollutant Dynamics Area, Mediterranean Center for Environmental Studies (CEAM), Paterna, Valencia, Spain
Interests: climate change; climate extremes; SST; weather numerical modelling; extreme precipitation; atmosphere–ocean interaction; Mediterranean meteorology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In a global and accelerated climate change environment, sea surface temperature (SST) was defined by the World Meteorological Organization as one of the essential climate variables that contribute to the characterization of the Earth’s climate. Recent studies confirmed that a huge amount of energy is being stored in the oceans; so, SST emerged as a proxy of this energy reservoir, especially to derive future trends in climate change and impacts on the frequency of weather extremes and their growing impact on human societies. This energy storage has a considerable impact on the atmosphere–ocean system through heat exchange. More attention is being paid to SST monitoring and analysis so that advances have been recorded in these fields.

As such, original research and review papers are welcome on the main subjects of sea surface temperature measurement techniques, data collection, and analysis. The main topics welcome in this special issue of JMSE include, but are not limited to:

  • SST measuring techniques, both in situ or remote sensing
  • Measuring SST: sensors technical development, measuring techniques
  • SST measurement networks: buoys, gliders, remote sensing, etc.
  • SST data treatment (gap data filling, neural networks, SST series reconstruction, etc.)
  • Remote sensing: measuring, validation
  • SST climate: variability, spatial distribution, trends
  • Impacts on marine biodiversity, aquaculture, and fisheries
  • Impacts on atmospheric phenomena, especially extremes
  • Teleconnection with climatic patterns
  • Physical and dynamical oceanography: correlation with sea level and salinity
  • SST and general ocean circulation
Dr. Francisco Pastor Guzman
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • SST
  • climate change
  • atmosphere–ocean interaction
  • in situ and remote sensing
  • measuring techniques
  • sensors
  • validation
  • time series
  • biodiversity
  • general oceanic circulation

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Sea Surface Temperature: From Observation to Applications
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(11), 1284; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9111284 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 497
Abstract
Sea surface temperature (SST) has been defined by World Meteorological Organization (WMO) as one of the essential climate variables (ECVs) contributing to the characterization of Earth’s climate [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sea Surface Temperature: From Observation to Applications)

Research

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Article
General and Local Characteristics of Current Marine Heatwave in the Red Sea
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(10), 1048; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9101048 - 23 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1086
Abstract
In the ocean, heat waves are vital climatic extremes that can destroy the ecosystem together with ensuing socioeconomic consequences. Marine heat waves (MHW) recently attracted public interest, as well as scientific researchers, which motivates us to analyze the current heat wave events over [...] Read more.
In the ocean, heat waves are vital climatic extremes that can destroy the ecosystem together with ensuing socioeconomic consequences. Marine heat waves (MHW) recently attracted public interest, as well as scientific researchers, which motivates us to analyze the current heat wave events over the Red Sea and its surrounding sea region (Gulf of Aden). First, a comprehensive evaluation of how the extreme Red Sea surface temperature has been changing is presented using 0.25° daily gridded optimum interpolation sea surface temperature (OISST, V2.1) data from 1982 to 2020. Second, an analysis of the MHW’s general behavior using four different metrics over the study area, together with a study of the role of climate variability in MHW characteristics, is presented. Finally, the main spatiotemporal characteristics of MHWs were analyzed based on three different metrics to describe MHW’s local features. Over the studied 39 years, the current results showed that the threshold of warm extreme sea surface temperature events (90th percentile) is 30.03 °C, providing an additional average thermal restriction to MHW threshold values (this value is changed from one grid to another). The current analysis discovered 28 separate MHW events over the Red+, extending from 1988 to 2020, with the four longest events being chosen as a study case for future investigation. For the effect of climate variability, our results during the chosen study cases prove that ENSO and ISMI do not play a significant role in controlling MHW characteristics (except the MHW intensity, which has a clear relation with ENSO/ISMI) on Red+. Moreover, the chlorophyll concentration decreases more significantly than its climatic values during MHW events, showing the importance of the MHW effect on biological Red Sea features. In general, the MHW intensity and duration exhibit a meridional gradient, which increases from north to south over the Red Sea, unlike the MHW frequency, which decreases meridionally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sea Surface Temperature: From Observation to Applications)
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Article
The North Equatorial Countercurrent East of the Dateline, Its Variations and Its Relationship to the El Niño Event
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(10), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9101041 - 22 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 738
Abstract
Using forty years (1978–2017) of Ocean Reanalysis System 4 (ORAS4) dataset, the purpose of this study is to investigate the fluctuation of the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) to the east of the dateline in relation to the presence of three kinds of El [...] Read more.
Using forty years (1978–2017) of Ocean Reanalysis System 4 (ORAS4) dataset, the purpose of this study is to investigate the fluctuation of the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) to the east of the dateline in relation to the presence of three kinds of El Niño events. From spring (MAM) through summer (JJA), we found that the NECC was stronger during the Eastern Pacific El Niño (EP El Niño) and the MIX El Niño than during the Central Pacific El Niño (CP El Niño). When it comes to winter (DJF), on the other hand, the NECC was stronger during the CP and MIX El Niño and weaker during the EP El Niño. This NECC variability was affected by the fluctuations of thermocline depth near the equatorial Pacific. Moreover, we also found that the seasonal southward shift of the NECC occurred between winter and spring, but the shift was absent during the CP and MIX El Niño events. This meridional shift was strongly affected by the local wind stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sea Surface Temperature: From Observation to Applications)
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Article
Spatiotemporal Variability and Trends of Marine Heat Waves in the Red Sea over 38 Years
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(8), 842; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080842 - 04 Aug 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2252
Abstract
Marine heat waves (MHWs) can have catastrophic consequences for the socio-environmental system. Especially in the Red Sea, which has the world’s second longest coral reef system. Here, we investigate the sea surface temperature (SST) variability and trends, as well as the spatiotemporal characteristics [...] Read more.
Marine heat waves (MHWs) can have catastrophic consequences for the socio-environmental system. Especially in the Red Sea, which has the world’s second longest coral reef system. Here, we investigate the sea surface temperature (SST) variability and trends, as well as the spatiotemporal characteristics of marine heat waves (MHWs) in the Red Sea, using high resolution daily gridded (1/20°) SST data obtained from the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) for the period 1982–2019. Results show that the average warming rate was about 0.342 ± 0.047 °C/decade over the entire Red Sea over the whole study period. The Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis reveals that the maximum variability is over the central part of the Red Sea, while the minimum variability is in the southernmost part of the Red Sea. Over the last two decades (2000–2019), we have discovered that the average MHW frequency and duration increased by 35% and 67%, respectively. The results illustrate that the MHW frequency and duration trends have increased by 1.17 counts/decade and 1.79 days/decade, respectively, over the study period. The highest annual MHW frequencies were detected in the years 2018, 2019, 2010, and 2017. A strong correlation (R = 0.89) was found between the annual MHW frequency and the annual mean SST. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sea Surface Temperature: From Observation to Applications)
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Article
Spatial Variability and Trends of Marine Heat Waves in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea over 39 Years
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(6), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9060643 - 10 Jun 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2846
Abstract
Marine heatwaves (MHWs) can cause devastating impacts on marine life. The frequency of MHWs, gauged with respect to historical temperatures, is expected to rise significantly as the climate continues to warm. The MHWs intensity and count are pronounced with many parts of the [...] Read more.
Marine heatwaves (MHWs) can cause devastating impacts on marine life. The frequency of MHWs, gauged with respect to historical temperatures, is expected to rise significantly as the climate continues to warm. The MHWs intensity and count are pronounced with many parts of the oceans and semi enclosed seas, such as Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMED). This paper investigates the descriptive spatial variability and trends of MHW events and their main characteristics of the EMED from 1982 to 2020 using Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Optimum Interpolation ([NOAA] OI SST V2.1). Over the last two decades, we find that the mean MHW frequency and duration increased by 40% and 15%, respectively. In the last decade, the shortest significant MHW mean duration is 10 days, found in the southern Aegean Sea, while it exceeds 27 days off the Israeli coast. The results demonstrate that the MHW frequency trend increased by 1.2 events per decade between 1982 and 2020, while the MHW cumulative intensity (icum) trend increased by 5.4 °C days per decade. During the study period, we discovered that the maximum significant MHW SST event was 6.35 °C above the 90th SST climatology threshold, lasted 7 days, and occurred in the year 2020. It was linked to a decrease in wind stress, an increase in air temperature, and an increase in mean sea level pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sea Surface Temperature: From Observation to Applications)
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Article
CMIP5-Based Projection of Decadal and Seasonal Sea Surface Temperature Variations in East China Shelf Seas
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(4), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9040367 - 30 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 730
Abstract
The East China Shelf Seas, comprising the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, and the shelf region of East China Sea, play significant roles among the shelf seas of the Western North Pacific Ocean. The projection of sea surface temperature (SST) changes in these [...] Read more.
The East China Shelf Seas, comprising the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, and the shelf region of East China Sea, play significant roles among the shelf seas of the Western North Pacific Ocean. The projection of sea surface temperature (SST) changes in these regions is a hot research topic in marine science. However, this is a very difficult task due to the lack of available long-term projection data. Recently, with the high development of simulation technology based on numerical models, the model intercomparison projects, e.g., Phase 5 of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), have become important ways of understanding climate changes. CMIP5 provides multiple models that can be used to estimate SST changes by 2100 under different representative concentration pathways (RCPs). This paper developed a CMIP5-based SST investigation framework for the projection of decadal and seasonal variation of SST in East China Shelf Seas by 2100. Since the simulation results of CMIP5 models may have degrees of errors, this paper uses hydrological observation data from World Ocean Atlas 2018 (WOA18) for model validation and correction. This paper selects seven representative ones including ACCESS1.3, CCSM4, FIO-ESM, CESM1-CAM5, CMCC-CMS, NorESM1-ME, and Max Planck Institute Earth System Model of medium resolution (MPI-ESM-MR). The decadal and seasonal SST changes in the next 100 years (2030, 2060, 2090) are investigated by comparing with the present analysis in 2010. The experimental results demonstrate that SST will increase significantly by 2100: the decadal SST will increase by about 1.55 °C, while the seasonal SST will increase by 1.03–1.95 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sea Surface Temperature: From Observation to Applications)
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Article
Increasing Trends in Air and Sea Surface Temperature in the Central Adriatic Sea (Croatia)
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(4), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9040358 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 836
Abstract
The Adriatic Sea and its coastal region have experienced significant environmental changes in recent decades, aggravated by climate change. The most prominent effects of climate change (namely, an increase in sea surface and air temperature together with changes in the precipitation regime) could [...] Read more.
The Adriatic Sea and its coastal region have experienced significant environmental changes in recent decades, aggravated by climate change. The most prominent effects of climate change (namely, an increase in sea surface and air temperature together with changes in the precipitation regime) could have an adverse effect on social and environmental processes. In this study, we analyzed the time series of sea surface temperature and air temperature measured at three meteorological stations in the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea. To assess the trends and variations in the time series of sea surface and air temperature, different statistical methods were employed, i.e., linear and quadratic regressions, Mann–Kendall test, Rescaled Adjusted Partial Sums method, and autocorrelation. The results evidenced increasing trends in the mean annual sea surface temperature and air temperature; furthermore, sudden variations in values were observed in 1998 and 1992, respectively. Increasing trends in the mean monthly sea surface temperature and air temperature occurred in the warmer parts of the year (from March to August). The results of this study could provide a foundation for stakeholders, decision–makers, and other scientists for developing effective measures to mitigate the negative effects of climate change in the scattered environment of the Adriatic islands and coastal region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sea Surface Temperature: From Observation to Applications)
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Article
Measuring Temperature in Coral Reef Environments: Experience, Lessons, and Results from Palau
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(9), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8090680 - 04 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1101
Abstract
Sea surface temperature, determined remotely by satellite (SSST), measures only the thin “skin” of the ocean but is widely used to quantify the thermal regimes on coral reefs across the globe. In situ measurements of temperature complements global satellite sea surface temperature with [...] Read more.
Sea surface temperature, determined remotely by satellite (SSST), measures only the thin “skin” of the ocean but is widely used to quantify the thermal regimes on coral reefs across the globe. In situ measurements of temperature complements global satellite sea surface temperature with more accurate measurements at specific locations/depths on reefs and more detailed data. In 1999, an in situ temperature-monitoring network was started in the Republic of Palau after the 1998 coral bleaching event. Over two decades the network has grown to 70+ stations and 150+ instruments covering a 700 km wide geographic swath of the western Pacific dominated by multiple oceanic currents. The specific instruments used, depths, sampling intervals, precision, and accuracy are considered with two goals: to provide comprehensive general coverage to inform global considerations of temperature patterns/changes and to document the thermal dynamics of many specific habitats found within a highly diverse tropical marine location. Short-term in situ temperature monitoring may not capture broad patterns, particularly with regard to El Niño/La Niña cycles that produce extreme differences. Sampling over two decades has documented large T signals often invisible to SSST from (1) internal waves on time scales of minutes to hours, (2) El Niño on time scales of weeks to years, and (3) decadal-scale trends of +0.2 °C per decade. Network data have been used to create a regression model with SSST and sea surface height (SSH) capable of predicting depth-varying thermal stress. The large temporal, horizontal, and vertical variability noted by the network has further implications for thermal stress on the reef. There is a dearth of definitive thermal information for most coral reef habitats, which undermines the ability to interpret biological events from the most basic physical perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sea Surface Temperature: From Observation to Applications)
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Article
Comparison of Satellite-Based Sea Surface Temperature to In Situ Observations Surrounding Coral Reefs in La Parguera, Puerto Rico
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(6), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8060453 - 20 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1540
Abstract
Coral reefs are among the most biologically diverse ecosystems on Earth. In the last few decades, a combination of stressors has produced significant declines in reef expanse, with declining reef health attributed largely to thermal stresses. We investigated the correspondence between time-series satellite [...] Read more.
Coral reefs are among the most biologically diverse ecosystems on Earth. In the last few decades, a combination of stressors has produced significant declines in reef expanse, with declining reef health attributed largely to thermal stresses. We investigated the correspondence between time-series satellite remote sensing-based sea surface temperature (SST) datasets and ocean temperature monitored in situ at depth in coral reefs near La Parguera, Puerto Rico. In situ temperature data were collected for Cayo Enrique and Cayo Mario, San Cristobal, and Margarita Reef. The three satellite-based SST datasets evaluated were NOAA’s Coral Reef Watch (CoralTemp), the UK Meteorological Office’s Operational SST and Sea Ice Analysis (OSTIA), and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (G1SST). All three satellite-based SST datasets assessed displayed a strong positive correlation (>0.91) with the in situ temperature measurements. However, all SST datasets underestimated the temperature, compared with the in situ measurements. A linear regression model using the SST datasets as the predictor for the in situ measurements produced an overall offset of ~1 °C for all three SST datasets. These results support the use of all three SST datasets, after offset correction, to represent the temperature regime at the depth of the corals in La Parguera, Puerto Rico. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sea Surface Temperature: From Observation to Applications)
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Article
Anomalous Oceanic Conditions in the Central and Eastern North Pacific Ocean during the 2014 Hurricane Season and Relationships to Three Major Hurricanes
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(4), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8040288 - 17 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
The 2014 Northeast Pacific hurricane season was highly active, with above-average intensity and frequency events, and a rare landfalling Hawaiian hurricane. We show that the anomalous northern extent of sea surface temperatures and anomalous vertical extent of upper ocean heat content above 26 [...] Read more.
The 2014 Northeast Pacific hurricane season was highly active, with above-average intensity and frequency events, and a rare landfalling Hawaiian hurricane. We show that the anomalous northern extent of sea surface temperatures and anomalous vertical extent of upper ocean heat content above 26 °C throughout the Northeast and Central Pacific Ocean may have influenced three long-lived tropical cyclones in July and August. Using a variety of satellite-observed and -derived products, we assess genesis conditions, along-track intensity, and basin-wide anomalous upper ocean heat content during Hurricanes Genevieve, Iselle, and Julio. The anomalously northern surface position of the 26 °C isotherm beyond 30° N to the north and east of the Hawaiian Islands in 2014 created very high sea surface temperatures throughout much of the Central Pacific. Analysis of basin-wide mean conditions confirm higher-than-average storm activity during strong positive oceanic thermal anomalies. Positive anomalies of 15–50 kJ cm−2 in the along-track upper ocean heat content for these three storms were observed during the intensification phase prior to peak intensity, advocating for greater understanding of the ocean thermal profile during tropical cyclone genesis and development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sea Surface Temperature: From Observation to Applications)
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