Special Issue "Modelling of Harbour and Coastal Structures"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Coastal Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 July 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Theophanis V. Karambas
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: coastal engineering; design of harbour, coastal and marine structures; coastal protection methods; numerical modelling of coastal processes; waves and wave-induced currents; sediment transport; wave–coastal structures interaction; coastal hydro-morphodynamics; climate change effects on coastal zones; climate change adaptation
Dr. Achilleas G. Samaras
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124, Greece
Interests: coastal engineering; design of harbour/coastal/marine structures; coastal protection methods; wave dynamics and 3D-hydrodynamics in marine/coastal areas; sediment transport; coastal morphodynamics; climate change effects on coastal zones; climate change adaptation; integrated watershed and coastal zone management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The world’s coasts are being continuously reshaped by the interplay between natural- and human-induced pressures. Projected climate change-driven variations in mean sea level, wave conditions and storm surges will add to the existing pressures, as already manifested by the effects of the presently observed climate variability on the frequency and intensity of extremes.

Being the most heavily populated areas in the world, coastal zones host the majority and some of the most important human settlements, infrastructure and economic activities. Harbour and coastal structures are essential to the above, facilitating the transport of people and goods through ports, and protecting low lying areas against flooding and erosion. While based on relatively rigid concepts about service life in the past, nowadays, the design of these structures—or the upgrading of existing structures—should effectively proof them against future pressures, enhancing their resilience and long-term sustainability (i.e. their compliance to performance and operability criteria).

In the above context, this Special Issue invites original scientific contributions on topics including:

  • Harbour and coastal structures design and upgrading (seawalls, revetments, bulkheads, jetties, emerged/submerged groins and breakwaters, artificial reefs, etc.).
  • Wave agitation and siltation problems in harbour basins and approach channels.
  • Shoreline erosion control downcoast of harbours.
  • Harbour layout design.

Research articles, review articles and case studies are welcome; contributions can be based on numerical, physical or combined numerical and physical modelling.

Prof. Theophanis V. Karambas
Dr. Achilleas G. Samaras
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Harbour structures
  • Coastal structures
  • Coastal protection
  • Coastal flooding and erosion
  • Harbour layout design
  • Coastal resilience
  • Climate change adaptation
  • Numerical modelling
  • Physical modelling

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Study of Current- and Wave-Induced Sediment Transport in the Nowshahr Port Entrance Channel by Using Numerical Modeling and Field Measurements
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(4), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8040284 - 15 Apr 2020
Abstract
The Nowshahr port in the southern coastlines of the Caspian Sea is among the oldest northern ports of Iran, first commissioned in the year 1939. In recent years, this port has been faced with severe sedimentation issues in and around its entrance that [...] Read more.
The Nowshahr port in the southern coastlines of the Caspian Sea is among the oldest northern ports of Iran, first commissioned in the year 1939. In recent years, this port has been faced with severe sedimentation issues in and around its entrance that has had negative impacts on the operability of the port. The present study aims at identifying major reasons for severe sedimentation in the port entrance. First, field measurements were evaluated to gain an in-depth view of the hydrodynamics of the study area. Numerical models then were calibrated and validated against existing field measurements. Results of numerical modeling indicated that wind-induced current is dominant in the Caspian Sea. The numerical results also indicated that in the case of an eastward current direction, the interaction between current and the western breakwater arm would lead to the formation of a separation zone and a recirculation zone to the east of the port entrance region. This eddying circulation could transport suspend settled sediments from eastern shoreline towards the port entrance and its access channel. The results of this paper are mostly based on the study of current patterns around the port in the storm conditions incorporate with the identification of sediment sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling of Harbour and Coastal Structures)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Wave and Hydrodynamic Processes in the Vicinity of a Rubble-Mound, Permeable, Zero-Freeboard Breakwater
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(3), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8030206 - 17 Mar 2020
Abstract
A numerical study for the effect of crest width, breaking parameter, and trunk permeability on hydrodynamics and flow behavior in the vicinity of rubble-mound, permeable, zero-freeboard breakwaters (ZFBs) is presented. The modified two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for two-phase flows in porous media with a [...] Read more.
A numerical study for the effect of crest width, breaking parameter, and trunk permeability on hydrodynamics and flow behavior in the vicinity of rubble-mound, permeable, zero-freeboard breakwaters (ZFBs) is presented. The modified two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for two-phase flows in porous media with a Smagorinsky model for the subgrid scale stresses were solved numerically. An immersed-boundary/level-set method was used. The numerical model was validated for the cases of wave propagation over a submerged impermeable trapezoidal bar and a low-crested permeable breakwater. Five cases of breakwaters were examined, and the main results are: (a) The size of the crest width, B, does not notably affect the wave reflection, vorticity, and currents in the seaward region of ZFBs, while wave transmission, currents in the leeward side, and mean overtopping discharge all decrease with increasing B. A non-monotonic behavior of the wave setup is also observed. (b) As the breaking parameter decreases, wave reflection, transmission, currents, mean overtopping discharge, and wave setup decrease. This observation is also verified by relevant empirical formulas. (c) As the ZFB trunk permeability decreases, an increase of the wave reflection, currents, wave setup, and a decrease of wave transmission and mean overtopping discharge is observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling of Harbour and Coastal Structures)
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Open AccessArticle
Probabilistic Risk Evaluation for Overall Stability of Composite Caisson Breakwaters in Korea
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(3), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8030148 - 25 Feb 2020
Abstract
In the present study, the overall stability of typical Korean composite caisson breakwaters that were initially designed following the conventional deterministic approach is investigated using reliability approaches. Therefore, the sensitivity of critical uncertainties regarding breakwater safety is analyzed. Uncertainty sources related to the [...] Read more.
In the present study, the overall stability of typical Korean composite caisson breakwaters that were initially designed following the conventional deterministic approach is investigated using reliability approaches. Therefore, the sensitivity of critical uncertainties regarding breakwater safety is analyzed. Uncertainty sources related to the structure, ocean conditions, and properties of the subsoil and rubble mound are considered in the reliability analysis. Sliding and overturning failures are presented as explicit equations, and three reliability methods, i.e., the mean value first-order second-moment, first-order reliability method, and Monte Carlo simulation, are applied in the evaluation process. Furthermore, the bearing capacity of the rubble mound and subsoil are analyzed using the discrete slice method conjugated with the Monte Carlo simulation. The results of this study establish that the sliding failure generally is the most frequent failure occurring among the above-mentioned overall stability failures (around 15 times more common than failures observed in the foundation). Additionally, it is found that the horizontal wave force primarily contributes to the sliding of the caisson body, whereas the friction coefficient is the main factor producing the resistance force. Furthermore, a much small probability of overturning failure implies that the overturning of a caisson around its heels uncommonly occurs during their lifetime, unlike other overall failure modes. Moreover, the failure in foundations may commonly encounter in the breakwater that has a high rubble mound structure compared with sliding mode. Particularly, the performance function of the all foundation bearing capacities presents a nonlinear behavior and positively skewed distribution when using the Monte Carlo simulation method. This phenomenon proves that simulation methods might be an appropriate approach to evaluate the bearing capacity of a breakwater foundation that can overcome several drawbacks of the conventional design approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling of Harbour and Coastal Structures)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Investigation on Hydrodynamic Coefficients of a Column-Stabilized Fish Cage in Waves
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(11), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7110418 - 14 Nov 2019
Abstract
This study on hydrodynamic coefficients of a column-stabilized fish cage under wave action plays an important role in the anti-wave design of cages. The regular wave test was used to study the horizontal wave force of the jacket and column-stabilized fish cage under [...] Read more.
This study on hydrodynamic coefficients of a column-stabilized fish cage under wave action plays an important role in the anti-wave design of cages. The regular wave test was used to study the horizontal wave force of the jacket and column-stabilized fish cage under different wave heights, periods, and incident angles; the finite element model of the jacket and the column-stabilized fish cage was established according to the test model. On the basis of the calculation of the finite element model, combined with the wave force obtained from the experiment, the hydrodynamic coefficients of the structure was fitted by the least squares method, and then the drag force, inertial force, and total force of the structure under different conditions were calculated. The results show that the hydrodynamic coefficients of the jacket and netting under the wave condition were more obvious with the change of the KC number and wave incident angles. And as the wave height increased, the drag force, the inertial force, and the proportion of the drag force to the horizontal wave force both increased. When the wavelength was large, the same trend occured as the wave period increased. When the wave incident angles were different, the forces of the jacket and the column-stabilized fish cage were always small in lateral low-frequency waves, which is consistent with the change law of hydrodynamic coefficients of the jacket and netting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling of Harbour and Coastal Structures)
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Open AccessArticle
Stability Assessment of Rubble Mound Breakwaters Using Extreme Learning Machine Models
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(9), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7090312 - 07 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The stability number of a breakwater can determine the armor unit’s weight, which is an important parameter in the breakwater design process. In this paper, a novel and simple machine learning approach is proposed to evaluate the stability of rubble-mound breakwaters by using [...] Read more.
The stability number of a breakwater can determine the armor unit’s weight, which is an important parameter in the breakwater design process. In this paper, a novel and simple machine learning approach is proposed to evaluate the stability of rubble-mound breakwaters by using Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) models. The data-driven stability assessment models were built based on a small size of training samples with a simple establishment procedure. By comparing them with other approaches, the simulation results showed that the proposed models had good assessment performances. The least user intervention and the good generalization ability could be seen as the advantages of using the stability assessment models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling of Harbour and Coastal Structures)
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Open AccessArticle
A Nourishment Performance Index for Beach Erosion/Accretion at Saadiyat Island in Abu Dhabi
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060173 - 01 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The present paper proposes a methodology to optimise the design of a beach protection intervention at Saadiyat Island, of the Abu Dhabi city in the United Arab Emirates. In particular, a nourishment performance index (NPI) has been introduced to select among different design [...] Read more.
The present paper proposes a methodology to optimise the design of a beach protection intervention at Saadiyat Island, of the Abu Dhabi city in the United Arab Emirates. In particular, a nourishment performance index (NPI) has been introduced to select among different design alternatives of a coastal engineering intervention related to the ongoing development of the island. The NPI is based on general factors such as the initial volume of sand necessary for the nourishment, the beach surface loss after the intervention and the closure depth. The proposed index, properly integrated with a numerical simulation of the beach morphodynamics, is shown to be promising in the evaluation of the feasibility for the planned coastal defence interventions. The adoption of different design scenarios has showed that the NPI value depends mainly on the built nourishment shoreline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling of Harbour and Coastal Structures)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Damage in Rubble Mound Breakwaters. Part I: Historical Review of Damage Models
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(5), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8050317 - 30 Apr 2020
Abstract
The term “damage” in rubble mound breakwaters is usually related to the foremost failure mode of this kind of coastal structures: their hydraulic instability. The characterization of the breakwater response against wave action was and will be the goal of hundreds of studies. [...] Read more.
The term “damage” in rubble mound breakwaters is usually related to the foremost failure mode of this kind of coastal structures: their hydraulic instability. The characterization of the breakwater response against wave action was and will be the goal of hundreds of studies. Because of the large amount of information, the present review on damage in rubble mound breakwaters is divided in two papers, which are closely linked but conceptually different; whereas Part II is focused on the various approaches for defining and measuring damage, Part I summarizes the diverse strategies for modelling damage development and progression. The present paper compiles 146 references on this topic, chronologically discussed over almost a century of history: from 1933 to 2020. It includes 23 formulations of hydraulic stability models and 11 formulations of damage progression models, together with main advances and shortcomings up to date. The future of rubble mound design is linked to risk-based tools and advanced management strategies, for which deeper comprehension about the spatial and temporal evolution of damage during the useful life of each particular structure is required. For this aim, damage progression probabilistic models, full-scale monitoring and standardization will presumably be some of the key challenges in the upcoming years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling of Harbour and Coastal Structures)
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Open AccessReview
Damage in Rubble Mound Breakwaters. Part II: Review of the Definition, Parameterization, and Measurement of Damage
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(5), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8050306 - 28 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Damage in rubble mound breakwaters has been addressed for more than 80 years and, as reported in “Part I: Historical review of damage models”, a considerable number of hydraulic instability models have been proposed up to date. Most of them were [...] Read more.
Damage in rubble mound breakwaters has been addressed for more than 80 years and, as reported in “Part I: Historical review of damage models”, a considerable number of hydraulic instability models have been proposed up to date. Most of them were developed from small-scale physical tests, based on damage descriptors not always parameterized nor measured in the same way, which indeed complicates the comparison and reproducibility from different experimental data sources. The latter is increased by the lack of a standardized methodological approach inside an experimental and measuring process that involves many sources of uncertainty. Currently, the latest innovations applicable to damage measurement, together with the growing demand of reliable decision-making tools for conservation/maintenance strategies and structural/operational risk management, venture an upcoming proliferation of prototype monitoring, as well as new approaches aimed to characterize the stochastic nature of damage evolution. In this context, this paper is meant to review the concept of damage in rubble mound breakwaters, the different proposals for its parameterization, the past and present measuring techniques, and main challenges in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling of Harbour and Coastal Structures)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Harbour and Coastal Structures: a mechanical fatigue review
Authors: Moisés Jiménez Martínez
Affiliation: Departamento de Mecatrónica, Escuela de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Campus Puebla, Mexico

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