Marine Renewables–Infrastructures and Physical Testing

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2021) | Viewed by 32893

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Energy Systems Research Unit, Dept of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XW, UK
Interests: dynamic tidal flow resource characterization; the production of power capture performance assessment and benchmarking metrics and protocols; the development of new engineering solutions to capture and transfer power from energetic marine environments

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In order to quantify the contribution offshore renewable energy (ORE) can make towards satisfying our sustainable energy needs, we need to have confidence in the performance quantification of offshore wind, wave and tidal technologies as they develop from scale prototype to pre-commercial technology. Accurate and representative performance quantification of prototype systems as they scale up from small laboratory-scale through intermediate-scale in-sea testing is vital to give confidence to technology developers and potential investors as they strive to develop mechanically robust and commercially viable offshore renewable technology. Key to this is the development of best practices for technology testing and performance assessment and their implementation by testing infrastructures to attain accurate and reliable quantification. The purpose of this invited Special Issue is to publish state of the art research papers focusing on “MaRINET2: Marine Renewables—Infrastructures and Physical Testing" in respect of the above. The aim is to provide a rapid turn-around time regarding reviewing and publishing, and to disseminate articles freely for research, teaching and reference purposes.

High-quality papers are encouraged for publication that are directly related to various aspects, as mentioned below:

  • ORE testing infrastructure specification, configuration and testing procedures and practices;
  • Physical testing of tidal energy systems;
  • Physical testing of wave energy systems;
  • Physical testing of offshore wind energy systems;
  • Physical testing of marine renewable electrical network interfacing equipment;
  • Physical testing of offshore wind and tidal rotor blades;
  • Physical testing of structural and fatigue loadings of offshore renewable mooring components and electrical umbilical cables;
  • Consistency of testing practices and results from repeated testing across multiple infrastructures;
  • The impact of testing infrastructure and configuration on system performance.

Dr. Cameron Johnstone
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Wave energy
  • Tidal energy
  • Offshore wind
  • Testing environments
  • Testing infrastructures
  • ORE mooring systems
  • ORE power take off

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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23 pages, 2398 KiB  
Article
A Heuristic Approach for Inter-Facility Comparison of Results from Round Robin Testing of a Floating Wind Turbine in Irregular Waves
by Sebastien Gueydon, Frances Judge, Eoin Lyden, Michael O’Shea, Florent Thiebaut, Marc Le Boulluec, Julien Caverne, Jérémy Ohana, Benjamin Bouscasse, Shinwoong Kim, Sandy Day, Saishuai Dai and Jimmy Murphy
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 1030; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9091030 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2299
Abstract
This paper introduces metrics developed for analysing irregular wave test results from the round robin testing campaign carried out on a floating wind turbine as part of the EU H2020 MaRINET2 project. A 1/60th scale model of a 10 MW floating platform was [...] Read more.
This paper introduces metrics developed for analysing irregular wave test results from the round robin testing campaign carried out on a floating wind turbine as part of the EU H2020 MaRINET2 project. A 1/60th scale model of a 10 MW floating platform was tested in wave basins in four different locations around Europe. The tests carried out in each facility included decay tests, tests in regular and irregular waves with and without wind thrust, and tests to characterise the mooring system as well as the model itself. While response amplitude operations (RAOs) are a useful tool for assessing device performance in irregular waves, they are not easy to interpret when performing an inter-facility comparison where there are many variables. Metrics that use a single value per test condition rather than an RAO curve are a means of efficiently comparing tests from different basins in a more heuristic manner. In this research, the focus is on using metrics to assess how the platform responds with varying wave height and thrust across different facilities. It is found that the metrics implemented are very useful for extracting global trends across different basins and test conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Renewables–Infrastructures and Physical Testing)
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25 pages, 5797 KiB  
Article
Round Robin Laboratory Testing of a Scaled 10 MW Floating Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine
by Sebastien Gueydon, Frances M. Judge, Michael O’Shea, Eoin Lyden, Marc Le Boulluec, Julien Caverne, Jérémy Ohana, Shinwoong Kim, Benjamin Bouscasse, Florent Thiebaut, Sandy Day, Saishuai Dai and Jimmy Murphy
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 988; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9090988 - 10 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2210
Abstract
This paper documents the round robin testing campaign carried out on a floating wind turbine as part of the EU H2020 MaRINET2 project. A 1/60th scale model of a 10 MW floating platform was tested in wave basins in four different locations around [...] Read more.
This paper documents the round robin testing campaign carried out on a floating wind turbine as part of the EU H2020 MaRINET2 project. A 1/60th scale model of a 10 MW floating platform was tested in wave basins in four different locations around Europe. The tests carried out in each facility included decay tests, tests in regular and irregular waves with and without wind thrust, and tests to characterise the mooring system as well as the model itself. For the tests in wind, only the thrust of the turbine was considered and it was fixed to pre-selected levels. Hence, this work focuses on the hydrodynamic responses of a semi-submersible floating foundation. It was found that the global surge stiffness was comparable across facilities, except in one case where different azimuth angles were used for the mooring lines. Heave and pitch had the same stiffness coefficient and periods for all basins. Response Amplitude Operators (RAOs) were used to compare the responses in waves from all facilities. The shape of the motion RAOs were globally similar for all basins except around some particular frequencies. As the results were non-linear around the resonance and cancellation frequencies, the differences between facilities were magnified at these frequencies. Surge motions were significantly impacted by reflections leading to large differences in these RAOs between all basins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Renewables–Infrastructures and Physical Testing)
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24 pages, 14245 KiB  
Article
Round Robin Testing: Exploring Experimental Uncertainties through a Multifacility Comparison of a Hinged Raft Wave Energy Converter
by Thomas Davey, Javier Sarmiento, Jérémy Ohana, Florent Thiebaut, Sylvain Haquin, Matthieu Weber, Sebastien Gueydon, Frances Judge, Eoin Lyden, Michael O’Shea, Roman Gabl, Laura-Beth Jordan, Martyn Hann, Daming Wang, Keri Collins, Daniel Conley, Deborah Greaves, David M. Ingram and Jimmy Murphy
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9090946 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3917
Abstract
The EU H2020 MaRINET2 project has a goal to improve the quality, robustness and accuracy of physical modelling and associated testing practices for the offshore renewable energy sector. To support this aim, a round robin scale physical modelling test programme was conducted to [...] Read more.
The EU H2020 MaRINET2 project has a goal to improve the quality, robustness and accuracy of physical modelling and associated testing practices for the offshore renewable energy sector. To support this aim, a round robin scale physical modelling test programme was conducted to deploy a common wave energy converter at four wave basins operated by MaRINET2 partners. Test campaigns were conducted at each facility to a common specification and test matrix, providing the unique opportunity for intercomparison between facilities and working practices. A nonproprietary hinged raft, with a nominal scale of 1:25, was tested under a set of 12 irregular sea states. This allowed for an assessment of power output, hinge angles, mooring loads, and six-degree-of-freedom motions. The key outcome to be concluded from the results is that the facilities performed consistently, with the majority of variation linked to differences in sea state calibration. A variation of 5–10% in mean power was typical and was consistent with the variability observed in the measured significant wave heights. The tank depth (which varied from 2–5 m) showed remarkably little influence on the results, although it is noted that these tests used an aerial mooring system with the geometry unaffected by the tank depth. Similar good agreement was seen in the heave, surge, pitch and hinge angle responses. In order to maintain and improve the consistency across laboratories, we make recommendations on characterising and calibrating the tank environment and stress the importance of the device–facility physical interface (the aerial mooring in this case). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Renewables–Infrastructures and Physical Testing)
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25 pages, 18126 KiB  
Article
A Phenomenological Study of Lab-Scale Tidal Turbine Loading under Combined Irregular Wave and Shear Flow Conditions
by Matthew Allmark, Rodrigo Martinez, Stephanie Ordonez-Sanchez, Catherine Lloyd, Tim O’Doherty, Grégory Germain, Benoît Gaurier and Cameron Johnstone
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(6), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9060593 - 29 May 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2746
Abstract
Tidal devices are likely to faced with shear flows and subjected to various wave climates. The paper presents an experimental study of the combined impacts of shear profile and irregular waves on the loading of a 1/20th scale device operating at peak power [...] Read more.
Tidal devices are likely to faced with shear flows and subjected to various wave climates. The paper presents an experimental study of the combined impacts of shear profile and irregular waves on the loading of a 1/20th scale device operating at peak power extraction. The experiments presented were conducted at various depths to facilitate analysis of the effects of the shear flow and wave impact on the device at various positions in the water column. The fluid field was measured at three different upstream positions and at three depths (top, middle and bottom of the rotor) for each experiment; in doing so, data from the device were captured three times. The fluid measurements were of a high quality and were analysed to present the structure flow upstream of the device, which contained velocity and turbulence profiles. The upstream measurement was utilised to understand the development of flow structures in the approach to the device, and the impact of the flow structures measured was confirmed via cross-covariance calculations. The long datasets gathered were used to produce full rotational probability density functions for the blade-root-bending moments for three blades. The spectral characteristics were also considered, and showed that rotor loading quantities are less reactive to smaller scale flow structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Renewables–Infrastructures and Physical Testing)
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24 pages, 32140 KiB  
Article
Quantification of Measurement and Model Effects in Monopile Foundation Scour Protection Experiments
by Minghao Wu, Leen De Vos, Carlos Emilio Arboleda Chavez, Vasiliki Stratigaki, Maximilian Streicher and Peter Troch
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(6), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9060585 - 28 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2302
Abstract
The present work introduces an analysis of the measurement and model effects that exist in monopile scour protection experiments with repeated small scale tests. The damage erosion is calculated using the three dimensional global damage number S3D and subarea damage number [...] Read more.
The present work introduces an analysis of the measurement and model effects that exist in monopile scour protection experiments with repeated small scale tests. The damage erosion is calculated using the three dimensional global damage number S3D and subarea damage number S3D,i. Results show that the standard deviation of the global damage number σ(S3D)=0.257 and is approximately 20% of the mean S3D, and the standard deviation of the subarea damage number σ(S3D,i)=0.42 which can be up to 33% of the mean S3D. The irreproducible maximum wave height, chaotic flow field and non-repeatable armour layer construction are regarded as the main reasons for the occurrence of strong model effects. The measurement effects are limited to σ(S3D)=0.039 and σ(S3D,i)=0.083, which are minor compared to the model effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Renewables–Infrastructures and Physical Testing)
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18 pages, 4113 KiB  
Article
Investigation and Validation of Numerical Models for Composite Wind Turbine Blades
by William Finnegan, Yadong Jiang, Nicolas Dumergue, Peter Davies and Jamie Goggins
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9050525 - 12 May 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3728
Abstract
As the world shifts to using renewable sources of energy, wind energy has been established as one of the leading forms of renewable energy. As the requirement for wind energy increases, so too does the size of the turbines themselves, where the latest [...] Read more.
As the world shifts to using renewable sources of energy, wind energy has been established as one of the leading forms of renewable energy. As the requirement for wind energy increases, so too does the size of the turbines themselves, where the latest turbines are 10 MW with a turbine diameter in excess of 190 m. The design and manufacture of the blades for these turbines will be critical if they are to last for the design life, where the accuracy of the numerical models used in the design process is paramount. Therefore, in this paper, three independent numerical models have been created using three available finite element method packages—ABAQUS, ANSYS, and CalculiX—and the results were compiled. Following this, the accuracy of the models has been evaluated and validated against the results from an experimental testing campaign. In order to complete the study, a 13 m full-scale wind turbine blade has been used, which has been subjected to static testing in both the edgewise and flapwise directions. The results from this testing campaign, along with the blade mass and natural frequencies, have been compared to the results from the independent numerical models. The differences in the models, along with other sources of error, have been discussed, which includes recommendations on the development of accurate numerical models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Renewables–Infrastructures and Physical Testing)
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23 pages, 2583 KiB  
Article
Tidal Energy Round Robin Tests: A Comparison of Flow Measurements and Turbine Loading
by Rodrigo Martinez, Benoît Gaurier, Stephanie Ordonez-Sanchez, Jean-Valéry Facq, Gregory Germain, Cameron Johnstone, Ivan Santic, Francesco Salvatore, Thomas Davey, Chris Old and Brian G. Sellar
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(4), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9040425 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2556
Abstract
A Round Robin Tests program is being undertaken within the EC MaRINET2 initiative. This programme studies the used facility influence can have on the performance evaluation of a horizontal axis tidal turbine prototype when it is operated under wave and current conditions. In [...] Read more.
A Round Robin Tests program is being undertaken within the EC MaRINET2 initiative. This programme studies the used facility influence can have on the performance evaluation of a horizontal axis tidal turbine prototype when it is operated under wave and current conditions. In this paper, we present the design of experiments that is used throughout the work programme and the results related to the flow characterisation obtained at the Ifremer wave and current circulating tank, the Cnr-Inm wave towing tank and the ocean research facility FloWave. These facilities have been identified to provide adequate geometric conditions to accommodate a 0.724 m diameter turbine operating at flow velocities of 0.8 and 1.0 m/s. The set-up is replicated in each of the facilities with exemption of the amount of flow measuring instruments. Intrinsic differences in creating wave and currents between facilities are found. Flow velocities are up to 10% higher than the nominal values and wave amplitudes higher than the target values by up to a factor of 2. These discrepancies are related to the flow and wave generation methods used at each facility. When the flow velocity is measured besides the rotor, the velocity presents an increase of 8% compared to the upstream measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Renewables–Infrastructures and Physical Testing)
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28 pages, 2014 KiB  
Article
MaRINET2 Tidal Energy Round Robin Tests—Performance Comparison of a Horizontal Axis Turbine Subjected to Combined Wave and Current Conditions
by Benoît Gaurier, Stephanie Ordonez-Sanchez, Jean-Valéry Facq, Grégory Germain, Cameron Johnstone, Rodrigo Martinez, Francesco Salvatore, Ivan Santic, Thomas Davey, Chris Old and Brian Sellar
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(6), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8060463 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 3405
Abstract
This Round Robin Test program aims to establish the influence of the combined wave and current effect on the power capture and performance of a generic tidal turbine prototype. Three facilities offering similar range of experimental conditions have been selected on the basis [...] Read more.
This Round Robin Test program aims to establish the influence of the combined wave and current effect on the power capture and performance of a generic tidal turbine prototype. Three facilities offering similar range of experimental conditions have been selected on the basis that their dimensions along with the rotor diameter of the turbine translate into low blockage ratio conditions. The performance of the turbine shows differences between the facilities up to 25% in terms of average power coefficient, depending on the wave and current cases. To prevent the flow velocity increasing these differences, the turbine performance coefficients have been systematically normalized using a time-average disc-integrated velocity, accounting for vertical gradients over the turbine swept area. Differences linked to blockage effects and turbulence characteristics between facilities are both responsible for 5 to 10% of the power coefficient gaps. The intrinsic differences between the tanks play a significant role as well. A first attempt is given to show how the wave-current interaction effects can be responsible for differences in the turbine performance. In these tanks, the simultaneous generation of wave and current is a key part often producing disruptions in both of these flow characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Renewables–Infrastructures and Physical Testing)
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19 pages, 4764 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Mooring Line Test Procedures through the Application of a Round Robin Test Approach
by Faryal Khalid, Peter Davies, Peter Halswell, Nicolas Lacotte, Philipp R. Thies and Lars Johanning
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(6), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8060436 - 13 Jun 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4486
Abstract
Innovation in materials and test protocols, as well as physical and numerical investigations, is required to address the technical challenges arising due to the novel application of components from conventional industries to the marine renewable energy (MRE) industry. Synthetic fibre ropes, widely used [...] Read more.
Innovation in materials and test protocols, as well as physical and numerical investigations, is required to address the technical challenges arising due to the novel application of components from conventional industries to the marine renewable energy (MRE) industry. Synthetic fibre ropes, widely used for offshore station-keeping, have potential application in the MRE industry to reduce peak mooring line loads. This paper presents the results of a physical characterisation study of a novel hybrid polyester-polyolefin rope for MRE mooring applications through a round robin testing (RRT) approach at two test facilities. The RRT was performed using standard guidelines for offshore mooring lines and the results are verified through the numerical modelling of the rope tensile behaviour. The physical testing provides quantifiable margins for the strength and stiffness properties of the hybrid rope, increases confidence in the test protocols and assesses facility-specific influences on test outcomes. The results indicate that the adopted guidance is suitable for rope testing in mooring applications and there is good agreement between stiffness characterisation at both facilities. Additionally, the numerical model provides a satisfactory prediction of the rope tensile behaviour and it can be used for further parametric studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Renewables–Infrastructures and Physical Testing)
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Review

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24 pages, 420 KiB  
Review
Standardising Marine Renewable Energy Testing: Gap Analysis and Recommendations for Development of Standards
by Donald R. Noble, Michael O’Shea, Frances Judge, Eider Robles, Rodrigo Martinez, Faryal Khalid, Philipp R. Thies, Lars Johanning, Yann Corlay, Roman Gabl, Thomas A. D. Davey, Nithiananthan Vejayan and Jimmy Murphy
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9090971 - 6 Sep 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3408
Abstract
Marine renewable energy (MRE) is still an emerging technology. As such, there is still a lack of mature standards and guidance for the development and testing of these devices. The sector covers a wide range of disciplines, so there is a need for [...] Read more.
Marine renewable energy (MRE) is still an emerging technology. As such, there is still a lack of mature standards and guidance for the development and testing of these devices. The sector covers a wide range of disciplines, so there is a need for more comprehensive guidance to cover these. This paper builds on a study undertaken in the MaRINET2 project to summarise recommendations and guidance for testing MRE devices and components, by reviewing the recently published guidance. Perceived gaps in the guidance are then discussed, expanding on the previous study. Results from an industry survey are also used to help quantify and validate these gaps. The main themes identified can be summarised as: the development progression from concept to commercialisation, including more complex environmental conditions in testing, accurately modelling and quantifying the power generated, including grid integration, plus modelling and testing of novel moorings and foundation solutions. A pathway to a standardised approach to MRE testing is presented, building on recommendations learnt from the MaRINET2 round-robin testing, showing how these recommendations are being incorporated into the guidance and ultimately feeding into the development of international standards for the marine renewable energy sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Renewables–Infrastructures and Physical Testing)
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