Special Issue "Hydrodynamic Circulation Modelling in the Marine Environment"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Oceanography".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 February 2023 | Viewed by 1654

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Yannis Androulidakis
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Maritime Engineering and Maritime Works, Oceanography and Coastal Engineering Group (OCE Group), Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: physical oceanography; ocean circulation; ocean modeling; marine pollution; oil spills; eutrophication; observational studies; satellite oceanography; storm surges; air-sea interactions
Dr. Christos Makris
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Maritime Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: coastal engineering; ocean engineering; ocean modeling; physical oceanography;storm surge modeling; wave modeling; surf zone dynamics; coastal currents;coastal flooding; Lagrangian methods; CFD; LES; SPH; coherent turbulent structures;ocean circulation; ocean forecasts; observational studies; marine water quality; marine pollution modeling; eutrophication; climate change

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Modelling the hydrodynamic circulation in the marine environment is one of the most challenging topics in the marine sciences. Several aspects of the marine environment (e.g., biochemical and geological processes) are strongly determined by the prevailing ocean circulation patterns, and generally by the distribution of physical properties both in the open ocean and in the coastal zone. We are pleased to invite you to share your research in the Special Issue “Hydrodynamic Circulation Modelling in the Marine Environment”.

This Special Issue aims to explore the recent advances in hydrodynamic numerical modelling and discuss how these contribute to the existing knowledge of the ocean dynamics covering small- and large-scale processes under past, current, and future climatic conditions. The marine pollution risks related to industry, urban environment, agriculture, oil drilling, and shipping in tandem with climate change effects require the development of state-of-the-art numerical techniques to simulate the marine environment. Numerical simulations together with field, satellite, and laboratory methods are powerful tools for monitoring and understanding marine processes. Numerical modelling also contributes to the development and testing of the most appropriate management strategies and policies. Coupling techniques between hydrodynamic modelling and biochemical and atmospheric models, and advanced parameterization techniques (air–sea interactions, mixing schemes, nesting approaches, boundary conditions, freshwater fluxes, topography effects, data assimilation methods, etc.) are critical to improve the performance of the numerical simulations and enhance transboundary scientific knowledge. The scope of this Special Issue is to publish articles that illustrate the hydrodynamic circulation modelling capabilities to reproduce realistic conditions and advance our knowledge of the mechanisms that control ocean and coastal dynamics, as well as marine water quality.

In this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews are welcome.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Ioannis Androulidakis
Dr. Christos Makris
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Operational hydrodynamic numerical modelling
  • Coastal, regional, and global circulation processes
  • Modelling of marine pollution
  • Advances in wave-induced circulation modelling and applications
  • Coastal hydrodynamic circulation impact on sediment transport and erosion
  • Storm surge modelling
  • Process-oriented studies of physical processes
  • Coupling between hydrodynamic, biochemical, wave, geological, and meteorological modelling
  • Data assimilation techniques
  • Interaction between physical processes and biochemical phenomena
  • Climate change effects in the marine environment
  • Interaction between drainage, deltaic systems, and marginal seas
  • Lagrangian numerical techniques

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

Article
A High-Resolution Numerical Model of the North Aegean Sea Aimed at Climatological Studies
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(12), 1463; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9121463 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 934
Abstract
A new, high-resolution model for the northern part of the Aegean Sea, aimed primarily at climatological research (relaxation and data assimilation-free climate simulations), is hereby presented, along with the results of a 28-year-long simulation covering the period from 1986 to 2013. The model [...] Read more.
A new, high-resolution model for the northern part of the Aegean Sea, aimed primarily at climatological research (relaxation and data assimilation-free climate simulations), is hereby presented, along with the results of a 28-year-long simulation covering the period from 1986 to 2013. The model applied is the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS). A significant improvement over previous models of the Aegean introduced in this work is the replacement of parameterizations of the Dardanelles exchange by a fully three-dimensional simulation of the flow in the Strait. The incorporation of part of the Marmara Sea in the model domain enables the interaction with other regional climate simulations, thus allowing climatic variability of the exchange of the Mediterranean and Black Seas. An extensive validation is carried out comparing the model output with all the available observations from several different platforms, i.e., satellite sea surface temperature and height, T/S profiles from R/V ships, and HF radar surface currents velocity. We focus on the model’s ability to reproduce, to some extent, the distinct thermohaline features and circulation patterns that characterize this specific area of the Mediterranean Sea. Our findings, after comparing simulation results with all the available observations, revealed the model’s sufficiency to simulate very adequately the complex hydrology of the North Aegean Sea, and the model’s ability to reproduce incidents of deep-water formation that took place in the region in previous decades during the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrodynamic Circulation Modelling in the Marine Environment)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: A High Resolution Numerical Model of the North Aegean Sea Aimed at Climatological Studies
Authors: Ioannis Mamoutos; Elina Tragou; Vassilis Zervakis; Emmanuel Potiris; Stamatios Petalas
Affiliation: 1 Department of Marine Sciences, University of the Aegean, Greece 2 Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Institute of Oceanography, Operational Oceanography Group, Greece
Abstract: A new, high resolution model for the northern part of the Aegean Sea, aimed primarily for climatological research (relaxation and data assimilation-free climate simulations), is hereby presented, along with the results of a 28-year-long simulation covering the period from 1986 to 2013. The model applied is the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS). Another significant improvement over past models of the Aegean, is the replacement of parameterizations of the Dardanelles exchange by full three-dimensional simulation of the flow in the Strait. The incorporation of part of the Marmara Sea in the model domain enables the interaction with other regional climate simulations, thus allowing climatic variability of the exchange of the Mediterranean and Black Seas. An extensive validation is carried out comparing the model’s output with all the available observations from several different platforms i.e. satellite sea surface temperature and height, T/S profiles from R/V ships, HF radar surface currents velocity. We focus on the model’s ability to reproduce to some extent, the distinct thermohaline features and circulation patterns that characterise this specific area of the Mediterranean Sea. Our analysis findings after comparing simulation results with all the available observations, revealed the model’s sufficiency to simulate very adequately the complex hydrology of the North Aegean Sea and also reproduced several incidents of deep water formation that took place in the region the previous decades during the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT).

Title: Simulating the Interconnected Eastern Mediterranean-Black Sea System on Climatic Timescales: A 30-year Realistic Hindcast
Authors: Stamatis Petalas; Vassilis Zervakis
Affiliation: Department of Marine Sciences, University of the Aegean, Greece
Abstract: Long-term simulations of the circulation and hydrological conditions in regions adjacent to Straits connecting two oceanic basins appear to be highly sensitive to the simulated exchanges. This is especially crucial for climate studies, where the variability of the exchanges may exceed recorded or parameterized values; in such studies, a more suitable approach might be the extension of the numerical domain of the simulation to include both oceanic basins as well as the interconnecting Straits. In this study, the Eastern Mediterranean – Black Sea system is simulated for the historical period (1985-2015) using realistic boundary conditions (lateral, atmospheric and hydrological), with a hydrodynamic fully three-dimensional ocean modeling system (ROMS). The domain is comprised of the whole Mediterranean Sea east of Sardinia, the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. A variable cell-size curvilinear grid is used, permitting the high resolution simulation of the exchange in the Turkish Straits, at affordable numerical costs for the whole domain. Atmospheric forcing is provided by the ERA-interim reanalysis dataset, lateral boundary conditions at the western boundary by the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS), while inflow of major rivers is given by the HYPE hydrological model results. The simulation is validated in terms of realistic representation of the general circulation, water-mass properties, and volume exchanges between the two seas, while the variability of the above is assessed for the 30-year hindcast. Comparison of the results with published observational and modeling studies demonstrates that the 30-year integration without data assimilation exhibits a minimal drift, thus providing the confidence required for using the current configuration as a tool for future projections, useful in assessing the impact of various climate scenarios on the system, for similar time scales.

Title: Validation of the surface forcing used for the Copernicus Mediterranean Forecasting Centre
Authors: Georgios V. Kozyrakis; Giorgia Verri; Elena Zhuk; Rita Lecci; Nikolaos A. Kampanis; Giovanni Coppini; George Zodiatis
Affiliation: (1) Coastal & Marine Research Laboratory (CMRL), Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics (IACM), Foundation for Research and Technology – Hellas (FORTH), (2) ORION Research Institution, Nicosia, Cyprus (3) Marine Hydrophysical Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, Russia, (4) Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna, Italy
Abstract: The current study aims at the validation of the European Center of Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data used as surface forcing for the Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Service of the Mediterranean Monitoring and Forecasting Center (CMEMS Med MFC). The main goal is the development of an online calibration/validation system to be implemented by the Mediterranean Monitoring and Forecasting Centre (Med-MFC) using in situ ground observations (NOAA’s ISD/ISH MEteorological Terminal Aviation Routine Weather Report - METAR), remote sensing data, numerical model data and data from sea buoys in the Mediterranean Sea. Five well-established statistical indexes were selected and implemented for validating the ECMWF data used by the Med-MFC: (a) Bias, (b) RMSE, (c) the Nash-Sutcliffe Model Efficiency Coefficient, (d) the Correlation Coefficient and (e) the Precipitation Capture Rate. The current implementation lengthens the validation period, thus further minimizing the statistical uncertainty of previous efforts and rendering the validated results more statistically significant. The aforementioned indexes provide a good correlation estimate between the in-situ observations and the ECMWF predictions in the Mediterranean region and can be useful for further numerical calibration purposes, and in addition the obtained statistical results contribute to increase the confidence to the CMEMS Med MFC ocean forecasts.

Title: Towards a global scale forecast system for sea-level variations due to storm surges and tides in regional and marginal seas
Authors: Makris C.*, Androulidakis Y., Baltikas V., Kontos Y., Karambas T., and Krestenitis Y
Affiliation: Laboratory of Maritime Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 54124, Greece *Corresponding author: [email protected]
Abstract: In this paper, we present the development of a global-scale forecast system for sea-level variations due to the combined action of storm surges and tides in regional and marginal seas. The operational forecast platform is based on a robust numerical model for the simulation of storm surges (HiReSS) in gulfs and coastal areas, inside which large harbours and significant urban port facilities exist. HiReSS is a 2-DH barotropic model for the simulation of hydrodynamic circulation and sea-level variations, based on the depth-averaged shallow water equations. It is applied in large, enclosed, water bodies or semi-enclosed marginal seas, gulfs, bays, and shallow coastal areas over the continental shelf. HiReSS takes into account several processes, such as the inverse barometer effect, shear stresses of wind on the sea surface, Coriolis effects, astronomical tides, ocean bottom friction, turbulence of horizontal eddies, and impact of wave-driven circulation in open seas and nearshore zones. It is implemented in large computational fields, covering e.g., the entire Mediterranean Sea, leading to dynamically downscaled simulations in nested high-resolution coastal domains. HiReSS model results refer to sea surface elevation and depth-averaged currents at 3-hour time intervals for 3-day forecasts, producing 24 representations of storm surge impacts per daily prognostic model implementation. Model outputs are used as input in spectral wave modelling around and inside ports, in the framework of Accu-Waves project (https://accuwaves.eu/). The model is thoroughly validated against field data from in situ tide-gauge observations and satellite altimetry. HiReSS is applied in 11 regions worldwide with complex bathymetries and diverse coastlines that contain more than 30 port facilities with high traffic load and commercial interest. Extreme cases of very high or very low sea levels in port areas are investigated. Operational forecast results are disseminated via a modern web-GIS platform (https://accuwaves.eu/forecast/index.html#). The produced datasets support mooring, navigation, and towage procedures of vessels in commercial ports and harbours, reducing the risk of vessel impact at the bottom.

Title: Numerical simulation of hydrodynamics and sediment transport in the surf and swash zone using OpenFOAM
Authors: I. Kazakis;Th. Karambas
Affiliation: Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Abstract: This study focuses on the numerical investigation of the 3D hydrodynamic processes of coastal zones such as wave breaking, wave-induced currents, and sediment transport, using the multiphase, interfoam solver of OpenFOAM® (a state of the art, open-source CFD numerical tool). The numerical scheme is suitably framed by initial conditions of wave propagation and absorption using the waves2Foam wave library. The turbulence closure problem is handled using a buoyancy modified k-ω SST model. In order to predict the sediment transport rate due to waves and currents (bedload, sheet flow, and suspended load over ripples), a transport rate formula involving unsteady aspects of the sand transport phenomenon is implemented. For the suspended load in the surf zone, the Bailard formula is adopted after considering that the dissipation mechanism is wave breaking. Results concerning wave height, longshore current, turbulence kinetic energy, and sediment transport are compared against experimental data and semi-empirical expressions.

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