Feature Reviews in Marine Science and Engineering

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2020) | Viewed by 42656

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK
Interests: marine biofouling; antifouling; bioadhesion; marine chemical ecology
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Guest Editor
1 Department of Marine Ecological Chemistry, Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany
2 Hochschule Bremerhaven, University of Applied Sciences, Marine Biotechnology, An der Karlstadt 8, D-27568 Bremerhaven, Germany
Interests: marine biogeochemistry; organic matter fluxes; marine ecological chemistry; mass spectrometry
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Guest Editor
Oceans Graduate School & The UWA Oceans Institute, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009, Australia
Interests: coastal oceanography; mixing and circulation; physical processes; coastal observations; numerical modeling; sediment transport; remote sensing; estuaries; nearshore processes
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Guest Editor
Marine Biological Research Center, University of Southern Denmark, Hindsholmvej 11, 5300 Kerteminde, Denmark
Interests: marine bioacoustics; fish and cetacean behaviour; echosounders and sonars
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Guest Editor
1. GNS Science, P.O. Box 30368, Lower Hutt, Wellington, New Zealand
2. Department of Marine Science, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
Interests: paleoceanography; paleoclimatology; marine geology & geophysics; paleomagnetism; physical properties of sediment cores

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In 2020, we are celebrating the recent successes of our Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (JMSE). Established in 2013, over 1100 papers have been published, including 216 in the first three months of this year. In 2018 we received our first impact factor (IF) of 1.732, and will receive our 2019 IF in June. Of course, this success would not have been possible without the support of our authors, peer reviewers, editorial teams, and not least, our readership. To all, we extend a sincere thank you.

We are marking this success with a Special Issue entitled “Feature Reviews in Marine Science and Engineering”. All types of high-quality review, covering topics within the scope of JMSE, will be considered. We kindly encourage colleagues to participate in this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Tony Clare
Prof. Dr. Dong-Sheng Jeng
Prof. Dr. Boris Peter Koch
Prof. Dr. Charitha Pattiaratchi
Prof. Dr. Magnus Wahlberg
Prof. Dr. Gary Wilson
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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26 pages, 6963 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Estuarine Hydrodynamics-Salinity Study: Impact of Morphologic Changes on Ria de Aveiro (Atlantic Coast of Portugal)
by João Miguel Dias, Francisco Pereira, Ana Picado, Carina Lurdes Lopes, João Pedro Pinheiro, Sérgio Miguel Lopes and Paulo Gabriel Pinho
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(2), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020234 - 22 Feb 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3002
Abstract
Shallow coastal lagoons driven by tidal processes are extremely dynamic environments prone to continuous natural and anthropogenic pressures. The hydrodynamics of these systems deeply depends on the effect of local morphology on the tidal propagation, so their permanent evolution constantly changes tidal dependent [...] Read more.
Shallow coastal lagoons driven by tidal processes are extremely dynamic environments prone to continuous natural and anthropogenic pressures. The hydrodynamics of these systems deeply depends on the effect of local morphology on the tidal propagation, so their permanent evolution constantly changes tidal dependent processes. For this reason, the present work aims to review the main characteristics of Ria de Aveiro hydrodynamics, a shallow lagoon located at the Atlantic Coast of Portugal, evaluating its evolution over the last 30 years (between 1987 and 2020) and investigating the main morphological changes in its origin. For this purpose, a comparative analysis is performed to determine the main process, including the observed hydrodynamic changes: Deepening of the inlet channel or of the main lagoon channels. To achieve these goals, the authors explored a remarkable database including bathymetric, tide gauge, and salinity data from 1987 until the present. This analysis is completed by the exploitation of a hydrodynamical model (Delft3D), validated against field data. Several simulations were performed to analyse changes in tidal propagation along the lagoon channels (considering the main semi-diurnal constituent M2), tidal asymmetry, tidal currents, tidal prism, and salinity patterns. The results show that the general deepening of the lagoon observed between 1987 and 2020 led to important changes in the lagoon hydrodynamics, namely the increase/decrease of the M2 constituent amplitude/phase, as well as the increase of tidal currents and salt intrusion within the entire lagoon, with the changes being amplified towards the head of the main channels. Although the inlet deepening partially contributed to the modifications found, the results revealed that the deepening of the main lagoon channels had the most significant contribution to the changes observed during the last 30 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Reviews in Marine Science and Engineering)
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Review

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24 pages, 17613 KiB  
Review
Advances in Reconfigurable Vectorial Thrusters for Adaptive Underwater Robots
by Henrique Fagundes Gasparoto, Olivier Chocron, Mohamed Benbouzid and Pablo Siqueira Meirelles
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(2), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020170 - 07 Feb 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 6288
Abstract
Manoeuvrability is one of the essential keys in the development of improved autonomous underwater vehicles for challenging missions. In the last years, more researches were dedicated to the development of new hulls shapes and thrusters to assure more manoeuvrability. The present review explores [...] Read more.
Manoeuvrability is one of the essential keys in the development of improved autonomous underwater vehicles for challenging missions. In the last years, more researches were dedicated to the development of new hulls shapes and thrusters to assure more manoeuvrability. The present review explores various enabling technologies used to implement the vectorial thrusters (VT), based on water-jet or propellers. The proposals are analysed in terms of added degrees of freedom, mechanisms, number of necessary actuators, water-tightness, electromagnetomechanical complexity, feasibility, etc. The usage of magnetic coupling thrusters (conventional or reconfigurable) is analysed in details since they can assure the development of competitive full waterproof reconfigurable thrusters, which is a frictionless, flexible, safe, and low-maintenance solution. The current limitations (as for instance the use of non conductive hull) are discussed and ideas are proposed for the improvement of this new generation of underwater thrusters, as extending the magnetic coupling usage to obtain a fully contactless vector thrust transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Reviews in Marine Science and Engineering)
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14 pages, 3651 KiB  
Review
Abundance and Distribution of Cigarette Butts on Coastal Environments: Examples from Southern Spain
by Francisco Asensio-Montesinos, Milagrosa Oliva Ramírez, María Teresa Aguilar-Torrelo and Giorgio Anfuso
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(2), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020129 - 27 Jan 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2860
Abstract
Litter on beaches is one of the most difficult problems in coastal management and every year, much efforts and public money are invested to try to alleviate and solve the problem. Cigarette butts (CB) are among the most widespread abandoned personal items in [...] Read more.
Litter on beaches is one of the most difficult problems in coastal management and every year, much efforts and public money are invested to try to alleviate and solve the problem. Cigarette butts (CB) are among the most widespread abandoned personal items in the world. In Spain, they are found on all types of beaches, where they are discarded by beach users; however, rivers and streams can also deposit CB on shores. This paper analyses the abundance of CB on different beaches in Southern Spain in order to address and better understand this relevant environmental problem and propose sound solutions to decrease or eliminate their presence. The main factors favouring CB accumulation were identified, namely the seasonality and number of beach users, beach typology (remote, rural, village or urban sites), type of beach sediment and methods and frequency of cleaning operations. Mean and median CB abundance values per 100 m of beach length, calculated from all the data used in this study, were 159 and 68 items, respectively. The largest number of CB were observed at urban sites, followed by village, rural and remote beaches. Further, sand beaches registered higher values of CB than cobble or pebble beaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Reviews in Marine Science and Engineering)
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29 pages, 1487 KiB  
Review
Coastal Sensitivity/Vulnerability Characterization and Adaptation Strategies: A Review
by Giorgio Anfuso, Matteo Postacchini, Diana Di Luccio and Guido Benassai
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9010072 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 58 | Viewed by 7008
Abstract
Coastal area constitutes a vulnerable environment and requires special attention to preserve ecosystems and human activities therein. To this aim, many studies have been devoted both in past and recent years to analyzing the main factors affecting coastal vulnerability and susceptibility. Among the [...] Read more.
Coastal area constitutes a vulnerable environment and requires special attention to preserve ecosystems and human activities therein. To this aim, many studies have been devoted both in past and recent years to analyzing the main factors affecting coastal vulnerability and susceptibility. Among the most used approaches, the Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) accounts for all relevant variables that characterize the coastal environment dealing with: (i) forcing actions (waves, tidal range, sea-level rise, etc.), (ii) morphological characteristics (geomorphology, foreshore slope, dune features, etc.), (iii) socio-economic, ecological and cultural aspects (tourism activities, natural habitats, etc.). Each variable is evaluated at each portion of the investigated coast, and associated with a vulnerability level which usually ranges from 1 (very low vulnerability), to 5 (very high vulnerability). Following a susceptibility/vulnerability analysis of a coastal stretch, specific strategies must be chosen and implemented to favor coastal resilience and adaptation, spanning from hard solutions (e.g., groins, breakwaters, etc.) to soft solutions (e.g., beach and dune nourishment projects), to the relocation option and the establishment of accommodation strategies (e.g., emergency preparedness). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Reviews in Marine Science and Engineering)
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36 pages, 8413 KiB  
Review
Buoyant Jets in Cross-Flows: Review, Developments, and Applications
by Mostafa Taherian and Abdolmajid Mohammadian
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9010061 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4293
Abstract
Significant environmental effects from the use of marine outfall discharges have led to increased efforts by both regulatory bodies and research groups to minimize the negative impacts of discharges on the receiving water bodies. Understanding the characteristics of discharges under conditions representative of [...] Read more.
Significant environmental effects from the use of marine outfall discharges have led to increased efforts by both regulatory bodies and research groups to minimize the negative impacts of discharges on the receiving water bodies. Understanding the characteristics of discharges under conditions representative of marine environments can enhance the management of discharges and mitigate the adverse impacts to marine biota. Thus, special attention should be given to ambient cross-flow effects on the mixing behaviors of jet discharges. A buoyant jet in cross-flow has different practical applications such as film cooling and dilution, and provide a higher mixing capability in comparison with free jets or discharges into stationary environments. The main reason for this is believed to be the existence of various complicated vortical structures including a counter-rotating vortex pair as the jet expands downstream. Although tremendous research efforts have been devoted to buoyant jets issuing into cross-flows over the past five decades, the mixing process of an effluent at the discharge point is not yet well understood because of the highly complex fluid interactions and dispersion patterns involved. Therefore, there is a need for a deeper understanding of buoyant jets in cross-flows in order to obtain better predictive methods and more accurate design guidelines. The main aims of this study were (i) to establish the background behind the subject of buoyant jets in cross-flows including the flow structures resulting from the interaction of jets and cross-flows and the impacts of current on mixing and transport behavior; (ii) to present a summary of relevant experimental and numerical research efforts; and finally, (iii) to identify and discuss research gaps and future research directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Reviews in Marine Science and Engineering)
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21 pages, 1138 KiB  
Review
Carbon Balance in Salt Marsh and Mangrove Ecosystems: A Global Synthesis
by Daniel M. Alongi
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(10), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8100767 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 100 | Viewed by 12410
Abstract
Mangroves and salt marshes are among the most productive ecosystems in the global coastal ocean. Mangroves store more carbon (739 Mg CORG ha−1) than salt marshes (334 Mg CORG ha−1), but the latter sequester proportionally more (24%) [...] Read more.
Mangroves and salt marshes are among the most productive ecosystems in the global coastal ocean. Mangroves store more carbon (739 Mg CORG ha−1) than salt marshes (334 Mg CORG ha−1), but the latter sequester proportionally more (24%) net primary production (NPP) than mangroves (12%). Mangroves exhibit greater rates of gross primary production (GPP), aboveground net primary production (AGNPP) and plant respiration (RC), with higher PGPP/RC ratios, but salt marshes exhibit greater rates of below-ground NPP (BGNPP). Mangroves have greater rates of subsurface DIC production and, unlike salt marshes, exhibit active microbial decomposition to a soil depth of 1 m. Salt marshes release more CH4 from soil and creek waters and export more dissolved CH4, but mangroves release more CO2 from tidal waters and export greater amounts of particulate organic carbon (POC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), to adjacent waters. Both ecosystems contribute only a small proportion of GPP, RE (ecosystem respiration) and NEP (net ecosystem production) to the global coastal ocean due to their small global area, but contribute 72% of air–sea CO2 exchange of the world’s wetlands and estuaries and contribute 34% of DIC export and 17% of DOC + POC export to the world’s coastal ocean. Thus, both wetland ecosystems contribute disproportionately to carbon flow of the global coastal ocean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Reviews in Marine Science and Engineering)
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25 pages, 6568 KiB  
Review
Reconfiguring Passenger Ship Internal Environment for Damage Stability Enhancement
by Dracos Vassalos and Donald Paterson
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(9), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8090693 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3215
Abstract
The traditional risk control option adopted in naval architecture to meet safety-related objectives is by regulations, targeting damage limitation, nominally instigated in the wake of maritime accidents claiming heavy loss of life. These primarily concern the introduction of watertight bulkheads, i.e., permanent (passive) [...] Read more.
The traditional risk control option adopted in naval architecture to meet safety-related objectives is by regulations, targeting damage limitation, nominally instigated in the wake of maritime accidents claiming heavy loss of life. These primarily concern the introduction of watertight bulkheads, i.e., permanent (passive) reconfiguration of the internal ship environment to enhance damage stability. This has been the most common measure, manifesting itself in the wake of every serious flooding accident since the beginning, back in the 19th century. However, traditional flooding protection through watertight subdivision, to an extent dictated by IMO regulations, has a physical limit which, if exceeded, a safety plateau is reached. This is currently the case and with damage stability standards progressively increasing, the safety gap between existing and new ships is dangerously widening and with design stability margins progressively eroding, stability management is unsustainable, leading to loss of earnings at best. The need for managing the residual risk through active intervention/protection over the life-cycle of the vessel drives industry to searching and adopting a new normal. This new normal is the innovation being explained in this paper by addressing safety enchantment through a systematic reconfiguration of the ship environment for passive and active protection in flooding accidents. In this respect, the “design-optimal” internal arrangement of a vessel, is adapted and reconfigured, using passive and active containment systems for flooding incidents, in the form of high-expansion foam products. The innovation is briefly explained, claiming transformational reduction in flooding risk in the most cost-effective way available. To support wider understanding and appreciation for the latter, the paper critically reviews the whole evolution of internal ship space reconfiguration, chronologically and systematically, concluding that new technological developments and breakthroughs will bring sustainable changes to the traditional evolutionary maritime safety enhancement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Reviews in Marine Science and Engineering)
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18 pages, 1426 KiB  
Review
The Evolution and Outcomes of a Collaborative Testbed for Predicting Coastal Threats
by Charles Reid Nichols and Lynn Donelson Wright
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(8), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8080612 - 16 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2233
Abstract
Beginning in 2003, the Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA) enabled an open-access network of distributed sensors and linked computer models through the SURA Coastal Ocean Observing and Predicting (SCOOP) program. The goal was to support collaborations among universities, government, and industry to advance [...] Read more.
Beginning in 2003, the Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA) enabled an open-access network of distributed sensors and linked computer models through the SURA Coastal Ocean Observing and Predicting (SCOOP) program. The goal was to support collaborations among universities, government, and industry to advance integrated observation and modeling systems. SCOOP improved the path to operational real-time data-guided predictions and forecasts of coastal ocean processes. This was critical to the maritime infrastructure of the U.S. and to the well-being of coastal communities. SCOOP integrated and expanded observations from the Gulf of Mexico, the South Atlantic Bight, the Middle Atlantic Bight, and the Chesapeake Bay. From these successes, a Coastal and Ocean Modeling Testbed (COMT) evolved with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) funding via the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) to facilitate the transition of key models from research to operations. Since 2010, COMT has been a conduit between the research community and the federal government for sharing and improving models and software tools. SCOOP and COMT have been based on strong partnerships among universities and U.S. agencies that have missions in ocean and coastal environmental prediction. During SURA’s COMT project, which ended September 2018, significant progress was made in evaluating the performance of models that are progressively becoming operational. COMT successes are ongoing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Reviews in Marine Science and Engineering)
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