Special Issue "Selected Papers from the Spanish Days of Ports and Coasts"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Coastal Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. M. Esther Gómez-Martín
Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Ports and Coasts, Institute of Transport and Territory, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain
Interests: civil engineering; coastal engineering; wave hydrodynamics; physical modelling; ports; breakwaters

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 15th conference of Spanish Days of Ports and Coasts Engineering provides a stimulating and enriching forum for coastal engineers and scientists to discuss the latest developments in marine and coastal technology, combining practical application with technological and scientific achievements, on the following conference themes:

Wave climate and physical oceanography;

Environment, discharges, and coastal water quality;

Coastal, harbor, and offshore structures;

Coastal processes and shore protection;

Integrated coastal management;

Climate change and coastal flood and erosion risk;

Port planning and management;

Marine spatial planning and European marine strategy.

This Special Issue presents a selection of papers from the conference. The papers give insight into the theoretical and practical aspects related to coastal and ocean engineering. Coastal and ocean structures, breakwaters, revetments, coastal field measurement and monitoring, combined physical and numerical modelling, port planning and management, integrated coastal management, climate change, tsunamis, and coastal hydrodynamics are the main topics covered in this Special Issue.

Dr. M. Esther Gómez-Martín
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Coastal and ocean structures
  • Physical modelling
  • Numerical modelling
  • Case studies
  • Wave climate
  • Coastal water quality
  • Integrated coastal management
  • Climate change
  • Coastal flood and erosion risk
  • Port planning and management
  • Marine spatial planning
  • European marine strategy

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Approaching Software Engineering for Marine Sciences: A Single Development Process for Multiple End-User Applications
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(5), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8050350 - 14 May 2020
Abstract
Research software is currently used by a large number of scientists on a daily basis, and everything indicates that this trend will continue to increase in the future. Most of this scientific software is very often developed by the researchers themselves, who usually [...] Read more.
Research software is currently used by a large number of scientists on a daily basis, and everything indicates that this trend will continue to increase in the future. Most of this scientific software is very often developed by the researchers themselves, who usually make it available to the rest of the scientific community. Although the relationship between science and software is unquestionably useful, it is not always successful. Some of the critical problems that scientists face include a lack of training in software development, a shortage of time and resources, or difficulty in effectively cooperating with other colleagues. Additional challenges arise in the context of increasingly common cross-cutting and multidisciplinary research. This often results in the developed software and code being slow, not reusable, lacks visibility and dissemination, and in the worst cases it is defective and unreliable. Therefore, a multidisciplinary framework is needed to meet the demands of both scientists and software engineers and handle the situation successfully. However, a multidisciplinary team is not always sufficient to solve this problem, and it is necessary to have links between scientists and developers: software engineers with a solid scientific background. This paper presents the approach used in the framework of the PROTOCOL project, and more particularly in the development of its applied software, in which a tool for the characterization of climate agents has been developed. The main guidelines of the development process include, among others, modularity, distributed control version, unit testing, profiling, inline documentation and the use of best practices and tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Spanish Days of Ports and Coasts)
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Open AccessArticle
A Design Parameter for Reef Beach Profiles—A Methodology Applied to Cadiz, Spain
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(5), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8050323 - 01 May 2020
Abstract
The southwestern coast of Spain is in a tidal zone (mesotidal) which causes the equilibrium profile to be developed in two different sections: the breakage section and the swash section. These two sections give rise to the typical bi-parabolic profile existing in tidal [...] Read more.
The southwestern coast of Spain is in a tidal zone (mesotidal) which causes the equilibrium profile to be developed in two different sections: the breakage section and the swash section. These two sections give rise to the typical bi-parabolic profile existing in tidal seas. The existence of areas with reefs/rocks which interrupt the normal development of the typical bi-parabolic profile causes different types of beach profiles. The objective of this article is designing an easy methodology for determining new formulations for the design parameters of the equilibrium profile of beaches with reefs in tidal seas. These formulations are applied on 16 profiles to quantify the error between the real profile data and the modelling results. A comparative analysis is extended to the formulations proposed by other authors, from which it is found that better results are obtained with the new formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Spanish Days of Ports and Coasts)
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Open AccessArticle
Wave Breaker Types on a Smooth and Impermeable 1:10 Slope
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(4), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8040296 - 23 Apr 2020
Abstract
This research identified the types of wave breaker on a non-overtoppable, smooth and impermeable 1:10 slope under regular waves. Experimental tests were carried out in the Atmosphere-Ocean Interaction Flume of the Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research (University of Granada). Using the experimental [...] Read more.
This research identified the types of wave breaker on a non-overtoppable, smooth and impermeable 1:10 slope under regular waves. Experimental tests were carried out in the Atmosphere-Ocean Interaction Flume of the Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research (University of Granada). Using the experimental space [log(h/L)–log(H/L)] and the alternate slope similarity parameter [χ = log (h/L H/L)], a complete set of breaker types was identified. Four types of wave breaker were then added to Galvin’s classification. Our results showed that the value of the Iribarren number was not sufficient to predict the expected type of wave breaker on the slope. Except for spilling and early plunging breakers, no biunivocal relationship was found between Ir and the type of breaker. The data obtained in the physical model were further enriched with the results of the flow characteristics and the wave energy transformation coefficients obtained with the IH-2VOF numerical model on a 1:10 impermeable slope. This research study, presented in this paper, showed that the Iribarren number is not a convenient wave breaking similarity parameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Spanish Days of Ports and Coasts)
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Open AccessArticle
Environmental Management System for the Analysis of Oil Spill Risk Using Probabilistic Simulations. Application at Tarragona Monobuoy
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(4), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8040277 - 12 Apr 2020
Abstract
Oil spill accidents during port operations are one of the main hydrocarbon pollution threats for coastal waters. Appropriate environmental risk assessment and pollution events management tools are needed to achieve sustainability and environmental protection in port activity. Recent developments in monitoring techniques and [...] Read more.
Oil spill accidents during port operations are one of the main hydrocarbon pollution threats for coastal waters. Appropriate environmental risk assessment and pollution events management tools are needed to achieve sustainability and environmental protection in port activity. Recent developments in monitoring techniques and accurate meteo-oceanographic prediction systems have been implemented in many ports, providing tools for environmental management. A novel method based on meteo-oceanographic operational services, in conjunction with Monte Carlo experiments using an oil spill model, is implemented to perform probabilistic maps of potential pollution events. Tarragona port area was chosen as the study case for three reasons: it accommodates a hub of petrochemical industry, the availability of high-resolution wind and water current data, and previous studies at the area offer the possibility to check the results’ accuracy. The interpretation of the impact probability maps reveals a specific pattern explained by the mean hydrodynamic conditions and the energetic north-westerly wind conditions. The impact probability maps may enhance efficiency in the environmental management of port waters and nearby coastal areas, reducing the negative impact of pollutant discharges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Spanish Days of Ports and Coasts)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Study of Wave Forces on Crown Walls of Mound Breakwaters with Parapets
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(4), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8040276 - 11 Apr 2020
Abstract
The influence of parapets on crown walls of mound breakwaters on wave forces has not been extensively analyzed in the literature. In this study, numerical experiments were carried out using the open-source platform OpenFOAM® to evaluate the influence of nine crown wall [...] Read more.
The influence of parapets on crown walls of mound breakwaters on wave forces has not been extensively analyzed in the literature. In this study, numerical experiments were carried out using the open-source platform OpenFOAM® to evaluate the influence of nine crown wall geometries with and without parapets. The OpenFOAM® model was validated with laboratory experiments. Dimensionless horizontal forces and overturning moments due to horizontal forces increase when there is a parapet. Dimensionless up-lift forces provide similar results, regardless of the existence of a parapet. Crown walls with parapets increase the horizontal wave forces and overturning moments due to horizontal wave forces by a factor of two. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Spanish Days of Ports and Coasts)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing Operability on Berthed Ships. Common Approaches, Present and Future Lines
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(4), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8040255 - 04 Apr 2020
Abstract
The revenue of a ship company, a terminal, a port and even the whole logistic chain largely depends on the performance of (un)loading operations inside port areas. However, they are conditioned by met-ocean agents that exert stresses on fixed structures, berthed ships and [...] Read more.
The revenue of a ship company, a terminal, a port and even the whole logistic chain largely depends on the performance of (un)loading operations inside port areas. However, they are conditioned by met-ocean agents that exert stresses on fixed structures, berthed ships and mooring systems that can affect the comfort, productivity and safety of the operations. Under extreme conditions, operations may be interrupted, producing periods of inactivity, economic losses and even jeopardizing the terminal’s reliability. Therefore, it is crucial to develop strategies for characterizing and predicting operability in docks and anchorages. The present paper aims to assess the main approaches up to date to address the operability on berthed ships and to explore present and future strategies. To accomplish this, main factors affecting the operability are reviewed and different methodologies for the characterization and calculation of operability are detailed, together with some results regarding the perception of vulnerability from the Spanish port community. Rather than aiming for generic mono-parametric thresholds, the results highlight the need for addressing this challenge in a specific way for each dock and anchorage, broadening field monitoring and considering the varied peculiarities and the specific perception and experience of main port’s actors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Spanish Days of Ports and Coasts)
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Open AccessArticle
Consequences of Anthropic Actions in Cullera Bay (Spain)
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(4), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8040240 - 01 Apr 2020
Abstract
Urbanization and anthropogenic activities have generated significant imbalances in coastal areas. This study analysed the shoreline evolution of the Bay of Cullera (Spain), characterized by strong urban and tourist pressure and with important human interventions during the last century. The evolution of the [...] Read more.
Urbanization and anthropogenic activities have generated significant imbalances in coastal areas. This study analysed the shoreline evolution of the Bay of Cullera (Spain), characterized by strong urban and tourist pressure and with important human interventions during the last century. The evolution of the shoreline was analysed using 60 years of aerial images since the 1950s of the seabed, the maritime climate and the distribution of sediment, as well as anthropogenic actions, such as urban development or the channelling of the Júcar River through the integration of information in a geographical information system (GIS). The results showed: (i) Changes in land-use, in which the substitution of the crop and mountain areas by urban areas was mainly observed. (ii) A general increase in the beach area, although there were important periods of erosion in some points due to anthropic actions. (iii) A significant decrease in the median sediment size in the whole bay since 1987, with a current D50 of 0.125–0.180 mm. The analysis carried out has made it possible to identify trends in coastal accumulation and regression in the different sections of the sector, as well as to demonstrate the usefulness and advantages of GIS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Spanish Days of Ports and Coasts)
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Open AccessArticle
Bulk Wave Dissipation in the Armor Layer of Slope Rock and Cube Armored Breakwaters
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(3), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8030152 - 26 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The objective of this research is to analyze the interaction of the incident wave train with a mound breakwater (specifically, dissipation in the armor layer) and to quantify the performance of the structure built with different types and sizes of armor units. The [...] Read more.
The objective of this research is to analyze the interaction of the incident wave train with a mound breakwater (specifically, dissipation in the armor layer) and to quantify the performance of the structure built with different types and sizes of armor units. The generalized Π -Buckingham theorem is invoked to choose a complete set of independent variables that govern the principal interaction processes. The analysis is based on two sets of experimental data obtained in the wave flume of IISTA, University of Granada, and in the wave flume of Aalborg University. The bulk dissipation depends on the product of the relative water depth and the incident wave steepness, (h/L)(HI/L), the relative size of the armor diameter, Da/HI, the relative thickness, e/L, the shape and specific placement criterion, the characteristics of the porous core, B*/L, D50,p/L, and the slope angle of the breakwater. For a given breakwater, the product of (h/L)(HI/L) can be used to identify and quantify three hydrodynamic performance regimes: reflective, dissipative and transitional, based on the prevalent interaction processes. Moreover, the dimensional analysis provides a functional relationship between the stability parameter and the bulk dissipation. For two mound breakwaters, one built with cubes of Da=49.6 mm and the other one with rocks of Da=44.0 mm, the bulk dissipation is almost similar over the entire range of (h/L)(HI/L). These results could be useful for the assimilation of data obtained in different wave flumes, the optimization of the breakwater design and to revise the notional permeability parameter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Spanish Days of Ports and Coasts)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Influence of Mild Bottom Slopes on the Overtopping Flow over Mound Breakwaters under Depth-Limited Breaking Wave Conditions
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8010003 - 19 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The crest elevation of mound breakwaters is usually designed considering a tolerable mean wave overtopping discharge. However, pedestrian safety, characterized by the overtopping layer thickness (OLT) and the overtopping flow velocity (OFV), is becoming more relevant due to the reduction of the crest [...] Read more.
The crest elevation of mound breakwaters is usually designed considering a tolerable mean wave overtopping discharge. However, pedestrian safety, characterized by the overtopping layer thickness (OLT) and the overtopping flow velocity (OFV), is becoming more relevant due to the reduction of the crest freeboards of coastal structures. Studies in the literature focusing on OLT and OFV do not consider the bottom slope effect, even if it has a remarkable impact on mound breakwater design under depth-limited breaking wave conditions. Therefore, this research focuses on the influence of the bottom slope on OLT and OFV exceeded by 2% of incoming waves, hc,2% and uc,2%. A total of 235 2D physical tests were conducted on conventional mound breakwaters with a single-layer Cubipod® and double-layer rock and cube armors with 2% and 4% bottom slopes. Neural networks were used to determine the optimum point to estimate wave characteristics for hc,2% and uc,2% calculation; that point was located at a distance from the model toe of three times the water depth at the toe (hs) of the structure. The influence of the bottom slope is studied using trained neural networks with fixed wave conditions in the wave generation zone; hc,2% slightly decreases and uc,2% increases as the gradient of the bottom slope increases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Spanish Days of Ports and Coasts)
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