Underwater Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks Technology

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Ocean Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 April 2023) | Viewed by 15738

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Electronics and Information Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Republic of Korea
Interests: wireless communications; network information theory; internet of things; green communication; sustainable cellular networks
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the industrial, military, and scientific world, the development of efficient and robust wireless communication links is of enormous importance. In this context, underwater wireless communication (UWC) has received renewed interest worldwide, because of its low power consumption, cost-effectiveness, low latency, compact antennas, and high bandwidth. It has become vital in numerous burgeoning applications and verticals, including real-time video transmission, telemetry, disaster prevention, surveillance environment, offshore exploration, and oceanographic studies. In the underwater environment, wireless communication has proven its stature as being more competitive than its acoustic and radio frequency (RF) counterparts. By leveraging the low-absorption window of seawater in the blue–green spectrum region, optical signals have the potential to transmit several tons in general waters. Moreover, a UWC network can be established through optical links, to further mature this technology by enhancing the flexibility, reliability, robustness, and transmission range. The ongoing developments in UWC pave the way to construct the next-generation high-performance Internet of Underwater Things (IoUT). Despite these tremendous benefits, the harsh underwater environment poses natural obstacles to optical signals, even at the right wavelengths. Thus, more research focus has been devoted to this challenging domain, resulting in impressive progress.

It is worth noting that the limited directivity and communication range of UWCs yield limited network coverage, and therefore implementing real-life UWC necessitates a proper network architecture and associated protocols. Therefore, this Special Issue aims to provide a forum to bring together the latest research innovations from both practitioners and leading researchers from diverse fields to stimulate further advancements and unlock novel applications, explore recent breakthroughs, and address the major technical uncertainties of UWC systems. We invite prospective authors to contribute articles of high-quality scientific research empowered by theoretical and experimental demonstrations of UWC. The key focus of this feature topic is to cover the most recent multidisciplinary advances and bridge the gap between theory, practice in design and applications while tailoring UWC to integrate other promising technologies. This Special Issue invites researchers to submit original research articles, and also encourages the submission of surveys or reviews regarding the current state-of-the-art in UWC. The scope of this issue may include, but is not limited to:

  • The Internet of Underwater Things;
  • Optical camera communication;
  • Underwater optical wireless sensor networks;
  • Underwater optical wireless hybrid networks;
  • Beam steering and tracking for UOWC;
  • Novel, smart, and energy-efficient transmitter/receiver design for UOWC;
  • Reliable and self-powered network solutions;
  • Vertical UOWC links;
  • UOWC-assisted multimedia transmission;
  • UOWC channel modeling and characterization;
  • Network routing and channel estimation;
  • Modulation schemes for UOWC;
  • UOWC positioning and localization;
  • Alignment mitigation techniques;
  • Multiple access techniques;
  • Advanced signal processing;
  • Machine learning-based physical layer solutions;
  • Networking and security challenges;

Dr. Syed Agha Hassnain Mohsan
Dr. Mohammed H. Alsharif
Dr. Khaled Rabie
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • UOWC
  • internet of underwater things
  • channel modeling
  • modulation schemes
  • security challenges

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 164 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial for the Special Issue on Underwater Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks Technology
by Syed Agha Hassnain Mohsan
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(10), 1977; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11101977 - 12 Oct 2023
Viewed by 792
Abstract
In the scientific, military, and industrial world, the deployment of robust, reliable, secure, and efficient wireless communication links is of particular importance [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks Technology)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

14 pages, 3700 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Diversity Algorithm Based on Block STBC for Massive MIMO Link Misalignment in UWOC Systems
by Yanlong Li, Kongliang Zhu, Yutong Jiang, Syed Agha Hassnain Mohsan, Xiao Chen and Shuaixing Li
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(4), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11040772 - 1 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1386
Abstract
In the past few years, underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) has become a promising wireless communication technology in the underwater environment. Aiming at the problem formulation of sub-channel correlation enhancement occurring due to the joint impact of underwater link misalignment and turbulence in [...] Read more.
In the past few years, underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) has become a promising wireless communication technology in the underwater environment. Aiming at the problem formulation of sub-channel correlation enhancement occurring due to the joint impact of underwater link misalignment and turbulence in the process of optical signal transmission in an underwater optical massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system, we propose an adaptive diversity approach depending on partition space time block code (STBC). STBC technology is used to reduce the random fading of optical signals caused by turbulence. At the same time, the channel correlation occurring due to channel misalignment is effectively alleviated by adaptive processing. The adaptive diversity algorithm based on segmented STBC effectively improves the reliability and decrease complexity of underwater optical Massive MIMO communication systems. It determines the particular link misalignment degree by the channel gain matrix obtained from the channel estimation and selects different combinations of detectors according to the degree of misalignment to obtain the maximum gain of the received signal combination. Compared with the chunking scheme, simulation and result shows that the adaptive diversity algorithm improves the tolerance of the system to the link misalignment error from 30 mm to 60 mm under the same condition number of channel gain matrix, and it can still demodulate the source signal directly without requiring detection algorithm in case of a large error in the link misalignment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks Technology)
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16 pages, 1018 KiB  
Article
Channel Model and Signal-Detection Algorithm for the Combined Effects of Turbulence and Link Misalignment in Underwater Optical Massive MIMO Systems
by Jielin Fu, Kongliang Zhu, Syed Agha Hassnain Mohsan and Yanlong Li
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(3), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11030547 - 3 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1684
Abstract
In recent years, underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) has become a potential wireless carrier candidate for signal transmission in water mediums such as oceans. Underwater signal transmission is impaired by several challenges such as turbulence, scattering, attenuation, and misalignment. In this paper, we [...] Read more.
In recent years, underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) has become a potential wireless carrier candidate for signal transmission in water mediums such as oceans. Underwater signal transmission is impaired by several challenges such as turbulence, scattering, attenuation, and misalignment. In this paper, we propose an improved-order successive interference cancellation (I-OSIC) algorithm based on partition space–time block coding (STBC) technology to solve the sub-channel correlation enhancement problem, which is caused by the combined effects of turbulence and link misalignment in the underwater optical massive multiple-input multiple-output (massive MIMO) systems. The partition STBC technology can make the encoded symbols orthogonality of space and time resist random fading under turbulence environments and fully use the communication link of the massive MIMO system. Under link misalignment conditions, the receiver detector will receive multiple beams. The proposed I-OSIC algorithm based on partition STBC can precisely track the degree of link misalignment error and reorder receiver signals based on the minimum interference criterion. It can use the channel matrix to estimate the interference magnitude of the link misalignment, and then eliminate the interference successively by demodulating the least interfered signal first. When the link misalignment error is large, the I-OSIC algorithm can provide a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain of about 3 dB and provides the same error performance compared with the successive interference cancellation algorithm based on the received signal power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks Technology)
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22 pages, 4483 KiB  
Article
Architectural Framework for Underwater IoT: Forecasting System for Analyzing Oceanographic Data and Observing the Environment
by Abdul Razzaq, Syed Agha Hassnain Mohsan, Yanlong Li and Mohammed H. Alsharif
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(2), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11020368 - 7 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2040
Abstract
With the passage of time, the exploitation of Internet of Things (IoT) sensors and devices has become more complicated. The Internet of Underwater Things (IoUT) is a subset of the IoT in which underwater sensors are used to continually collect data about ocean [...] Read more.
With the passage of time, the exploitation of Internet of Things (IoT) sensors and devices has become more complicated. The Internet of Underwater Things (IoUT) is a subset of the IoT in which underwater sensors are used to continually collect data about ocean ecosystems. Predictive analytics can offer useful insights to the stakeholders associated with environmentalists, marine explorers, and oceanographers for decision-making and intelligence about the ocean, when applied to context-sensitive information, gathered from marine data. This study presents an architectural framework along with algorithms as a realistic solution to design and develop an IoUT system to excel in the data state of the practice. It also includes recommendations and forecasting for potential partners in the smart ocean, which assist in monitoring and environmental protection. A case study is implemented which addresses the solution’s usability and agility to efficiently exploit sensor data, executes the algorithms, and queries the output to assess performance. The number of trails is performed for data insights for the 60-day collection of sensor data. In the context of the smart ocean, the architectural design innovative ideas and viable approaches can be taken into consideration to develop and validate present and next-generation IoUTs and are simplified in this solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks Technology)
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13 pages, 4626 KiB  
Article
Channel Polarization Scheme for Ocean Turbulence Channels in Underwater Visible Light Communication
by Xiaoji Li, Leiming Sun, Jiemei Huang and Fanze Zeng
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(2), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11020341 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1424
Abstract
Underwater wireless communication technology plays an important role in marine environment monitoring and ecological protection. Underwater optical wireless communications (UWOCs) can currently achieve a transmission distance of hundreds of meters, and the rate can reach hundreds of Mbps or even Gbps, with low [...] Read more.
Underwater wireless communication technology plays an important role in marine environment monitoring and ecological protection. Underwater optical wireless communications (UWOCs) can currently achieve a transmission distance of hundreds of meters, and the rate can reach hundreds of Mbps or even Gbps, with low power consumption and high-speed features. In addition, UWOC also has the advantages of a small transceiver size and strong anti-electromagnetic interference ability, which is especially suitable for scenarios where underwater volume and power consumption are relatively limited. However, UWOC systems face problems such as unstable transceiver ends, ocean turbulence, and so on, resulting in reduced communication reliability and limited transmission distance. Establishing a stable and reliable communication link is critical to extending the communication distance of the UWOC system. In this paper, a model of ocean turbulence channels is established based on the power spectrum inversion method. The transmission characteristics of orbital angular momentum (OAM) light in an ocean turbulence channel are studied, then the mode selection of OAM light is determined. At the same time, the polarization coding technique is applied to the underwater OAM communication system for the first time. The simulation results show that this scheme can effectively extend the communication distance and reduce the system bit error rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks Technology)
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12 pages, 6055 KiB  
Article
Multi-Degree-of-Freedom for Underwater Optical Wireless Communication with Improved Transmission Performance
by Anliang Liu, Ruolin Zhang, Bin Lin and Hongxi Yin
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11010048 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2078
Abstract
Underwater optical wireless communication (UOWC) has great potential to provide high-speed and intensive communications over short ranges underwater. However, the mobility of the UOWC system is limited by the strict alignment requirements between the transceivers. In this paper, a multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) UOWC system [...] Read more.
Underwater optical wireless communication (UOWC) has great potential to provide high-speed and intensive communications over short ranges underwater. However, the mobility of the UOWC system is limited by the strict alignment requirements between the transceivers. In this paper, a multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) UOWC system with high flexibility and improved transmission performance is proposed and experimentally demonstrated based on the off-the-shelf light-emitting diode (LED) source. A hardware pre-equalization circuit is employed at the transmitter to extend the modulation bandwidth from 5.03 MHz to 50 MHz. At the receiving end, a Fresnel lens array is constructed to achieve efficient convergence of multiple incident optical signals from different directions. To improve the underwater signal transmission quality, we designed an additional digital signal recovery module after the trans-impedance amplifier. Finally, an experimental system is established with a 460 nm blue LED. The communication reliability of the system is verified by the measurement of the eye diagram and the bit error rate of the recovered signal at the receiving end. The experimental results show that optical signals from three different incident directions with a maximum data rate of 100 Mbps are reliably transmitted over a 1.2-m-long water tank using the non-return-to-zero on-off-keying modulation format. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks Technology)
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12 pages, 2309 KiB  
Article
Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks
by Taj Rahman, Irfan Ahmad, Asim Zeb, Inayat Khan, Gauhar Ali and Mohammed ElAffendi
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11010038 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1785
Abstract
Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) are emerging technology for disclosing multiple applications, such as oil, earth quick, and marine environments. All sensor nodes deployed in UWSNs operate through limited power batteries. Prolonging the network’s lifetime in such environments is an essential task and [...] Read more.
Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) are emerging technology for disclosing multiple applications, such as oil, earth quick, and marine environments. All sensor nodes deployed in UWSNs operate through limited power batteries. Prolonging the network’s lifetime in such environments is an essential task and a hot topic among researchers. Multiple routing protocols have been designed to overcome the limited power issue and reduce energy consumption. Each routing protocol evaluated different parameters, but the issue is still unclear as to which one is better. In this study, we evaluated multiple routing protocols to investigate which is better in terms of parameters, such as packet delivery ratio (PDR), energy consumption, end-to-end delay, and the number of alive nodes. The simulation results indicate that Reliability and Adaptive Cooperation for Efficient UWSNs Using Sink Mobility (RACE-SM) performs better in all performance metrics than other routing schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks Technology)
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14 pages, 561 KiB  
Article
Information Capacity of Turbulent and Absorptive Underwater Wireless Link with Perfect Laguerre–Gaussian Beam and Pointing Errors
by Yixin Zhang, Qingze Yan, Lin Yu and Yun Zhu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(12), 1957; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10121957 - 9 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1237
Abstract
The model of information capacity for underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) links with pointing errors and the carrier of perfect Laguerre–Gaussian (PLG) beam in absorbed and weakly turbulent seawater is modeled. Using this model, the influence of channel parameters on the propagation of [...] Read more.
The model of information capacity for underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) links with pointing errors and the carrier of perfect Laguerre–Gaussian (PLG) beam in absorbed and weakly turbulent seawater is modeled. Using this model, the influence of channel parameters on the propagation of PLG beams is numerically analyzed. We show that the pointing error significantly reduces the performance of the optical transmission system. Large topological charge and radial orders are not conducive to high information capacity transmission. Additionally, the information capacity decreases with the increase in the spectral absorption coefficient of seawater. With higher transmission power, the transmission of an optical transmission system with high average capacity can be realized. The information capacity is affected by both signal wavelength and seawater absorption coefficient. That is, in the case of small seawater absorption and short message channel, the channel capacity loss of the link with long signal wavelength is smaller. In the case of long channels and strong seawater absorption, the influence of signal wavelength on the average capacity can be ignored. The information capacity of the communication link is the highest, which is composed of the carrier with the OAM topological charge, and the radial orders are both 1, and the wavelength is 410 nm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks Technology)
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13 pages, 3250 KiB  
Article
Bi-Photon Entangled Airy Beams through Unstable Oceanic Turbulence
by Donghui Yang, Zhou Yu, Zhengda Hu, Wenhai Wang and Yun Zhu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(11), 1604; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10111604 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1208
Abstract
Orbital angular momentum (OAM) carried by bi-photon entangled Airy beams in unstable oceanic turbulence is theoretically investigated. The analytical expression of the spatial coherence radius of a spherical wave in the unstable stratification oceanic turbulence is derived to obtain the relative detection probability [...] Read more.
Orbital angular momentum (OAM) carried by bi-photon entangled Airy beams in unstable oceanic turbulence is theoretically investigated. The analytical expression of the spatial coherence radius of a spherical wave in the unstable stratification oceanic turbulence is derived to obtain the relative detection probability of bi-photon entangled Airy beams. The relative detection probability of OAM carried by bi-photon entangled Airy beams acquires significant enhancements—up to 62% compared to the same measurement for the single photon system over a distance of 100 m. Lower-order bi-photon entangled Airy beams with larger wavelengths, and main ring radius are less affected by oceanic turbulence. A larger main ring radius also contributes to reducing the fluctuations in detection probability. Oceanic turbulence dominated by salinity fluctuations induces more adverse effects on the OAM, as well as a stronger strength of the turbulence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks Technology)
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