Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 11th Asian-Australasian Conference on Composite Materials"

A special issue of Journal of Composites Science (ISSN 2504-477X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Venkata Chevali

University of Southern Queensland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Advanced Manufacturing; Fiber Reinforced Composites; Mechanical Design; Materials Characterization; Damage and Repair of Composites

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 11th Asian-Australasian Conference on Composite Materials (ACCM-11) is one of the largest composites conference in the Asia-Pacific region bringing together industry and academic research in composites from all over the world, and includes new contemporary themes such as Additive Manufacturing and Energy Composites.

This Special Issue will publish selected papers from ACCM-11, 29 July–1 August 2018 in Cairns, Australia.

We encourage contributions on significant and original works of composite materials. The Special Issue will cover the following main topics, but not limited to:

  • Additive Manufacturing
  • Advanced Composites Manufacturing
  • Composite Materials including Ceramic, Metal, and Polymer Matrices
  • Composites Applications (Aerospace, Energy, Automotive, Infrastructure, etc.)
  • Composites Degradation and Stability
  • Composites Recycling
  • Composites Structure and Design Including Modelling And Simulation
  • Functional Polymer Composites
  • Durability including Creep and Fatigue
  • Graphene and Graphene Based Composites
  • Micromechanics of Composites
  • Nanocomposites

Dr. Venkata Chevali
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Composites Science is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Machinability, Modelling and Statistical Analysis of In-Situ Al–Si–TiB2 Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010028
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 21 March 2019
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Abstract
Aluminum and its alloys have numerous applications in manufacturing, aerospace, and automotive industries. At elevated temperatures, they start to fail in fulfilling their roles and functions. Aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMCs) are good alternatives for metal and alloys due to their excellent properties. [...] Read more.
Aluminum and its alloys have numerous applications in manufacturing, aerospace, and automotive industries. At elevated temperatures, they start to fail in fulfilling their roles and functions. Aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMCs) are good alternatives for metal and alloys due to their excellent properties. However, the conventional machining of several composites shows complications for a number of reasons, such as high tool wear, poor surface roughness, high machining cost, cutting forces, etc. Numerous studies have already been conducted on the machinability of various MMCs, but the machinability of Al–Si–TiB2 composite is still not well studied. It is of utmost importance that several process parameters of conventional machining are precisely controlled as well as optimized. In this study an effort was made to optimize input parameters such as cutting speed, depth of cut, and feed to obtain well-finished final components with the minimum cutting force and tool wear. These progressions are involved with multiple response characteristics, therefore the exploration of an appropriate multi-objective optimization technique was indeed essential. The performance characteristics of cutting forces and surface roughness were considered for optimization of the machining parameters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed for the optimization and statistical analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fatigue Performance of Wet and Dry Pulverized Wood Flour Reinforced PP Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010020
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, we exclusively studied the effects of dry and wet pulverization of different wood flours on the fatigue performance of polypropylene (PP)/wood flour (WF) composites. Wood flours obtained from cypress and Scots pine trees were pulverized in both dry and wet [...] Read more.
In this paper, we exclusively studied the effects of dry and wet pulverization of different wood flours on the fatigue performance of polypropylene (PP)/wood flour (WF) composites. Wood flours obtained from cypress and Scots pine trees were pulverized in both dry and wet conditions at two different mill-plate gaps, 200 µm and 350 µm, and were used as reinforcement in PP matrices. Master batches of PP with different types of pulverized WF were compounded before processing in an extruder. The PP/WF composites of initial WF were also prepared for comparison. The prepared composites were analyzed by tensile and fatigue tests. It was found that the tensile properties of wood/polypropylene composites were affected by the pulverization of WF. Fatigue test results displayed that wet pulverization of short cypress flour had a negative effect on the fatigue life of PP/WF composites, while wet pulverization of long cypress flour and pine flour had a positive effect on the fatigue life of PP/WF composites. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancing the Fracture Toughness Properties by Introducing Anchored Nano-Architectures at the Metal–FRP Composite Interface
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010017
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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Abstract
This paper presents a novel technique for improving aluminium–glass/epoxy composite interfacial bonding through the generation of metallic nano-architectures on the metal surface. Silver nanowires (AgNWs) deposited via solution casting at varying concentrations and annealed at different temperatures in an air atmosphere improved the [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel technique for improving aluminium–glass/epoxy composite interfacial bonding through the generation of metallic nano-architectures on the metal surface. Silver nanowires (AgNWs) deposited via solution casting at varying concentrations and annealed at different temperatures in an air atmosphere improved the aluminium-glass/epoxy composite fracture toughness as measured via mode I experiments. For AgNW concentrations of 1 and 3 g/m2 deposited via a single-stage process and annealed at 375 °C, the initiation fracture toughness of the aluminium-glass/epoxy composite improved by 86% and 157%, respectively, relative to the baseline composite without AgNWs. The corresponding steady-state fracture toughness of these nano-modified fibre metal laminates (FMLs) were at least seven times greater than the baseline composite. The FML variant in which AgNWs were deposited at a concentration of 3 g/m2 through a two-stage process followed by annealing at 375 °C and 300 °C, respectively after each deposition, achieved the highest steady-state fracture toughness of all nano-modified composites—a fracture toughness value that was 13 times greater than the baseline composite. Intrinsic and extrinsic toughening mechanisms dictated by the morphology of the silver nano-architectures were found to be responsible for the improved initiation and steady-state fracture toughness in nano-modified FMLs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics Molding by Using Direct Resistance Heating to Carbon Nanofilaments Grafted Carbon Fiber
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010014
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
In the automobile industry, carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics (CFRTP) have attracted attention as potential materials to reduce the weight of the automobile body. In order to apply CFRTP to mass-produced automobile parts, it is necessary to develop the reduction of molding time and [...] Read more.
In the automobile industry, carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics (CFRTP) have attracted attention as potential materials to reduce the weight of the automobile body. In order to apply CFRTP to mass-produced automobile parts, it is necessary to develop the reduction of molding time and the impregnation method into the carbon fiber (CF) for the thermoplastic resin, which has relatively high viscosity. Although the conventional hot press molding uses only the heat transfer from the mold to the molding materials, it is expected to develop a new molding method for CFRTP using heat generation of the materials themselves to overcome these issues. As a method of heating the carbon fiber, there is a direct resistance heating method, in which carbon fiber is directly energized and heated by Joule heat. We have developed resistance welding methods in which carbon nanotube (CNT) grafted carbon fiber (CNT-CF) is used for the heating elements, and revealed that the higher welded strength is obtained by using CNT-CF instead of CF. Therefore, the carbon nanofilaments (CNF) grafted carbon fiber (CNF-CF) including CNF-CF is expected not only to be used as a resistance heating medium at the time of joining but also as a reinforcing fiber and as a self-heating member at the time of molding. In this study, we develop the CFRTP molding method by using direct resistance heating to CNF-CF in the hot press molding. CFRTP ([0°]20) with the volume fractions (Vf) of 40% are molded by conventional hot press and hot press with direct resistance heating to reinforcing fiber. CF or CNF-CF is used for reinforcement. CFRTP molded by hot press with direct resistance heating to CNF-CF indicated lower void content than CFRTP molded by hot press with direct resistance heating to CF. Compared to CFRTP molding by only hot press, hot press molding with direct resistance heating to CNF-CF can mold CFRTP with low void content. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Carbon Nanotube Deposition Time to the Surface of Carbon Fibres on Flexural Strength of Resistance Welded Carbon Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastics Using Carbon Nanotube Grafted Carbon Fibre as Heating Element
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010009
Received: 10 November 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 12 January 2019
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Abstract
In recent years, carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastics (CFRTP) are expected to be used as lightweight structural materials for mass-produced vehicles. CFRTP with thermoplastics as matrix allows us to weld them using melting of matrix by heating. We have been developing a direct resistance [...] Read more.
In recent years, carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastics (CFRTP) are expected to be used as lightweight structural materials for mass-produced vehicles. CFRTP with thermoplastics as matrix allows us to weld them using melting of matrix by heating. We have been developing a direct resistance heating method, which uses carbon fibres as the resistance heating element. Carbon nanotube (CNT) is expected to be used as additive to FRP and we reported that the fibre/matrix interfacial shear strength was improved by grafting CNT on the surface of carbon fibres and tensile lap-shear strength was improved by using CNT grafted carbon fibre as the heating element for welding. For the practical use of CFRTP for structural parts, flexural strength is also necessary to be evaluated. In this study, flexural test was carried out to clarify the effect of CNT deposition time to the surface of carbon fibres on flexural strength of resistance welded CFRTP using CNT grafted carbon fibre as the heating element. The highest flexural strength was obtained when CNT10, for which CNT is grafted on the carbon fibres for deposition time of 10 min, was used for the heating element of resistance welding. In the case of CNT deposition time of 60 min, the lowest flexural strength was obtained because of the poor impregnation of the resin into the carbon fibre due to the excess CNT on the carbon fibres. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal and Flammability Characteristics of Blended Jatropha Bio-Epoxy as Matrix in Carbon Fiber–Reinforced Polymer
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010006
Received: 20 November 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract
This purpose of this paper was to reveal characteristics of a composite structure containing carbon fiber as a reinforcement and blended synthetic epoxy/bio-epoxy derived from crude jatropha oil as resin and compared with fully synthetic epoxy. The composite structure was prepared by the [...] Read more.
This purpose of this paper was to reveal characteristics of a composite structure containing carbon fiber as a reinforcement and blended synthetic epoxy/bio-epoxy derived from crude jatropha oil as resin and compared with fully synthetic epoxy. The composite structure was prepared by the vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding technique and was left to cure for 24 h at room temperature. Both were characterized for their thermal, chemical, and flammable characteristics. The incorporation of jatropha bio-epoxy into the matrix significantly improved the thermal stability between 288–365 °C as obtained by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) test. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) curves showed slight diminution of performances and Tg from DMA tests confirmed well with the trend of Tg obtain by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves. On the other hand, the flammability property was rated horizontal burning (HB) which was the same as the fully synthetic composite, but the duration to self-extinguish was halved for the composite with jatropha bio-epoxy. Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FT-IR/ATR) was conducted to determine the difference of functional groups’ spectrum due to bonding type existing on both specimens. Overall, the composite specimen with blended bio-epoxy exhibited better thermal stability, comparable flammability characteristics, and performances. The aim of this paper was to introduce bio-based epoxy as a potential alternative epoxy and to compete with synthetic epoxy so as to minimize the footprint of non-renewable composite. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Water Absorption on the Fiber–Matrix Interfacial Shear Strength of Carbon Nanotube-Grafted Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polyamide Resin
J. Compos. Sci. 2019, 3(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcs3010004
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 7 January 2019
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Abstract
Carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics (CFRTPs) are expected to be used for the structural parts of automobiles and aircraft due to their mechanical properties, such as high specific stiffness, high specific strength, short molding times and high recyclability. The fiber/matrix interface of the composite [...] Read more.
Carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics (CFRTPs) are expected to be used for the structural parts of automobiles and aircraft due to their mechanical properties, such as high specific stiffness, high specific strength, short molding times and high recyclability. The fiber/matrix interface of the composite plays an important role in transmitting stress from the matrix to the reinforcing fibers. It was reported that grafting of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the carbon fiber can improve the fiber/matrix interfacial property. We have reported that CNTs, which are directly grafted onto carbon fiber using Ni as the catalyst by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, can improve the fiber/matrix interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of carbon fiber/polyamide 6 (PA6). For practical use of CFRTPs, it is important to clarify the effects of water absorption on the mechanical properties of the composite material. In this study, the effects of water absorption on the fiber–matrix interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of carbon fiber reinforced polyamide resin and CNT-grafted carbon fiber reinforced polyamide resin were clarified by the single fiber pull-out test for specimens preserved in air, then in water for 24 h and re-dried after water absorption. The IFSS of carbon fiber/PA6 was significantly decreased by water absorption. In contrast, CNT-grafted carbon fiber/PA6 showed smaller degradation of the IFSS by water absorption. Full article
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