Special Issue "Tuberculosis, Drug and Diagnostics Development"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Infectious Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Byung Woo Jhun

Guest Editor
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of MedicineSamsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of MedicineIrwon-ro 81, Gangnam-guSeoul 06351, South Korea
Interests: Pulmonary ;tuberculosis;diagnosis, resistance, treatment, nontuberculous mycobacteria

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Despite the availability of anti-tuberculosis (TB) chemotherapy, TB remains a threat to public health and is the leading cause of death by a single infectious agent worldwide. Approximately 10 million people develop TB annually, and 1.6 million die from the disease. TB is a highly infectious disease; about 30% of persons in close contact with an infected individual become infected themselves, of whom about 5%–15% develop TB in their lifetime. The management of drug-resistant TB is also important; in this respect, disease outcomes are still unsatisfactory compared with those of drug-susceptible TB. Systematic meta-analyses have shown that resistance to first-line drugs reduces the probability of treatment success and increases the risk of acquiring resistance to other important drugs (multidrug-resistant TB). Drug-resistant TB generally requires a longer treatment course than drug-susceptible TB, which increases the disease burden. Therefore, early detection of TB is critically important. The worldwide prevalence and incidence of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections are also increasing. It is important to further explore the distribution of this disease. NTM disease is radiographically very similar to TB, and early differentiation is very important. The purpose of this Special Issue is to update our knowledge of TB and NTM diagnosis and treatment. Researchers in the field are encouraged to submit original articles or reviews.

Dr. Byung Woo Jhun
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • tuberculosis
  • diagnosis
  • resistance
  • treatment
  • nontuberculous mycobacteria

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Course of Adverse Events during Short Treatment Regimen in Patients with Rifampicin-Resistant Tuberculosis in Burundi
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1873; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061873 - 16 Jun 2020
Abstract
The introduction of the nine-month short-treatment regimen (STR) has drastically improved outcomes of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) treatment. Adverse events (AE) commonly occur, including injectable-induced hearing loss. In Burundi we retrospectively assessed the frequency of adverse events and treatment modifications in all patients who [...] Read more.
The introduction of the nine-month short-treatment regimen (STR) has drastically improved outcomes of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) treatment. Adverse events (AE) commonly occur, including injectable-induced hearing loss. In Burundi we retrospectively assessed the frequency of adverse events and treatment modifications in all patients who initiated the STR between 2013–2017. Among 225 included patients, 93% were successfully treated without relapse, 5% died, 1% was lost-to-follow-up, 0.4% had treatment failure and 0.4% relapsed after completion. AE were reported in 53%, with grade 3 or 4 AE in 4% of patients. AE occurred after a median of two months. Hepatotoxicity (31%), gastro-intestinal toxicity (22%) and ototoxicity (10%) were most commonly reported. One patient suffered severe hearing loss. Following AE, 7% of patients had a dose reduction and 1% a drug interruption. Kanamycin-induced ototoxicity led to 94% of modifications. All 18 patients with a modified regimen were cured relapse-free. In this exhaustive national RR-TB cohort, RR-TB was treated successfully with the STR. Adverse events were infrequent. To replace the present STR, all-oral regimens should be at least as effective and also less toxic. During and after transition, monitoring, management, and documentation of AE will remain essential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis, Drug and Diagnostics Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics of Circulating CD4+ T Cell Subsets in Patients with Mycobacterium avium Complex Pulmonary Disease
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051331 - 03 May 2020
Abstract
Although prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD) is increasing, limited data are available regarding vulnerability to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections. To understand the pathobiology of interaction between MAC and host-immunity, it is important to understand the characteristics for circulating T [...] Read more.
Although prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD) is increasing, limited data are available regarding vulnerability to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections. To understand the pathobiology of interaction between MAC and host-immunity, it is important to understand the characteristics for circulating T cells in terms of the immunological phenotype and functional correlates in MAC-PD. We aimed to characterize immunophenotype, cytokine profile, and immune inhibitory receptors of circulating CD4+ T cells in MAC-PD patients. We enrolled 71 MAC-PD and 20 control individuals. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to determine T cell subsets and immune checkpoint markers. Ex vivo cytokine productions in response to MAC were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The frequencies of CD4+ T cells and CD4+IL-17+ T cells decreased, while CD4+IL-4+ T cells and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of MAC-PD individuals upon MAC stimulation compared with those cells in healthy donor-PBMCs. Additionally, we found increased PD-1, CTLA-4, and TIM-3-expressing T cells in MAC- PD individuals in response to MAC-stimulation, indicating that suppressed T cell-mediated response is associated with the susceptibility to MAC infection. These results may help to explain impaired T cell-mediated responses and pave the way for better strategies to achieve protective immunity against MAC infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis, Drug and Diagnostics Development)
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