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Open AccessArticle

Course of Adverse Events during Short Treatment Regimen in Patients with Rifampicin-Resistant Tuberculosis in Burundi

1
Damien Foundation, Burundi 15, Avenue du Poisson 15, Ntahangwa, Bujumbura 2426, Burundi
2
Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nationalestraat 155, 2000 Antwerp, Belgium
3
Research Foundation Flanders, Egmonstraat 5, 1000 Brussels, Belgium
4
Damien Foundation, Boulevard Léopold-II 263, 1081 Brussels, Belgium
5
Damien Foundation, POBox 1065, Niamey, Niger
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1873; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061873
Received: 14 May 2020 / Revised: 5 June 2020 / Accepted: 12 June 2020 / Published: 16 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tuberculosis, Drug and Diagnostics Development)
The introduction of the nine-month short-treatment regimen (STR) has drastically improved outcomes of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) treatment. Adverse events (AE) commonly occur, including injectable-induced hearing loss. In Burundi we retrospectively assessed the frequency of adverse events and treatment modifications in all patients who initiated the STR between 2013–2017. Among 225 included patients, 93% were successfully treated without relapse, 5% died, 1% was lost-to-follow-up, 0.4% had treatment failure and 0.4% relapsed after completion. AE were reported in 53%, with grade 3 or 4 AE in 4% of patients. AE occurred after a median of two months. Hepatotoxicity (31%), gastro-intestinal toxicity (22%) and ototoxicity (10%) were most commonly reported. One patient suffered severe hearing loss. Following AE, 7% of patients had a dose reduction and 1% a drug interruption. Kanamycin-induced ototoxicity led to 94% of modifications. All 18 patients with a modified regimen were cured relapse-free. In this exhaustive national RR-TB cohort, RR-TB was treated successfully with the STR. Adverse events were infrequent. To replace the present STR, all-oral regimens should be at least as effective and also less toxic. During and after transition, monitoring, management, and documentation of AE will remain essential. View Full-Text
Keywords: multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis; short treatment regimen; Burundi multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis; short treatment regimen; Burundi
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ciza, F.; Gils, T.; Sawadogo, M.; Decroo, T.; Roggi, A.; Piubello, A.; Ortuño-Gutiérrez, N. Course of Adverse Events during Short Treatment Regimen in Patients with Rifampicin-Resistant Tuberculosis in Burundi. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 1873.

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